Bellfounding is the casting of bells in a foundry for use in churches and public buildings. The process in East Asia dates to about 2000 BCE and in Europe dates to the 4th or 5th century, in early times, when a town produced a bell it was a momentous occasion in which the whole community would participate. Archaeological excavations of churchyards in Britain have revealed furnaces, which suggests that bells were often cast on site in pits dug in the building grounds, in some instances bells were cast directly in the church. Before the nineteenth century, bellfounders tended to be itinerant, travelling from church to church to cast bells on site, more centralized foundries were established on foundation of railways. There are however examples of foundries producing bells prior to this, such as the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, bells intended to be rung are usually made by casting bell metal of a size appropriate for the pitch the bell is intended to produce. Fine tuning of bells is achieved on a lathe where a precise amount of material is removed from the inside of the bell in order to produce a true tone with correct harmonics.
Bells are used often to play a sequence and so must be well tuned in order to produce a correct scale of musical notes. Bellfounding has been important throughout the history of ancient civilizations, eastern bells, known for their tremendous size, were some of the earliest bells, cast many centuries before the European Iron Age. The earliest bells were made of pottery, developing into the casting of metal bells, archaeological evidence of bellfounding appears in Neolithic China. The earliest metal bells, with one found in the Taosi site, portable bells came to Britain with the spread of Celtic Christianity, and most of those still remaining share an association with Scotland and Ireland. Bells are traditionally cast in foundries for use in churches, clocks, a practitioner of the craft is called a bellfounder or bellmaker. Large bells in England are mentioned by Bede as early as 670 CE, nearly 200 years later, in the tenth century is the first record of a complete peal of bells. The same period saw other ecclesiastics involved in the founding of bells, St.
Dunstan, “The Chief of Monks”, was an expert worker in metals and known bell caster. Two bells were cast under his direction at Abingdon which two others cast by St. Ethelwold. Methods of moulding by lost-wax casting were described by the thirteenth-century Benedictine monk Walter de Odyngton of Evesham Abbey, bellfounding as a regular trade followed later. Independent craftsmen set up small, permanent foundries in towns, although these attracted trade from the surrounding countryside, mediaeval founders did not confine themselves to bellmaking as their only source of livelihood. Instead, they often combined it with related trades, such as metal ware, some founders were itinerant, traveling from church to church to cast bells on site, but the majority had settled works in large towns. Among other places London, Salisbury, Bury St Edmunds and these early bells had tonal discrepancies, a result of their weight and alloy composition as well as uniform thickness and profile—where the height was disproportionate to the diameter
The bell gable is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings, usually in lieu of a church tower. It consists of an end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church bells are placed. It is an example of the simplicity of romanesque architecture. Bell-gables or espadañas are a feature of Romanesque architecture in Spain, since they were easier and cheaper to build than a church tower or bell tower, they are especially common in small village churches throughout the Iberian Peninsula. This simple and sober architectural element would be brought to the Americas and the Philippines by Iberian colonizers. The bell gable usually rises over the front façade wall, in Catalonia and the Valencian Community bell-gables are known as campanar de paret or campanar de cadireta. Because it reminds one of the back of a chair, in Écija the bell tower of the church of Santa Bárbara fell destroyed by a lightning strike in 1892 and was replaced by an espadaña, a more expedient solution than rebuilding the tower.
Zvonnitsa Bell tower Bamboo or Brick, The travails of building churches in Spanish Colonial Philippines by Jose Regalado Trota, Ayala Museum
Harmonic series (music)
A harmonic series is the sequence of sounds where the base frequency of each sound is an integer multiple of the lowest base frequency. Pitched musical instruments are based on an approximate harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. At these resonant frequencies, waves travel in both directions along the string or air column and canceling each other to form standing waves, interaction with the surrounding air causes audible sound waves, which travel away from the instrument. Because of the spacing of the resonances, these frequencies are mostly limited to integer multiples, or harmonics, of the lowest frequency. The musical timbre of a tone from such an instrument is determined by the relative strengths of each harmonic. A complex tone can be described as a combination of many simple periodic waves or partials, each with its own frequency of vibration, amplitude, a partial is any of the sine waves of which a complex tone is composed. A harmonic is any member of the series, an ideal set of frequencies that are positive integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency.
