Meritage is a name for red and white Bordeaux-style wines without infringing on the Bordeaux region's protected designation of origin. Winemakers must license the Meritage trademark from its owner, the California-based Meritage Alliance. Member wineries are found principally in the United States, though elsewhere; the Meritage Association was formed in 1988 by a small group of Sonoma County and Napa Valley, California vintners frustrated by U. S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives regulations stipulating wines contain at least 75% of a specific grape to be labeled as a varietal; as interest grew in creating Bordeaux-style wines, which by their blended nature fail to qualify for varietal status, members sought to create a recognizable name for their blended wines. In 1988, the association hosted a contest to conceive a proprietary name for these wines, receiving over 6,000 submissions. "Meritage", —a portmanteau of merit and heritage, was selected and its coiner awarded two bottles of the first ten vintages of every wine licensed to use the brand.
The first wine to be labeled with the term "Meritage" was the 1986 “The Poet” by Mitch Cosentino and 1985 vintage by Dry Creek Vineyard was the oldest vintage released "Meritage". By 1999, the Meritage Association had grown to 22 members. Shifting its focus from trademark policing to education and marketing resulted in swift growth. By 2003, the Association had over 100 members, including its first international participants. In May 2009, the Meritage Association announced that it had changed its name to the Meritage Alliance; as of July 2014, the Alliance had over 350 members. The Meritage agreement stipulates the blends that can be labeled "Meritage", a fee per case, various labeling restrictions. A red Meritage must be made from a blend of at least two of the following varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, St. Macaire, Gros Verdot, or Carmenère, with no variety comprising more than 90% of the blend. A white Meritage must be made from a blend of at least two or more of the following varieties: Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, or Muscadelle du Bordelais, with no variety comprising more than 90% of the blend.
Although not stipulated by the licensing agreement, the Meritage Alliance recommends that wineries label only their best blend Meritage and limit production to no more than 25,000 cases. Unlike regulations like French AOC, there are no mandatory rules related to winemaking or winegrowing. Although many people, including many wine experts, have a tendency to Frenchify the word "Meritage" by pronouncing its last syllable with a "zh" sound, as in the U. S. pronunciation of "garage," the Meritage Alliance states that the word should be pronounced to rhyme with "heritage", that is, Meritage should be pronounced. Footnotes The Meritage Alliance official site
Late harvest wine
Late harvest wine is wine made from grapes left on the vine longer than usual. Late harvest is an indication of a sweet dessert wine, such as late harvest Riesling. Late harvest grapes are more similar to raisins, but have been dehydrated while on the vine. Botrytis cinerea, or noble rot, is a mold that causes grapes to lose nearly all of their water content. Wines made from botrytis-affected grapes are very sweet. Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that affects many wine grapes and causes them to shrivel into moldy raisins; the fungus attacks the grapes. As the mold penetrates the skin its spores begin to germinate, causing the water inside to evaporate and the grape to dehydrate. With the absence of water, the sugar becomes more concentrated and the botrytis begins to alter the acidity within the grape. Botrytis infection begins to take place in late September and can last till late October. In some years desiccation may occur leaving tiny amount of sweet liquor like juice within the grape; the infection rate of botrytis is sporadic with vines and bunches achieving full rottenness at different times.
This requires harvest workers to go through the vineyards several times between October and November to hand-pick the full rotted grapes. In some occasions, the usable grapes from a single vine may only produce enough juice for a single glass. Sauternes, such as Château d'Yquem, are produced in the Sauternes region south of Bordeaux, they are made from botrytis infected Sauvignon blanc grapes. Semillon is preferred due to the grape's thin skin and susceptibility to the botrytis which gives the grape a high sugar content; these wines are noted for the balance. During fermentation, the juice is transferred into oak wine barrels where the high sugar concentration of must prolongs the fermentation time which can last up to a year; when the alcohol level kills off all present yeast, the fermentation stops leaving the residual sugar at levels between 8 and 12% and alcohol levels around 14%. After fermentation, the wine is placed in an aging barrel for two to three years before it is bottled where it will continue aging.
A Sauterne from a reputable estate can bottle age for over 30 years though they hit their peak 10 years after the vintage date. Tokaji wines are produced in the Tokaj regions of Slovakia. Wine has been made in these regions since as early as 1650, before the botrytized wines of Sauternes and the Rheingau were produced; the Furmint, Yellow Muscat, Hárslevelű/Lipovina grapes are the primary grapes used in this wine. In a manner similar to Sherry, the wine is aged in filled barrels with a film of yeast on top and stored underground in wine caverns. In Germany, wines are classified according to the ripeness of the grape at time of harvest. Within the Qualitätswein mit Prädikat classification, there are four levels of late harvest wines ranging from dry to sweet: Spätlese, Auslese and Trockenbeerenauslese with the last two levels being botrytized. Ice wines are popular in the cold northernly wine regions of Germany and Canada where the grapes can freeze on the vine; as the grapes are pressed, the frozen water crystals are eliminated leaving the concentrated sugar behind.
