New World blackbird
The New World blackbirds consist of 26 species of icterid birds that share the name blackbird but do not correspond with a formal taxon. The distributions of all species are limited to the Americas, this group is distinct from the Eurasian common blackbird; the New World blackbird species belong to 14 genera, all in the Icteridae family: Agelaioides Agelaius Agelasticus Amblyramphus Chrysomus Curaeus Dives Euphagus Gnorimopsar Gymnomystax Nesopsar Sturnella Xanthocephalus XanthopsarThe common names are: Austral blackbird Bolivian blackbird Brewer's blackbird Chestnut-capped blackbird Chopi blackbird Cuban blackbird Forbes's blackbird Jamaican blackbird Melodious blackbird Oriole blackbird Pale-eyed blackbird Red-breasted meadowlark Red-shouldered blackbird Red-winged blackbird Rusty blackbird Saffron-cowled blackbird Scarlet-headed blackbird Scrub blackbird Tawny-shouldered blackbird Tricolored blackbird Unicolored blackbird White-browed meadowlark Yellow-headed blackbird Yellow-hooded blackbird Yellow-shouldered blackbird Yellow-winged blackbird
Mimosa is a genus of about 400 species of herbs and shrubs, in the mimosoid clade of the legume family Fabaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek word μιμος, an "actor" or "mime," and the feminine suffix –osa, "resembling", suggesting its'sensitive leaves' which seem to'mimic conscious life'. Two species in the genus are notable. One is Mimosa pudica, because of the way it folds its leaves when exposed to heat, it is native to southern Central and South America but is cultivated elsewhere for its curiosity value, both as a houseplant in temperate areas, outdoors in the tropics. Outdoor cultivation has led to weedy invasion in some areas, notably Hawaii; the other is Mimosa tenuiflora, best known for its use in shamanic ayahuasca brews due to the psychedelic drug dimethyltryptamine found in its root bark. The taxonomy of the genus Mimosa has had a tortuous history, having gone through periods of splitting and lumping accumulating over 3,000 names, many of which have either been synonymized under other species or transferred to other genera.
In part due to these changing circumscriptions, the name "Mimosa" has been applied to several other related species with similar pinnate or bipinnate leaves, but are now classified in other genera. The most common examples of this are Acacia dealbata. Members of this genus are among the few plants capable of rapid movement; the leaves of the Mimosa pudica close when touched. Some mimosas raise their leaves in the day and lower them at night, experiments done by Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan on mimosas in 1729 provided the first evidence of biological clocks. Mimosa can be distinguished from the large related genera and Albizia, since its flowers have 10 or fewer stamens. Note that, what appears to be a single globular flower is a cluster of many individual ones. Mimosa contains some level of heptanoic acid. There are about 400 species including: Mimosa aculeaticarpa Ortega Mimosa andina Benth. Mimosa arenosa Poir. Mimosa asperata L. Mimosa borealis Gray Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. Mimosa casta L. Mimosa cupica Gray Mimosa ceratonia L. Mimosa diplotricha C.
Wright ex Sauvalle Mimosa disperma Barneby Mimosa distachya Cav. Mimosa dysocarpa Benth. Mimosa emoryana Benth. Mimosa grahamii Gray Mimosa hamata Willd. Mimosa hystricina B. L. Turner Mimosa invisa Martius ex Colla Mimosa latidens B. L. Turner Mimosa laxiflora Benth. Mimosa loxensis Barneby Mimosa malacophylla Gray Mimosa microphylla Dry. Mimosa nothacacia Barneby Mimosa nuttallii B. L. Turner Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. Ex Benth. 1865 Mimosa pellita Kunth ex Willd. Mimosa pigra L. Mimosa polycarpa Kunth Mimosa pudica L. Mimosa quadrivalvis L. Mimosa quadrivalvis var. hystricina Barneby Mimosa quadrivalvis var. quadrivalvis L. Mimosa roemeriana Scheele Mimosa rubicaulis Lam. Mimosa rupertiana B. L. Turner Mimosa scabrella Benth. Mimosa schomburgkii Benth. Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. Ex Willd. Mimosa strigillosa Torr. Et Gray Mimosa tenuiflora Poir. Mimosa texana Small Mimosa townsendii Barneby Mimosa turneri Barneby Mimosa verrucosa Benth; the bark and flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine.