The fundamental is considered a harmonic because it is 1 times itself, a harmonic partial is any real partial component of a complex tone that matches an ideal harmonic. An inharmonic partial is any partial that does not match an ideal harmonic, Inharmonicity is a measure of the deviation of a partial from the closest ideal harmonic, typically measured in cents for each partial. Unpitched, or indefinite-pitched instruments, such as cymbals, gongs, or tam-tams make sounds that are rich in inharmonic partials, an overtone is any partial except the lowest partial. The term overtone does not imply harmonicity or inharmonicity and has no special meaning other than to exclude the fundamental. It is the relative strengths of the different overtones that gives an instrument its particular timbre, some electronic instruments, such as synthesizers, can play a pure frequency with no overtones. Synthesizers can combine pure frequencies into more complex tones, such as to other instruments. Certain flutes and ocarinas are very nearly without overtones, in most pitched musical instruments, the fundamental is accompanied by other, higher-frequency harmonics.
Thus shorter-wavelength, higher-frequency waves occur with varying prominence and give each instrument its characteristic tone quality, the fact that a string is fixed at each end means that the longest allowed wavelength on the string is twice the length of the string. Other allowed wavelengths are 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, these shorter wavelengths correspond to vibrations at frequencies that are 2,3,4,5,6, etc. times the fundamental frequency. Physical characteristics of the vibrating medium and/or the resonator it vibrates against often alter these frequencies, the harmonic series is an arithmetic series. In terms of frequency, the difference between consecutive harmonics is therefore constant and equal to the fundamental, but because human ears respond to sound nonlinearly, higher harmonics are perceived as closer together than lower ones
In music, there are two common meanings for tuning, Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. Tuning systems, the systems of pitches used to tune an instrument. Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones, Tuning is usually based on a fixed reference, such as A =440 Hz. Out of tune refers to a pitch/tone that is too high or too low in relation to a given reference pitch. While an instrument might be in relative to its own range of notes. Some instruments become out of tune with damage or time and must be readjusted or repaired, different methods of sound production require different methods of adjustment, Tuning to a pitch with ones voice is called matching pitch and is the most basic skill learned in ear training. Turning pegs to increase or decrease the tension on strings so as to control the pitch, instruments such as the harp and harpsichord require a wrench to turn the tuning pegs, while others such as the violin can be tuned manually.
Modifying the length or width of the tube of an instrument, brass instrument, bell. The sounds of instruments such as cymbals are inharmonic—they have irregular overtones not conforming to the harmonic series. Tuning may be done aurally by sounding two pitches and adjusting one of them to match or relate to the other, a tuning fork or electronic tuning device may be used as a reference pitch, though in ensemble rehearsals often a piano is used. Symphony orchestras and concert bands tend to tune to an A or a B♭, interference beats are used to objectively measure the accuracy of tuning. As the two approach a harmonic relationship, the frequency of beating decreases. When tuning a unison or octave it is desired to reduce the beating frequency until it cannot be detected, for other intervals, this is dependent on the tuning system being used. Harmonics may be used to facilitate tuning of strings that are not themselves tuned to the unison, for example, lightly touching the highest string of a cello at the middle while bowing produces the same pitch as doing the same a third of the way down its second-highest string.