Raisin wines are sometimes made from grapes that have been left on the vine in the sun to concentrate their sugar
Merlot is a dark blue-colored wine grape variety, used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines. The name Merlot is thought to be a diminutive of merle, the French name for the blackbird a reference to the color of the grape, its softness and "fleshiness", combined with its earlier ripening, makes Merlot a popular grape for blending with the sterner, later-ripening Cabernet Sauvignon, which tends to be higher in tannin. Along with Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot, Merlot is one of the primary grapes used in Bordeaux wine, it is the most planted grape in the Bordeaux wine regions. Merlot is one of the most popular red wine varietals in many markets; this flexibility has helped to make it one of the world's most planted grape varieties. As of 2004, Merlot was estimated to be the third most grown variety at 260,000 hectares globally; the area planted to Merlot has continued to increase, with 266,000 hectares in 2015. While Merlot is made across the globe, there tend to be two main styles.
The "International style" favored by many New World wine regions tends to emphasize late harvesting to gain physiological ripeness and produce inky, purple colored wines that are full in body with high alcohol and lush, velvety tannins with intense and blackberry fruit. While this international style is practiced by many Bordeaux wine producers, the traditional "Bordeaux style" of Merlot involves harvesting Merlot earlier to maintain acidity and producing more medium-bodied wines with moderate alcohol levels that have fresh, red fruit flavors and leafy, vegetal notes; the earliest recorded mention of Merlot was in the notes of a local Bordeaux official who in 1784 labeled wine made from the grape in the Libournais region as one of the area's best. In 1824, the word Merlot itself appeared in an article on Médoc wine where it was described that the grape was named after the local black bird who liked eating the ripe grapes on the vine. Other descriptions of the grape from the 19th century called the variety lou seme doù flube with the grape thought to have originated on one of the islands found along the Garonne river.
By the 19th century it was being planted in the Médoc on the "Left Bank" of the Gironde. After a series of setbacks that includes a severe frost in 1956 and several vintages in the 1960s lost to rot, French authorities in Bordeaux banned new plantings of Merlot vines between 1970 and 1975, it was first recorded in Italy around Venice under the synonym Bordò in 1855. The grape was introduced to the Swiss, from Bordeaux, sometime in the 19th century and was recorded in the Swiss canton of Ticino between 1905 and 1910. In the 1990s, Merlot saw an upswing of popularity in the United States. Red wine consumption, in general, increased in the US following the airing of the 60 Minutes report on the French Paradox and the potential health benefits of wine and the chemical resveratrol; the popularity of Merlot stemmed in part from the relative ease in pronouncing the name of the wine as well as its softer, fruity profile that made it more approachable to some wine drinkers. In the late 1990s, researchers at University of California, Davis showed that Merlot is an offspring of Cabernet Franc and is a half-sibling of Carménère, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon.
The identity of the second parent of Merlot wouldn't be discovered till the late 2000s when an obscure and unnamed variety, first sampled in 1996 from vines growing in an abandoned vineyard in Saint-Suliac in Brittany, was shown by DNA analysis to be the mother of Merlot. This grape discovered in front of houses as a decorative vine in the villages of Figers, Saint-Savinien and Tanzac in the Poitou-Charentes was colloquially known as Madeleina or Raisin de La Madeleine due to its propensity to be ripe and ready for harvest around the July 22nd feast day of Mary Magdalene; as the connection to Merlot became known, the grape was formally registered under the name Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Through its relationship with Magdeleine Noire des Charentes Merlot is related to the Southwest France wine grape Abouriou, though the exact nature of that relationship is not yet known. Grape breeders have used Merlot crossed with other grapes to create several new varieties including Carmine, Evmolpia, Mamaia, Nigra and Rebo.
