BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, comedy and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967, the station controller is Gwyneth Williams, and the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Radio department. The station is broadcast from the BBCs headquarters at Broadcasting House and it is available through Freeview, Virgin Media and on the Internet. It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, BBC Radio 4 is the second most popular British domestic radio station by total hours, after Radio 2 – and the most popular in London and the South of England. It recorded its highest audience, of 11 million listeners, in May 2011 and was UK Radio Station of the Year at the 2003,2004 and 2008 Sony Radio Academy Awards and it won a Peabody Award in 2002 for File On 4, Export Controls. Costing £71.4 million, it is the BBCs most expensive national radio network and is considered by many to be its flagship.
There is no comparable British commercial network, Channel 4 abandoned plans to launch its own speech-based digital radio station in October 2008 as part of a £100m cost cutting review, in 2010 Gwyneth Williams replaced Mark Damazer as Radio 4 controller. Damazer became Master of St Peters College, Oxford and sport are the only fields that largely fall outside the stations remit. It broadcasts occasional concerts, and documentaries related to forms of both popular and classical music, and the long-running music-based Desert Island Discs. As a result, for around 70 days a year listeners have to rely on FM broadcasts or increasingly DAB for mainstream Radio 4 broadcasts – the number relying solely on long wave is now a small minority. The cricket broadcasts take precedence over on-the-hour news bulletins, but not the Shipping Forecast, as well as news and drama, the station has a strong reputation for comedy, including experimental and alternative comedy, many successful comedians and comedy shows first appearing on the station.
The BBC Home Service was the predecessor of Radio 4 and broadcast between 1939 and 1967 and it had regional variations and was broadcast on medium wave with a network of VHF FM transmitters being added from 1955. Radio 4 replaced it on 30 September 1967, when the BBC renamed many of its radio stations. For a time during the 1970s Radio 4 carried regional news bulletins Monday to Saturday and these were broadcast twice at breakfast, at lunchtime and an evening bulletin was aired at 5. 55pm. There were programme variations for the parts of England not served by BBC Local Radio stations and these included Roundabout East Anglia, a VHF opt-out of the Today programme broadcast from BBC Easts studios in Norwich each weekday from 6.45 am to 8.45 am. Roundabout East Anglia came to an end in 1980, when local services were introduced to East Anglia with the launch of BBC Radio Norfolk. All regional news bulletins broadcast from BBC regional news bases around England ended in August 1980 apart from in the south west, in September 1991 it was decided that the main Radio 4 service would be on FM as coverage had extended to cover almost all of the UK.
Opt-outs were transferred to long wave, currently Test Match Special, extra shipping forecasts, The Daily Service, long wave very occasionally opts out at other times, such as to broadcast special services, the most recent being when Pope Benedict XVI visited Britain in 2010
Two Boroughs Radio is a local radio station serving East and Central Lancashire. It is owned and operated by UKRD and broadcasts from studios at Clayton-le-Moors near Accrington, although the stations name refers to the 2 Boroughs of Burnley and Pendle, its original transmission area covered Hyndburn. Broadcasting stations in the United Kingdom do not use callsigns, but as 2 is a prefix assigned by the ITU to callsigns in Great Britain, in August 2010, the station moved to new studios at Clayton-le-Moors, co-locating with The Bee. On 4 April 2016, UKRD announced 2BR would merge with sister Lancashire station The Bee as part of an expansion onto DAB across the county. The merged station carries the same 2BR programming and identity, alongside opt-outs for local news and advertising in the Burnley, the station is broadcasting on DAB since Wednesday 1 June 2016. All of 2BRs programming is produced and broadcast from its Clayton-le-Moors studios, live programming airs from 6am-2pm and 3-7pm on weekdays and from 8am-4pm at weekends. 2BR broadcasts hourly news bulletins from 6am-7pm on weekdays and 8am-2pm at weekends, with headlines on the half-hour during weekday breakfast.
National bulletins from Sky News Radio are carried every hour at all other times,96. 3FM, Chorley 99. 8FM, Burnley and Hyndburn 106. 5FM, Preston and South Ribble 107FM, Blackburn and Accrington Official website Pendle Forest Transmitter 4
Pirate FM is one of the Independent Local Radio stations for Cornwall, playing a range of music from the 1960s to the present day. The station is based at the UKRD Group headquarters in Redruth, the station was launched in 1992 under the name of Pirate FM102 with the voice of breakfast presenter Roger Day. The stations launch Chief Executive was Mike Powell who specified digital technology so advanced at the time that it was featured on the BBC science programme, Tomorrows World. Much of the success of the station was due to the technical expertise of the first managing director Richard Lawley. He was succeeded by the initial sales director Joseph Swain. The station has won numerous awards including Station of the Year at the 2003 Sony Radio Academy awards. In September 2005, the branding changed from The Southwests Pirate FM to Cornwalls Pirate FM. Listenership appears to have increased in Cornwall following the move, however it reduced their audience in West Devon. From Quarter 42006 Pirate FMs survey area was reduced by removing Plymouth & most of West Devon, thus reducing the potential audience significantly, Pirate FM remains as the number one station by audience reach despite the increased competition.
