Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
National Postal Museum
The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D. C. United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993; the museum is located across the street from Union Station, in the building that once served as the main post office of Washington, D. C. from 1914, when it was constructed, until 1986. The building was designed by the Graham and Burnham architectural firm, led by Ernest Graham following the death of Daniel Burnham in 1912; the building in which the museum is housed serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as a data center for the United States Senate. The museum stores the National Philatelic Collection and hosts many interactive displays about the history of the United States Postal Service and of mail service around the world; the museum houses a gift shop and a United States Postal Service philatelic sales window, along with exhibits on the Pony Express, the use of railroads with the mail, the preserved remains of Owney, an exhibit on direct marketing called, "What's in the Mail for You," that produces a souvenir envelope with a visitor's name printed on it and a coupon for the gift shop.
As a Smithsonian museum, admission is free. This museum houses a library. In 2005, the museum acquired John Lennon's childhood stamp collection. From June 2015 until December 2018 the museum displayed the 1856 British Guiana One-Cent Magenta, the world's most valuable stamp, which sold for nearly $10 million. In September 2009, the museum received an $8 million gift from investment firm founder William H. Gross to help finance an expansion project; the museum now hosts the William H. Gross Stamp Gallery named in his honor. Since 2002, the museum has presented the Smithsonian Philatelic Achievement Award every two years. List of philatelic libraries Owney U. S. Postal Museums Postal Museum National Postal Museum official website National Postal Museum Library Official website Smithsonian's National Postal Museum at Google Cultural Institute Arago: People, Postage & the Post
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
National Rural Letter Carriers' Association
The National Rural Letter Carriers' Association is an American labor union that represents the Rural letter carriers of the United States Postal Service. The purpose of this Association shall be to "improve the methods used by rural letter carriers, to benefit their conditions of labor with the United States Postal Service, to promote a fraternal spirit among its members." To join the NRLCA, one must be employed by the USPS in the rural carrier craft as a Rural Carrier Associate, Substitute Rural Carrier, Rural Carrier Relief, Part-time Flexible, Assistant Rural Carriers or Regular Carrier. The NRLCA provides information and fellowship for its members at county, state & national meetings where all members may participate in a democratic process of developing Association policy; the NRLCA provides a monthly publication, The National Rural Letter Carrier, to keep its members informed on postal and legislative matters of interest. Free mail delivery began in American cities in 1863 with a limited scope.
Shortly afterwards, rural citizens began petitioning for equal consideration. Postmaster General John Wanamaker first suggested rural free deliver of mail in the United States in his annual report for fiscal year 1891, it began in 1896 with five routes, the first rural carriers were paid $300 per year for their services. Seven years it had expanded to 15,119 routes covering 322,618 miles, inadequate pay was still an issue; the NRLCA was formed in 1903 at a cost of fifty cents per year in dues to its members. In 1906, rural carriers were granted six national holidays. Christmas was not one of them, did not become a holiday for rural carriers until 1923. In 1924, a special association committee traveled to Washington, D. C. to lobby for an equipment maintenance allowance. The following year, it became law. In 1928, the NRLCA implemented term limits for its officers, term limits were repealed in 1932. In 1941, tire and gasoline rationing from World War II affected rural carriers. NRLCA President Walker gained some exemptions from rationing for rural carriers.
In 1946, the National Association of Letter Carriers expressed interest in incorporating RFD into their union. In 1947, the NRLCA declined. On January 17, 1962, President John F. Kennedy signed executive order 10988 establishing employee-management cooperation in the federal service. Rural carriers selected the NRLCA as their agent, on July 12, the NRLCA became the first postal union to sign a national exclusive contract with the Post Office. In order to qualify, unions needed to demonstrate. Thus, the stipulation that only white delegates shall be eligible to seats in the national convention was lifted from article 3 of the NRLCA's constitution without the passing of a resolution or bylaw. Separate gender pay was abolished in a ruling by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. On September 8, 1978, the NRLCA was the first postal union to come to an agreement on a new contract when contract negotiations between the USPS and its unions nearly resulted in an illegal mail strike. On November 14, 2008, the NRLCA withdrew support from the Quality of Work Life/Employee Involvement program.
As the Postal Service funded all QWL-EI activities, it began focusing more on issues supporting corporate goals. The NRLCA viewed QWL/EI headed in a different direction than improving the "quality of work life" for rural carriers and their managers alike. On December 12, 2008, the Postal Service confirmed; as NRLCA President Don Cantriel put it, "They were looking for an excuse to get rid of it. On August 19, 2011, the NRLCA became the first labor union in the history of the United States Postal Service to elect a female President, Jeanette Dwyer, at its 107th National Convention in Savannah, Georgia, she served until 2018. She was succeeded by Ronnie Stutts; the NRLCA ratified its first constitution on day two of its first national convention in Chicago, September 12, 1903. H. H. Windsor, editor of Popular Mechanics magazine as well as the RFD News and chair of the Constitution & Bylaws Committee, presented his committee's report, followed by discussion on each article. One of the many topics discussed was union dues.