Over the years, Merlot has spawned a color mutation, used commercially, a pink-skinned variety known as Merlot gris. However, unlike the relationship between Grenache noir and Grenache blanc or Pinot noir and Pinot blanc, the variety known as Merlot blanc is not a color mutation but rather an offspring variety of Merlot crossing with Folle blanche. Merlot grapes are identified by their loose bunches of large berries; the color has less of a blue/black hue than Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and with a thinner skin and fewer tannins per unit volume. It ripens up to two weeks earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon. Compared to Cabernet, Merlot grapes tend to have a higher sugar content and lower malic acid. Ampelographer J. M. Boursiquot has noted that Merlot has seemed to inherit some of the best characteristics from its parent varieties—its fertility and easy ripening ability from Magdeleine Noire des Charentes and its color, t
Many grape names redirect here. For the list, see below: Synonyms. Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety, used in white wines, performs best in cooler climates. In English, it is sometimes referred to colloquially as Gewürz, in French it is written Gewurztraminer. Gewürztraminer is a variety with a pink to red skin colour, which makes it a "white wine grape" as opposed to the blue to black-skinned varieties referred to as "red wine grapes"; the variety has high natural sugar and the wines are white and off-dry, with a flamboyant bouquet of lychees. Indeed, Gewürztraminer and lychees share the same aroma compounds. Dry Gewürztraminers may have aromas of roses, passion fruit and floral notes, it is not uncommon to notice some spritz. Gewürztraminer's sweetness may offset the spice in Asian cuisine, it pairs well with Maroilles, Livarot, or Munster cheese, fleshy, fatty wild game. The German name Gewürztraminer means "Spice Traminer" or "Perfumed Traminer", comes from the Alsace region in France.
This grape variety is a mutation of the Savagnin blanc named Traminer in South Tyrol. The history of the Traminer family is complicated, not helped by its rather unstable genome; the story starts with the ancient Traminer variety, a green-skinned grape that takes its name from the village of Tramin, located in South Tyrol, the German-speaking province in northern Italy. The famous ampelographer Pierre Galet thought that Traminer was identical to the green-skinned Savagnin blanc that makes vin jaune in the Jura. More it has been suggested that Savagnin blanc acquired slight differences in its leaf shape and geraniol content as it travelled to the other end of the Alps. Frankisch in Austria, Gringet in Savoie, Heida in Switzerland, Formentin in Hungary and Grumin from Bohemia are all similar to Savagnin blanc and represent clones of the Traminer family, if not Traminer itself; the Viognier of the Rhone Valley may be a more distant relative of Savagnin blanc. At some point, either Traminer or Savagnin blanc mutated into a form with pink-skinned berries, called Red Traminer or Savagnin rose.
Galet believed that a musqué mutation in the Red Traminer/Savagnin rose led to the extra-aromatic Gewürztraminer, although in Germany these names are all regarded as synonymous. With these convoluted genetics happening in the area, the front line for a millennium of wars in Europe, it is maybe not surprising that vines have been misnamed. Given that the wine made from'Gewürztraminer' in Germany can be much less aromatic than that in Alsace, some of the German vines may well be misidentified Savagnin Rose; the Baden vineyard of Durbach claims its own type of Red Traminer called Durbacher Clevner. The story goes that in 1780 Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden brought vines from Chiavenna in Italy, halfway between Tramin and the Jura, known to the Germans as Cleven; the Klevener de Heiligenstein or Heiligensteiner Klevener found around Heiligenstein in Alsace may represent an outpost of the Durbach vines. They are described as a less aromatic form of Gewürztraminer. Traminer is recorded in Tramin from ca. 1000 until the 16th century.
It was spread down the Rhine to Alsace, by way of the Palatinate, where Gewürz was added to its name – this was when one of the mutations happened. The longer name was first used in Alsace in 1870 – without the umlaut, it is not clear what this name change represents, as it seems too great a coincidence that the musqué mutation happened just after the arrival of the great phylloxera epidemic. More an existing mutant was selected for grafting onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks when the vineyards were replanted. In 1973 the name Traminer was discontinued in Alsace except for in the Heiligenstein area; the Germans have tried hard to breed the flavours of Gewürztraminer into vines that are easier to grow. In 1932, Georg Scheu crossed Gewürztraminer with Müller-Thurgau to produce Würzer, a little of, grown in Rheinhessen and in England. Similar crosses at Alzey and Würzburg have produced Septimer and the reasonably successful Perle; the early-ripening Siegerrebe is the result of a cross with Madeleine Angevine at Alzey and is notable for producing the highest must weight recorded in Germany, 326 °Oechsle.