The bark is still known as'Collective Happiness Bark' and is used for cleansing the body's energetic pathways providing a spiritual boost for those who take it. The ancient Mayans used it to treat injuries and burns. Despite this, modern research remains insignificant, but the powdered bark is used by homeopaths as an anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, cough/cold relief and painkiller. Albizia julibrissin, Persian silk tree, called Mimosa in the United States Barneby, R. C. 1992. Sensitivae Censitae: A description of the genus Mimosa Linnaeus in the New World. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, vol. 65. Mimosa-pudica.de Two small videos showing the plant folding its leaves
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation
Grackle is the common name of any of eleven passerine birds native to North and South America. They belong to various genera in the icterid family. In all the species with this name, adult males have black or black plumage. Genus Quiscalus Boat-tailed grackle, Quiscalus major Common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula Great-tailed grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus Slender-billed grackle, Quiscalus palustris – extinct Nicaraguan grackle, Quiscalus nicaraguensis Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger Carib grackle, Quiscalus lugubris Genus Hypopyrrhus Red-bellied grackle, Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster Genus Lampropsar Velvet-fronted grackle, Lampropsar tanagrinus Genus Macroagelaius Golden-tufted grackle, Macroagelaius imthurni Colombian mountain grackle, Macroagelaius subalarisSometimes members of the starling family have been called grackles. Tristram's starling is sometimes known as "Tristram's grackle", the hill mynas in the genus Gracula have been called grackles
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Icterids make up a family of small- to medium-sized colorful, New-World passerine birds. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color enlivened by yellow, orange or red; the species in the family vary in size, shape and coloration. The name, meaning "jaundiced ones" comes from the Ancient Greek ikteros via the Latin ictericus; this group includes the New World blackbirds, New World orioles, the bobolink, grackles, cowbirds and caciques. Despite the similar names, the first groups are only distantly related to the Old World common blackbird or the Old World orioles. Icteridae is not to be confused with Icteriidae, a family created in 2017 and consisting of one species; the majority of icterid species live in the tropics, although there are a number of temperate forms, such as American blackbirds and the long-tailed meadowlark. The highest densities of breeding species are found in southern Mexico, they inhabit a range of habitats, including scrub, swamp and savanna. Temperate species are migratory, with many species that nest in the United States and Canada moving south into Mexico and Central America.
Icterids are variable in size, display considerable sexual dimorphism, with brighter coloration and greater size in males being typical. While such dimorphism is known in passerines, the sexual dimorphism by size is uniquely extreme in icterids. For example, the male great-tailed grackle is 60% heavier than the female; the smallest icterid species is the orchard oriole, in which the female averages 15 cm in length and 18 grams in weight, while the largest is the Amazonian oropendola, the male of which measures 52 cm and weighs about 550 grams. This variation is greater than in any other passerine family. One unusual morphological adaptation shared by the icterids is gaping, where the skull is configured to allow them open their bills rather than passively, allowing them to force open gaps to obtain otherwise hidden food. Icterids have adapted to taking a wide range of foods. Oropendolas and caciques use their gaping motion to open the skins of fruit to obtain the soft insides, have long bills adapted to the process.
Others such as cowbirds and the bobolink have shorter stubbier bills for crushing seeds. The Jamaican blackbird uses its bill to pry amongst tree bark and epiphytes, has adopted the evolutionary niche filled elsewhere in the Neotropics by woodcreepers. Orioles will drink nectar; the nesting habits of these birds are variable, including pendulous woven nests in the oropendolas and orioles. Many icterids are colonial, nesting in colonies of up to 100,000 birds; some cowbird species engage in brood parasitism: females lay their eggs in the nests of other species, in a similar fashion to some cuckoos. Some species of icterid have become agricultural pests, for example red-winged blackbirds in the United States are considered the worst vertebrate pest on some crops, such as rice; the cost of controlling blackbirds in California was $30 per acre in 1994. Not all species have been as successful, a number of species are threatened with extinction; these include insular forms such as the Jamaican blackbird, yellow-shouldered blackbird, the St Lucia oriole, all threatened by habitat loss.
Cacique and oropendola species are called similar names in Peru. It is said that as paucares are considered intelligent, Indians feed the brains to their children to make them fast learners; as the male plays no part in nesting and care of the young, a man who does not work may be called a "male paucar". FAMILY ICTERIDAE Genus Dolichonyx – bobolink Genus Agelaius – typical American blackbirds Genus Xanthopsar - saffron-cowled blackbird Genus Agelasticus Genus Chrysomus Genus Nesopsar – Jamaican blackbird Genus Sturnella – North American meadowlarks Genus Leistes – South American meadowlarks Genus Xanthocephalus – yellow-headed blackbird Genus Dives Genus Euphagus Genus Quiscalus – true grackles Genus Agelaioides – Genus Molothrus – true cowbirds Genus Icterus – New World orioles Genus Amblycercus – yellow-billed cacique Genus Cacicus – true caciques Genus Psarocolius – true oropendolas Genus Gymnomystax – oriole blackbird Genus Pseudoleistes – marshbirds Genus Amblyramphus – scarlet-headed blackbird Genus Hypopyrrhus – red-bellied grackle Genus Curaeus - austral blackbird Genus Anumara - Forbes's blackbird Genus Gnorimopsar – Chopi blackbird Genus Oreopsar – Bolivian blackbird Genus Lampropsar – velvet-fronted grackle Genus Macroagelaius Prehistoric icterid genera that have been described from Pleistocene fossil remains are Pandanaris from Rancho La Brea and Pyelorhamphus from Shelter Cave.
Jaramillo, Alvaro & Burke, Peter: New World Blackbirds. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-4333-1 Price, J. Jordan & Lanyon, Scott M.: A robust phylogeny of the oropendolas: Polyphyly revealed by mitochondrial sequence data. Auk 119: 335–348. DOI: 10.1642/0004-80381192.0. CO. English version. Powell, A. F. L. A.. K.. M.. J..