The NRLCA sought one dollar a year from its members, this was negotiated down to fifty cents a year by the time this constitution was ratified. The articles were amended and approved in order, after adoption of each separate article, the entire constitution was voted upon and adopted in its entirety. In 2007, Bylaws were eliminated from the NRLCA Constitution, each state was directed by the National office to do the same with their state constitutions; the NRLCA incorporated the existing bylaws within the constitution in their appropriate places. As a result, the existing NRLCA constitution underwent some renumbering. In 2011, the NRLCA ratified a national steward system; the NRLCA held its first annual national convention in Chicago, September 11–12, 1903. The first officers elected to serve the NRLCA on day two of the NRLCA's first national convention were: President: Frank H. Cunningham Vice President: B. Pitts Woods Secretary: W. F. Tumber Treasurer: W. L. Fetters Executive Committee: H. E. Niven, F. A.
Putnam (Dudley, Massachusetts
Boyce is a town in Clarke County, United States. The population was 589 at the 2010 census, up from 426 at the 2000 census. Boyce is located in western Clarke County at 39°5′35″N 78°3′33″W, along U. S. Route 340, it is 6 miles southwest of the county seat and 16 miles northeast of Front Royal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The town is situated at the crossing of the Norfolk & Western Railway and the Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike about 2 miles northwest of Millwood, of which it is the shipping point, it is built upon a ridge, which drains on the east into Page Brook and to the west into Roseville Run. It is well underlaid with water; as of the census of 2000, there were 426 people, 159 households, 114 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,179.9 people per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 465.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.38% White, 11.74% African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.47% from two or more races.
There were 159 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,333, the median income for a family was $52,000. Males had a median income of $35,179 versus $21,354 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,041. About 6.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
The town of Boyce was incorporated by the Circuit Court for the County of Clarke on the 28th day of November, 1910, with a recorded population of 312. The first election for mayor and four councilmen was held on the 20 December 1910, at which W. M. Gaunt was elected Mayor and George W. Garvin, M. O. Simpson, J. T. Sprint and Geo. B. Harrison were elected Councilmen. B. Harrison, Recorder; the Norfolk & Western Railway passes through the center of the business portion of the town, which at the time of the building of the railroad in 1881 was dense woods. The Norfolk & Western Railway erected a large station in the town in 1912; the Shenandoah Valley Railroad was constructed in Clarke County in 1879. It started in Hagerstown and went south to Roanoke, Virginia; the railroad opened from Hagerstown to Berryville on October 1, 1879. The town of Boyce, located 6 miles southwest of Berryville, began in 1881 with the arrival of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. Located at the railroad crossing with the Millwood Turnpike, Boyce remains much as it was in the early 20th century.
The town was named after Colonel Upton L. Boyce, who lived at the nearby Tuleyries estate and, influential in persuading the railroad to pass through Clarke County. Previous to the current railroad station, there was a much smaller one located on the same side of the tracks but right along the Millwood Turnpike; the railroad was upgrading some of their railroad stations during the early 1910s and were going to replace the original station in Boyce. The new building was to be a small wooden one, sit along the west side of the tracks at its intersection with the Millwood Turnpike. According to local tradition and some historical accounts, the citizens of Boyce wanted a larger, more ornate building and wanted it to be located on the east side of the tracks, they raised money on their own and gave it to the Norfolk and Western to upgrade to a larger station. A December 11, 1912, article in The Clarke Courier entitled "New Depot for Boyce" states: "The public spirit of the citizens of Boyce has again scored a victory.
Some time ago the N & W Railway Company announced that it would erect a new passenger station at Boyce. "The plans submitted by the railway company did not suit the Boyce people, they at once started a movement to secure a better piece of ground in order that a more pretentious station might be erected. "The old buildings have been removed from the Page-Manning lot, work on a new and commodious passenger station, of concrete construction, will be started at once. "This is the spirit. "The Boyce people are quick to go down in their pockets and contribute to any and every cause which will advance their town...." The train station was completed in late 1913. A November 26, 1913, article in The Clarke Courier states: "The new N & W station, with fine concrete platforms, promenade, long train shed, electric-lighted throughout, with all modern conveniences for the comfort of patrons, is a great addition to the town." In a December 23, 1914, article in The Clarke Courier, entitled "The Hustling Town of Boyce," the railroad station is described: "...water is now piped to the ma