A cross between Müller-Thurgau and Siegerrebe produced Ortega. Cserszegi fűszeres is the result of a Hungarian cross with Irsai Oliver. In 1938, Harold Olmo crossed Sémillon and Gewürztraminer at U. C. Davis to make Flora, grown a little in California and New Zealand – in the latter it was mistaken for a late-ripening clone of Pinot gris. Brown Bros blend it with Orange Muscat in Australia. In 1965, Gewürztraminer was crossed with Joannes Seyve 23.416 at the University of Illinois to produce a hybrid variety called Traminette. Traminette is more cold-tolerant than the original, while maintaining most of the desirable taste and aroma characteristics. In the late 20th century, Australian viticulturalist and grape breeder A. J. Antcliff crossed Gewürztraminer with Merbein 29-56 to create the white grape variety Taminga. During a series of trials between 1924 and 1930, Gewürztraminer was crossed with Trebbiano to create the pink-skinned Italian wine grape variety Manzoni rosa. In 1970s, Czech winemaker and grape breeder Ing.
Jan Veverka crossed in former Czechoslovakia Gewürztraminer with Müller-Thurgau to create the wine grape variety Pálava (the name refers to the Pálava hills located i
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most gets its name from the French words sauvage and blanc due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France, it is a descendant of Savagnin. Sauvignon blanc is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp and refreshing white varietal wine; the grape is a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc is cultivated in France, Romania, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the states of Washington and California in the US; some New World Sauvignon blancs from California, may be called "Fumé Blanc", a marketing term coined by Robert Mondavi in reference to Pouilly-Fumé. Depending on the climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. In cooler climates, the grape has a tendency to produce wines with noticeable acidity and "green flavors" of grass, green bell peppers and nettles with some tropical fruit and floral notes.
In warmer climates, it can develop more tropical fruit notes but risk losing a lot of aromatics from over-ripeness, leaving only slight grapefruit and tree fruit notes. Wine experts have used the phrase "crisp and fresh" as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc, when chilled, pairs well with fish or cheese chèvre, it is known as one of the few wines that can pair well with sushi. Along with Riesling, Sauvignon blanc was one of the first fine wines to be bottled with a screwcap in commercial quantities by New Zealand producers; the wine is consumed young, as it does not benefit from aging, as varietal Sauvignon blancs tend to develop vegetal aromas reminiscent of peas and asparagus with extended aging. Dry and sweet white Bordeaux, including oak-aged examples from Pessac-Léognan and Graves, as well as some Loire wines from Pouilly-Fumé and Sancerre are some of the few examples of Sauvignon blancs with aging potential; the first Friday in May is International Sauvignon Blanc Day.
The Sauvignon blanc grape traces its origins to western France in the Loire Valley and Bordeaux Regions. As noted above, it is not clear. Ongoing research suggests, it has been associated with the Carmenere family. At some point in the 18th century, the vine paired with Cabernet Franc to parent the Cabernet Sauvignon vine in Bordeaux. In the 19th century, plantings in Bordeaux were interspersed with Sauvignon vert as well as the Sauvignon blanc pink mutation Sauvignon gris. Prior to the phylloxera epidemic, the insect plague which devastated French vineyards in the 19th century, these interspersed cuttings were transported to Chile where the field blends are still common today. Despite the similarity in names, Sauvignon blanc has no known relation to the Sauvignon rosé mutation found in the Loire Valley of France; the first cuttings of Sauvignon blanc were brought to California by Charles Wetmore, founder of Cresta Blanca Winery, in the 1880s. These cuttings came from the Sauternes vineyards of Château d'Yquem.
The plantings produced well in Livermore Valley. The wine acquired the alias of "Fumé Blanc" in California by promotion of Robert Mondavi in 1968; the grape was first introduced to New Zealand in the 1970s as an experimental planting to be blended with Müller-Thurgau. The Sauvignon blanc vine buds late but ripens early, which allows it to perform well in sunny climates when not exposed to overwhelming heat. In warm regions such as South Africa and California, the grape flourishes in cooler climate appellations such as the Alexander Valley area. In areas where the vine is subjected to high heat, the grape will become over-ripe and produce wines with dull flavors and flat acidity. Rising global temperatures have caused farmers to harvest the grapes earlier than they have in the past; the grape originated in the regions of Bordeaux and the Loire Valley. Plantings in California, Australia and South Africa are extensive, Sauvignon blanc is increasing in popularity as white wine drinkers seek alternatives to Chardonnay.
The grape can be found in Italy and Central Europe. In France, Sauvignon blanc is grown in the maritime climate of Bordeaux as well as the continental climate of the Loire Valley; the climates of these areas are favorable in slowing the ripening on the vine, allowing the grape more time to develop a balance between its acidity and sugar levels. This balance is important in the development of the intensity of the wine's aromas. Winemakers in France pay careful attention to the terroir characteristics of the soil and the different elements that it can impart to the wine; the chalk and Kimmeridgean marl of Sancerre and Pouilly produces wines of richness and complexity while areas with more compact chalk soils produces wines with more finesse and perfume. The gravel soil found near the Loire River and its tributaries impart spicy and mineral flavors while in Bordeaux, the wines have a fruitier personality. Vines planted in flint tend to produce the longest lasting wines. Pouilly Fumé originate from the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, located directly across the Loire River from the commune of Sancerre.