The Pirate Trust is the arm of Pirate FM that raises thousands of pounds yearly for good causes in Cornwall with their Cornwall in Need Appeal. Yearly fundraisers include the Garden Party and the all-day on-air and online auction known as Radiothon, bulletins are broadcast every hour, on the hour with headlines on weekdays at 6. 30am,7. 30am,8. 30am and 5. 30pm. It became one of the first radio stations in the country to launch video news bulletins, distributed online, national news bulletins from Sky News Radio in London are broadcast on the hour at all other times. Pirate 2 DAB launched on 4 August 2014, the station airs a series of weekly talk shows, The Business Hub, the Health and Wellbeing Show, the Education and Training Show, the Farming Show, the Homes and Gardens Show, the Youth Show. Pirate FMs two transmitters broadcast separate opt-outs for news bulletins, travel information and advertising, Pirate FM has 2 current on air straplines. Real Music Variety and Love Cornwall Love Pirate FM and its current imaging voiceovers are Natalie Miller and Guy Harris.
That image song was a cut from a package called Yours Truly, the original Pirate FM jingle package was a selection of cuts from two packages originally created for Detroits Q95.5. The packages were Q Cuts and Right On Q, in addition, Pirate FM bought a couple of cuts from the Turbo Z package originally produced for Z100 in New York. In the late 1990s, Pirate FM returned to JAM to update their package, a new jingle package was first aired in December 2005, made by jingle production company IQ Beats
KLFM96.7 is an independent local radio station located in Kings Lynn, England. Its name is an abbreviation of Kings Lynn FM, followed by its frequency,96.7. It broadcasts from 18 Blackfriars Street in Kings Lynn, England, the station uses the former BBC Radio Norfolk frequency of 96.7 MHz FM. The stations current Managing Director is Darren Taylor, the station broadcasts to approximately 135,000 people aged over 18 years old in the Kings Lynn and West Norfolk district. In 1987 Mid-Anglia Radio Limited identified Kings Lynn and West Norfolk as a poorly served by the broadcast media. An application to the Independent Broadcasting Authority for a transmitter to serve this area was turned down. Discussions were opened with the West Norfolk MP, Henry Bellingham, who wrote to the Home Office. On 4 June 1991 the licence was advertised, with a closing date of 24 September 1991 at 2 pm. Potential applicants had 16 weeks to put their proposals on paper, on 25 September—they announced that three applicants had applied for the licence—Kings Lynn FM, X-Cel FM and one other.
The original licence was issued for a period of 8 years, the original working title for KLFM was Kings Lynn Radio. In December, it was announced that Mid-Anglia Radio plc had won the licence to provide the area with its own independent local radio station. Two weeks of test transmissions followed commencing on 16 June 1992, two kilowatts of power was originally used to broadcast from a transmitter at the Great Massingham transmission site. It was increased to 3 kilowatts, studio equipment originally included DAT players, a computer playout system for jingles and commercials, Technics CD players and an Audionics mixing desk. The original audio processor was an Inovonics FM250 model, in the Summer of 2004 the old studio equipment was taken apart after 12 years of continuous use and new equipment and furniture installed. This included a Sonifex Sovereign mixing desk and a new digital playout system, stewart Francis was the first Managing Director of the station, with Peter Kingham holding the post of Station Manager and Dave King was Programme Controller.
After Mid-Anglia Radio PLC was sold to the GWR Group in 1994 KLFMs on-air name was changed to Greatest Hits 96.7 The New KLFM and this new service played more music and had less chat. In November/December 1996, displeased with the new format, Dave King, Paul Baker and they called the station Kings Lynn Radio 105.4 and the stations tag line was All That LOCAL Radio Should Be. In March 1997, GWR sold a number of commercial stations, including KLFM
The Local Radio Company
The Local Radio Company is a British media company, based in Redruth, that owns ten independent local radio stations in the UK. After takeover talks with UTV Media, UKRD Group and Hallwood Financial, TLRC was formed in 1996 as a joint venture between its majority shareholder Radio Investments Limited and GWR Group plc, with founding Chief Executive Chris Carnegy holding a small stake. The group expanded rapidly by acquisitions and new licence wins, changes in structure saw a merger between TLRC, RIL and RIL subsidiary Radio Services. At its peak the merged private company owned or invested in 28 stations, from 2000 Guardian Media Group held a management contract, with its radio chief John Myers taking charge. The group was sold in 2004 and began a new life as an AIM-quoted public company under the leadership of former Jazz FM CEO Richard Wheatly. For a while, all owned by the quoted group, except Fire Radio, broadcast under a contemporary music format known as Music, fun. However this was not deemed a success so, after the departure of Group Programme Director Gordon Davidson in June 2006 to Emap.