The resulting unison is more easily and quickly judged than the quality of the fifth between the fundamentals of the two strings. In music, the open string refers to the fundamental note of the unstopped. The strings of a guitar are tuned to fourths, as are the strings of the bass guitar. Violin and cello strings are tuned to fifths, non-standard tunings exist to change the sound of the instrument or create other playing options
In classical music from Western culture, a fourth is a musical interval encompassing four staff positions, and the perfect fourth is a fourth spanning five semitones. For example, the interval from C to the next F is a perfect fourth, as the note F lies five semitones above C. Diminished and augmented fourths span the same number of staff positions, the perfect fourth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the third and fourth harmonics. The term perfect identifies this interval as belonging to the group of perfect intervals, so called because they are neither major nor minor, up until the late 19th century, the perfect fourth was often called by its Greek name, diatessaron. Its most common occurrence is between the fifth and upper root of all major and minor triads and their extensions. A perfect fourth in just intonation corresponds to a ratio of 4,3, or about 498 cents, while in equal temperament a perfect fourth is equal to five semitones. A helpful way to recognize a fourth is to hum the starting of the Bridal Chorus from Wagners Lohengrin.
Other examples are the first two notes of the Christmas carol Hark, the Herald Angels Sing or El Cóndor Pasa, for a descending perfect fourth, the second and third notes of O Come All Ye Faithful. The perfect fourth is a perfect interval like the unison and perfect fifth, in common practice harmony, however, it is considered a stylistic dissonance in certain contexts, namely in two-voice textures and whenever it appears above the bass. Conventionally, adjacent strings of the bass and of the bass guitar are a perfect fourth apart when unstopped, as are all pairs. Sets of tom-tom drums are tuned in perfect fourths. The 4,3 just perfect fourth arises in the C major scale between G and C, play The use of perfect fourths and fifths to sound in parallel with and to thicken the melodic line was prevalent in music prior to the European polyphonic music of the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the fourth and fifth together were the concordantiae mediae after the unison and octave, in the 15th century the fourth came to be regarded as dissonant on its own, and was first classed as a dissonance by Johannes Tinctoris in his Terminorum musicae diffinitorium.
In practice, however, it continued to be used as a consonance when supported by the interval of a third or fifth in a lower voice. Modern acoustic theory supports the medieval interpretation insofar as the intervals of unison, the octave has the ratio of 2,1, for example the interval between a at A440 and a at 880 Hz, giving the ratio 880,440, or 2,1. The fifth has a ratio of 3,2, and its complement has the ratio of 3,4, ancient and medieval music theorists appear to have been familiar with these ratios, see for example their experiments on the Monochord. In early western polyphony, these simpler intervals were generally preferred, however, in its development between the 12th and 16th centuries, In the earliest stages, these simple intervals occur so frequently that they appear to be the favourite sound of composers. Later, the more complex intervals move gradually from the margins to the centre of musical interest
A bell-ringer is a person who rings a bell, usually a church bell, by means of a rope or other mechanism. The term campanologist is popularly mis-used to refer to a bell ringer, but this refers to someone who studies bells. Although in some places carillons are used to sound bells, they are played by carillonneurs, not by bell ringers, in England, for instance, it is estimated there are about 40,000 bell ringers ringing on rings of bells in the English full-circle style. This type of ringing cannot be automated because of the large rotating masses of the bells, the high level of control exerted by ringers means the bells can be struck with both accurate and equal spacing, and can change their striking pattern at each stroke. This system originated during the Middle Ages, and was perfected in the 19th century and it is a form of full circle ringing which requires the bell ringers to manually swing the bells whilst standing beside them in the bell chamber. It was originally designed for an ensemble of four or five bells and they are mounted on a wooden structure called the castle, and flanked by a wooden support called the goat.
The bells are not very heavy, as the rotation has to be fast, every bell that weighs less than 800 kg is rung by one person. The heaviest bell used with this system is in Bologna Cathedral, thirteen people are needed to ring a scappata or a calata with it. The bell ringers have to be in contact with the bells and this method of full circle ringing is similar to English full-circle ring, in that it uses ropes to to enable the bell ringers to manipulate the bells. It is not clear whether hanging the bells in this way was developed at San Giorgio or whether the method was imported from England where bells are hung for full circle ringing. Chiming is the art of ringing bells which are dead or stationary. Bell ringing saw a revival in Russia, with the growth of the Russian Orthodox Church. Technically, bells rung in the Russian tradition are sounded exclusively by chiming, for the Russian tradition a special complex system of ropes is used, designed individually for each belltower. All the ropes are gathered at one point, where the bell-ringer stands.