The soil here is flinty with deposits of limestone which the locals believed imparted a smoky, gun flint flavor
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company. Some wine companies own many wineries. Besides wine making equipment, larger wineries may feature warehouses, bottling lines and large expanses of tanks known as tank farms. Wineries may have existed as long as 8,000 years ago; the earliest known evidence of winemaking at a large scale, if not evidence of actual wineries, has been found in the Middle East. In 2011 a team of archaeologists discovered a 6000 year old wine press in a cave in the Areni region of Armenia, identified the site as a small winery. In the northern Zagros Mountains in Iran, jars over 7000 years old were discovered to contain tartaric acid crystals, providing evidence of winemaking in that region. Archaeological excavations in the southern Georgian region of Kvemo Kartli uncovered evidence of wine-making equipment dating back 8000 years. In 2017 the remnants of an 8000-year-old facility for large-scale production was found 20 miles south of Tbilisi, Georgia.
Wineries employ winemakers to produce various wines from grapes by following the winemaking process. This process involves the fermentation of fruit, as well as blending and aging of the juice; the grapes may be brought in from other locations. Many wineries give tours and have cellar doors or tasting rooms where customers can taste wines before they make a purchase. Winery architecture is varied and rich and it is used by wineries as a way to promote their wines and cellar doors. While some associate wineries with large winemaking regions such as Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley in California, the Barossa Valley in Australia or the legendary wine regions of France and Italy, wineries can be found nearly everywhere; the east coast of the United States has winemaking regions like New York's Finger Lakes region, Aquidneck Island, RI and Long Island, NY and Cape May, NJ. Wineries do not have to be located adjacent to vineyards. In addition, people make wine out of other fruits and plants, so these specialty wineries tend to pop up where the other substances are grown.
For example, a winery in Hawaii produces pineapple wine. A class of winery license known as the farm winery allows farms to sell wines on site. Farm wineries differ from commercial wineries in that the fruit, the source of the wine is produced on the farm, the final product is sold on the farm. States such as New York have given a special permit to open a satellite store in a tourist area. New York's passing of the Farm Winery Act of 1976 set an example for other states to pass similar laws. Farm wineries operate at a smaller scale than commercial wineries. Farm wineries are a form of value added marketing, known as agritourism, for farmers who may otherwise struggle to show a profit. A micro-winery is a small wine producer that does not have its own vineyard, instead sources its grape product from outside suppliers; the concept is similar to a microbrewery, in that small batches of product are made for local consumption. The concept of the micro-winery is not as accepted as that of the microbrewery, however, as the general public has been conditioned to associate a winery as having a vineyard.
A winery uses similar wine-making equipment as a major commercial winery, just on a smaller scale. Glass carboys and sanitary plastic pails are seen in the facilities of a micro-winery; each batch of wine yields 23 Liters. One of the primary differences of a micro-winery as compared to a typical winery is that a micro-winery is able to offer a wider range of wines. New York State provides a specific micro-winery license that requires the microwinery to purchase local ingredients; the urban winery is a recent phenomenon whereby a wine producer chooses to locate their winemaking facility in an urban setting within a city rather than in the traditional rural setting near the vineyards. With advances in technology and transportation, it is not a problem for an urban winery to grow their grapes in a remote location and transport them to the urban facility for crushing and aging. Urban wineries have been opened in cities across the United States including San Francisco. Wilridge Winery was the first urban winery in Seattle.
Wine aficionados traditionally had to travel to remote areas to learn about winemaking firsthand and to taste the offerings of a wine producer in the setting in which they were made. Now, many urban dwellers can hop in their car for a short drive or take public transportation or walk, have an authentic winery experience. Many urban wineries offer productions tours and a traditional tasting room for this purpose and offer retail sales; this allows the consumer to purchase directly from the source ensuring that wines have been stored and not subjected to extreme conditions that can occur in transport which can result in spoiled wines. A few urban wineries are incorporating full-service restaurants or venues for live entertainment. Many offer their customers the ability to make their own wine under the guidance of their winemaking team. Amateur winemakers can choose the grape varieties, select an appellation, make production decisions along the way and participate in the final blending and design their own labels.
This has spawned a new g