The playlist offers a mix of new and classic pop music, for 6 months in 2008 there were 2 new networked shows on the group including the Saturday Afternoon show with Tim West and the Network Weekend Breakfast Show with Danny Mathews. Until recently, Sunday afternoons across the network have been dedicated to a premium rate phone-in show hosted by Andy Muir, titled Money on your Mobile. Network shows were mostly broadcast from Mix 107 in High Wycombe, in 2005, TLRC made a large number of acquisitions including full control of east Lancashire station 2BR and Bath FM. New licences, Durham FM and Brunel FM, went on air in 2005 and 2006 respectively, in June 2007, TLRC launched Minster Northallerton which was moved into Alpha 103. 2s studio outside of the stations border in Darlington. Before selling them, the company had already moved Bath studios to neighbouring Brunel FM in Swindon, in 2007, TLRC station Isle of Wight Radio won the Sony Radio Academy Award for Radio Station of the Year. In 2008, Silk FM won the award, having been shortlisted the previous year.
On 30 June 2008 TLRC announced plans to six of its stations, 3TR, Brunel, Ivel and Vale. This was followed by Central FM in September 2008, the station has been live since 6 October 2008, sharing studios with Mix 107 in High Wycombe. On 7 January 2009, TLRC placed Jazz FM up for sale following a review of the company. The station was sold to chairman of TLRC, Richard Wheatly. Star Radio North East 2BR Minster FM Mix 96 Spire FM Spirit FM97.2 Stray FM Sun FM Wessex FM Yorkshire Coast Radio 107.3 Abbey FM - ceased broadcasting, Central 103.1 FM - sold to John Quinn
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and larger ceremonial county in England. It is located primarily in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber, created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England. The majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshires boundaries, the largest settlements are York, Middlesbrough and Scarborough, the county town, has a population of 16,832. The area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts, Hambleton, Richmondshire, Scarborough, the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009. This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so the County Council, the largest settlement in the administrative county is Harrogate, the second largest is Scarborough, while in the ceremonial county, the largest is York. The largest urban area within the county is the Middlesbrough built-up area sub-division of Teesside.
Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose, Stockton-on-Tees, and Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region. The ceremonial county area, including the authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Cumbria. The geology of North Yorkshire is closely reflected in its landscape, within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales, two of eleven areas of countryside within England and Wales to be officially designated as national parks. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray, the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast, the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Swale and the River Ure, the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows through York and into the Humber estuary.
The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale to Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast, North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county that operates a cabinet-style council, North Yorkshire County Council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet, the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the County. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton, the county is affluent and has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2. 7%, agriculture is an important industry, as are mineral extraction and power generation. The county has high technology and tourism sectors. This is a chart of trend of gross value added for North Yorkshire at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
Minster FM was launched at 6 am on Saturday 4 July 1992 by presenter Daragh Corcoran and the first song played was Saturday in the Park by Chicago. The station was launched exactly nine years to the date after BBC Radio York started broadcasting and at the time, had a live and this continued until the launch of Yorkshire Coast Radio in November 1993 when programmes between 10pm and 6am were broadcast on both stations. Unusually for the time, local news in the years was not made in-house but was contracted out to Yorkshire Television. The station broadcasts on 104.7 FM from the Acklam Wold transmitter, near Leavening, for a time, Minster FM broadcast to the Thirsk and Northallerton area using a signal on 102.3 FM from Calverts Carpets in Thirsk. Station owners The Local Radio Company secured a licence for the area. TLRC was taken over by UKRD and in 2009 the new owners merged this station with its stations based in Darlington, as of 17 December 2014, Minster FM started broadcasting on DAB digital radio, under the name More Minster.