Some ropes are played by hand, the ropes are played by foot. The major part of the ropes are not actually pulled, since one end of every rope is fixed, and the ropes are kept in tension, a press or even a punch on a rope makes a clapper strike the side of its bell. The secrets of this technique have passed from generation to generation, training took place only at workshops until 2008, the first permanent traditional bell-ringing school opened in Moscow, under the leadership of Drozdihin Ilya. The Ellacombe apparatus is an English mechanism devised for performing change ringing on church bells by striking stationary bells with hammers
A carillon is a musical instrument that is typically housed in the bell tower of a church or municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells, a traditional manual carillon is played by striking a keyboard – the stick-like keys of which are called batons – with the fists, and by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet. Although unusual, real carillons have occasionally been fitted to theatre organs, such as the Christie organ installed at the Regal Cinema, Marble Arch, a carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime. The carillon is the second heaviest of all extant musical instruments, the heaviest carillon in the world weighs over 100 tons, whereas the Wanamaker organ in Philadelphia weighs 287 tons. The word carillon is from the French quadrillon, meaning four bells, in German, a carillon is called a Glockenspiel, while the percussion instrument called a glockenspiel by English speakers is often called a carillon in French.
In medieval times, swinging bells were first used as a way of notifying people of imminent church services, the use of bells to play melodic musical compositions originated in the 16th century in the Low Countries. The first carillon was in Flanders, where a fool performed music on the bells of Oudenaarde Town Hall in 1510 by using a baton keyboard, major figures in the evolution of the modern carillon were Pieter and François Hemony working in the 17th century. They are credited as being the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries, since each separate note is produced by an individual bell, a carillons musical range is determined by the number of bells it has. Different names are assigned to instruments based on the number of bells they comprise, players of these instruments often use music arranged specifically for their limited range of notes. A concert carillon has a range of at least four octaves and this is sometimes referred to as the standard-sized carillon.
The Riverside Carillon in New York City has the largest tuned bell in the world. Travelling or mobile carillons are not placed in a tower, some of them can even be played indoors—in a concert hall or church—like the mobile carillon of Frank Steijns. The World Carillon Federation defines a carillon as A musical instrument composed of tuned bronze bells which are played from a baton keyboard, only those carillons having at least 23 bells may be taken into consideration. The carillonneur or carillonist is the title of the musician who plays the carillon, the carillonneur/carillonist usually sits in a cabin beneath the bells and presses down, with a loosely closed fist, on a series of baton-like keys arranged in the same pattern as a piano keyboard. The batons are almost never played with the fingers as one does a piano, though this is sometimes used as a special carillon playing technique. The keys activate levers and wires that directly to the bells clappers, thus, as with a piano. In addition to the keys, the heavier bells are played with a pedal keyboard.
These notes can either be played with the hands or the feet, poorly tuned bells often give an out of tune impression and can be out of tune with themselves
The bourdon is the heaviest of the bells that belong to a musical instrument, especially a chime or a carillon, and produces its lowest tone. As an example, the largest bell of a carillon of 64 bells and it weighs 11,000 pounds and is tuned to G. In the Netherlands where carillons are native, the heaviest carillon is in Grote Kerk in Dordrecht, the biggest bell serving as bourdon of any carillon is the low C bell at Riverside Church, New York City. Cast in 1929 as part of the Rockefeller Carillon, it weighs 41,000 pounds and this is the largest tuned bell ever cast. Although carillons are by definition chromatic, the bell up from the bourdon is traditionally a whole tone higher in pitch. The heaviest bell in a diatonically tuned English-style ring of bells is called the tenor, if a larger, heavier bell is present it would be called a bourdon. Campanology Carillon Pieter and François Hemony
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a number is called a composite number. For example,5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors, the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a number n is known as trial division. It consists of testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n, algorithms much more efficient than trial division have been devised to test the primality of large numbers. Particularly fast methods are available for numbers of forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of January 2016, the largest known prime number has 22,338,618 decimal digits, there are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbachs conjecture, and the twin prime conjecture.
Such questions spurred the development of branches of number theory. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements. A natural number is called a number if it has exactly two positive divisors,1 and the number itself. Natural numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite, among the numbers 1 to 6, the numbers 2,3, and 5 are the prime numbers, while 1,4, and 6 are not prime. 1 is excluded as a number, for reasons explained below. 2 is a number, since the only natural numbers dividing it are 1 and 2. Next,3 is prime, too,1 and 3 do divide 3 without remainder, however,4 is composite, since 2 is another number dividing 4 without remainder,4 =2 ·2. 5 is again prime, none of the numbers 2,3, next,6 is divisible by 2 or 3, since 6 =2 ·3. The image at the right illustrates that 12 is not prime,12 =3 ·4, no even number greater than 2 is prime because by definition, any such number n has at least three distinct divisors, namely 1,2, and n
The Catholic Erfurt Cathedral is a 1200-year-old church located on Cathedral Hill of Erfurt, in Thuringia, Germany. It is of an International Gothic style, and is known as St Marys Cathedral. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Erfurt. The site of the present Cathedral has been the location of many other Christian buildings, for example a Romanesque basilica, martin Luther was ordained in the cathedral in 1507. Saint Boniface erected a church in the year 724 on the mound which the Erfurt Cathedral now sits, the foundations of the original church were used for a Romanesque basilica in the mid 12th century. The mound was enlarged in the early 14th century to make room for the St. Marys cathedral. The architecture of the Erfurt Cathedral is mainly Gothic and stems from around the 14th and 15th centuries, there are many things of note as far as the architecture is concerned, not least the stained glass windows and furnishings of the interior of the cathedral. The central spire of the three towers that sit aloft the cathedral harbours the Maria Gloriosa which, at the time of its casting by Geert van Wou in 1497, was the worlds largest free-swinging bell and it is the largest existing medieval bell in the world.
It is known to have purity and beauty of tone
In music, the undertone series or subharmonic series is a sequence of notes that results from inverting the intervals of the overtone series. While overtones naturally occur with the production of music on instruments. The overtone series being a series, the undertone series is based on arithmetic division. The hybrid term subharmonic is used in music and dynamics in a few different ways, in its pure sense, the term subharmonic refers strictly to any member of the subharmonic series. When the subharmonic series is used to refer to frequency relationships, the complex tones of acoustic instruments do not produce partials that resemble the subharmonic series. However, such tones can be produced artificially with audio software, subharmonics can be contrasted with harmonics. While harmonics can. occur in any system, there are. only fairly restricted conditions that will lead to the nonlinear phenomenon known as subharmonic generation. One way to define subharmonics is that they are. integral submultiples of the fundamental frequency, the human voice can be forced into a similar driven resonance, called “undertone singing”, to extend the range of the voice below what is normally available.
The overtone series can be produced physically in two ways—either by overblowing a wind instrument, or by dividing a monochord string. If a monochord string is lightly damped at the point, at 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, etc. the string will produce the overtone series. If instead, the length of the string is doubled in the opposite ratios, similarly, on a wind instrument, if the holes are equally spaced, each successive hole covered will produce the next note in the undertone series. In addition, José Sotorrio showed that undertones could be made through the use of an oscillator such as a tuning fork. If that oscillator is gently forced to vibrate against a sheet of paper it will make contact at various audible modes of vibration. The tritare, a guitar with Y shaped strings, cause subharmonics too and this can be achieved by the extended technique of crossing two strings as some experimental jazz guitarists have developed. Also third bridge preparations on guitars cause timbres consisting of sets of high pitched overtones combined with a resonant tone of the unplugged part of the string.
Subharmonics can be produced by signal amplification through loudspeakers, Subharmonic frequencies are frequencies below the fundamental frequency of an oscillator in a ratio of 1/n, with n a positive integer number. For example, if the frequency of an oscillator is 440 Hz, sub-harmonics include 220 Hz. Thus, they are an image of the harmonic series