It is broadcast on the North Yorkshire DAB multiplex from various locations within Yorkshire, including Bilsdale, Acklam Wold, Hildebrand Barracks and Olivers Mount. More Minster carries Minster FM programmes in the morning and through the day but during the evening the DAB schedule differs from the FM version, Minster FM has a higher audience share than BBC Radio York, as of September 2013. In 2009 Minster FM was one of three stations to be nominated for The Arqiva under 1 million awards but the award was presented to Lincs FM102.2 in Lincolnshire. Greg Scott Official website The Local Radio Company Jingles History of local radio in Yorkshire Acklam Wold transmitter Minster FM Public File
Yorkshire Coast Radio
Yorkshire Coast Radio is a group of Independent Local Radio stations serving the coastal towns of Scarborough and Bridlington, and surrounding areas in North and East Yorkshire. The station, formed of two separate FM licences and a supplementary DAB service, is owned and operated by the UKRD Group, for many years, several businessmen in Scarborough had campaigned for their own local radio station. A licence was advertised in 1991 and contested by three groups, after the franchise was awarded, YCR was brought out by Minster Sound plc - the owners of neighbouring York-based station Minster FM, which began broadcasting in July 1992. Yorkshire Coast Radio was launched on Sunday 7 November 1993, broadcasting programming from 6am-10pm each day with overnight output simulcast from Minster FM. Originally, the station had planned to broadcast from the Heatherleigh, when the station was brought, YCR opted for conventional studios at Falsgrave Road near the town centre, before moving to purpose-built facilities in Eastfield, on the outskirts of town.
On 17 February 2015, Yorkshire Coast Radio began a supplementary DAB service on the MuxCo North Yorkshire multiplex, Extra opted out for additional speech programming in the evenings, while simulcasting the main FM service at other times. The opt outs were axed eight months and replaced by Coast Life, all of Yorkshire Coast Radios programming is produced and broadcast from its Scarborough studios. Presenter-led programming airs from 6am-10pm on weekdays, 6am-6pm on Saturdays, national bulletins from Sky News Radio are carried every hour at all other times. Official website Yorkshire Coast Radio Extra Muxco North Yorkshire
Mix 96 (Aylesbury)
Mix 96 is the Independent Local Radio station for the town of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England. The launch slogan was Bucks Best Music but the station now uses the strapline Bucks Best Mix of Music, the first song to be played on the radio station was Dancing Queen by ABBA, played at 7, 45am on the opening morning,15 April 1994. Originally an independent, it was owned by local group Bucks Broadcasting Ltd. The original Chairman of Mix 96 was Richard Morris-Adams, Managing Director was Mark Flanagan, Sales Director was Erika Sorby-Firth, in 1995 Erika Sorby-Firth took on the role of MD until Bucks Broadcasting was divested to Radio Investments in 2011. The current Managing Director is Max Hailey who returned to the station in 2013. The group invested in a number of stations throughout the UK including The Bear 102, in Stratford-upon-Avon,107.7 The Wolf in Wolverhampton, Arrow FM in Hastings, the latest audience listening figures show that Mix 96 has a weekly reach of 34%. Mix 96 is part of the UKRD Group and it celebrated its 20th birthday on 15 April 2014.
Its playlist is a mix of contemporary and new hits and national news and travel are provided locally from 6am to 6pm, with news bulletins from the Sky News Centre from 7pm to 5am. Whats On, events and local charity information for Bucks feature prominently
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in several countries across Europe and Asia Pacific. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the 1980s, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995, and the BBC and Swedish Radio launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995. DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the 1990s, DAB may offer more radio programmes over a specific spectrum than analogue FM radio. Audio quality varies depending on the used and audio material. Most stations use a bit rate of 128 kbit/s or less with the MP2 audio codec, which requires 160 kbit/s to achieve perceived FM quality. 128 kbit/s gives better dynamic range or signal-to-noise ratio than FM radio, but a more smeared stereo image, however, CD quality sound with MP2 is possible with 256…192 kbps. An upgraded version of the system was released in February 2007, DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, which means that DAB-only receivers are not able to receive DAB+ broadcasts.
However, broadcasters can mix DAB and DAB+ programs inside the same transmission, DAB+ is approximately twice as efficient as DAB, and more robust. In spectrum management, the bands that are allocated for public DAB services, are abbreviated with T-DAB, where the T stands for terrestrial. More than 30 countries provide DAB transmissions, and several countries, such as Norway, UK, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, in many countries it is expected that DAB will gradually replace FM radio. Norway was the first country to announce national FM radio analog switchoff starting from 2017, DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik. In 1985 the first DAB demonstrations were held at the WARC-ORB in Geneva, DAB was developed as a research project for the European Union, which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium formed in 1986. The MPEG-1 Audio Layer II codec was created as part of the EU147 project, a choice of audio codec and error-correction coding schemes and first trial broadcasts were made in 1990.
Public demonstrations were made in 1993 in the United Kingdom, the protocol specification was finalized in 1993 and adopted by the ITU-R standardization body in 1994, the European community in 1995 and by ETSI in 1997. Pilot broadcasts were launched in countries in 1995. The UK was the first country to receive a range of radio stations via DAB. Commercial DAB receivers began to be sold in 1999 and over 50 commercial, the standard was coordinated by the European DAB forum, formed in 1995 and reconstituted to the World DAB Forum in 1997, which represents more than 30 countries. In 2006 the World DAB Forum became the World DMB Forum which now presides over both the DAB and DMB standard, in October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding