Andrei Dmitriyevich Linde is a Russian-American theoretical physicist and the Harald Trap Friis Professor of Physics at Stanford University. Linde is one of the main authors of the inflationary universe theory, as well as the theory of eternal inflation and inflationary multiverse, he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Moscow State University. In 1975, Linde was awarded a Ph. D. from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow. He worked at CERN since 1989 and moved to the United States in 1990, where he became professor of physics at Stanford University. Among the various awards he has received for his work on inflation, in 2002 he was awarded the Dirac Medal, along with Alan Guth of MIT and Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University. In 2004 he received, along with Alan Guth, the Gruber Prize in Cosmology for the development of inflationary cosmology. In 2012 he, along with Alan Guth, was an inaugural awardee of the Fundamental Physics Prize. In 2014 he received the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics "for pioneering the theory of cosmic inflation", together with Alan Guth and Alexei Starobinsky.
In 2018 he received the Gamow Prize. During 1972 to 1976, David Kirzhnits and Andrei Linde developed a theory of cosmological phase transitions. According to this theory, there was not much difference between weak and electromagnetic interactions in the early universe; these interactions became different from each other only after the cosmological phase transitions which happened when the temperature in the expanding Universe's became sufficiently small. In 1974, Linde found that the energy density of scalar fields that break the symmetry between different interactions can play the role of the vacuum energy density in the Einstein equations. Between 1976 and 1978, Linde demonstrated that the release of this energy during the cosmological phase transitions may be sufficient to heat up the universe; these observations became the main ingredients of the first version of the inflationary universe theory proposed by Alan Guth in 1980. This theory, now called the "Old inflation theory", was based on the assumption that the universe was hot.
It experienced the cosmological phase transitions and was temporarily stuck in a supercooled metastable vacuum state. The universe expanded exponentially – "inflated" – until the false vacuum decayed and the universe became hot again; this idea attracted much attention because it could provide a unique solution to many difficult problems of the standard Big Bang theory. In particular, it could explain why the universe is so uniform. However, as Guth realized, this scenario did not quite work as intended: the decay of the false vacuum would make the universe inhomogeneous. In 1981, Linde developed another version of inflationary theory which he called "New inflation", he demonstrated that the exponentially rapid expansion of the universe could occur not only in the false vacuum but during a slow transition away from the false vacuum. This theory resolved the problems of the original model proposed by Guth while preserving most of its attractive features. A few months a similar scenario was proposed by Andreas Albrecht and Paul Steinhardt which referenced Linde's paper.
Soon after that, it was realized that the new inflationary scenario suffered from some problems. Most of them arose because of the standard assumption that the early universe was hot, inflation occurred during the cosmological phase transitions. In 1983, Linde abandoned some of the key principles of old and new inflation and proposed a more general inflationary theory, chaotic inflation. Chaotic inflation occurs in a much broader class of theories, without any need for the assumption of initial thermal equilibrium; the basic principles of this scenario became incorporated in most of the presently existing realistic versions of inflationary theory. Chaotic inflation changed the way. On, Linde proposed a possible modification of the way in which inflation may end, by developing the hybrid inflation scenario. In that model, inflation ends due to the "waterfall" instability. According to the inflationary theory, all elementary particles in the universe emerged after the end of inflation, in a process called reheating.
The first version of the theory of reheating, the theory of creation of matter in the universe, was developed in 1982 by Alexander Dolgov and Linde, by L. F. Abbott, Edward Farhi and Mark B. Wise. In 1994, this theory was revised by L. A. Kofman and Alexei Starobinsky, they have shown that the process of creation of matter after inflation may be much more efficient due to the effect of parametric resonance. The most far-reaching prediction made by Linde was related to what is now called the theory of inflationary multiverse, or string theory landscape. In 1982-1983, Steinhardt and Alexander Vilenkin realized that exponential expansion in the new inflation scenario, once it begins, continues without end in some parts of the universe. On the basis of this scenario, Linde proposed a model of a self-reproducing inflationary universe consisting of different parts; these parts are exponentially uniform, because of inflation. Therefore, for all practical purposes each of these parts looks like a separate mini-universe, or pocket universe, independent of what happens in other parts of the universe.
Inhabitants of each of these parts might think that the universe everywhere looks the same, masses of elementary particles, as well as the laws of their interactions, must be the same all over the world. However, in the contex
Shiraz Naval Minwalla is an Indian theoretical physicist and string theorist. He is a faculty member in the Department of Theoretical Physics at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Prior to his present position, he was a Harvard Junior Fellow and subsequently an Assistant Professor at Harvard University. Born in Mumbai, India, in 1973, to a Parsi-Zoroastrian father and a Muslim mother, Minwalla graduated from Campion School, Mumbai in 1988 and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur in 1995, he moved to Princeton University to earn his Ph. D. under the guidance of Nathan Seiberg. Minwalla was awarded the Swarnajayanti Fellowship 2005-06 by the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, he was awarded the ICTP Prize in 2010 and the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, the highest science award in India, in the physical sciences category in 2011. He was awarded the Infosys Prize 2013 in the field of Physical Sciences by the Infosys Science Foundation.
He was awarded the 2014 New Horizons in Physics Prize by the Fundamental Physics Prize for "his pioneering contributions to the study of string theory and quantum field theory. In 2016, The World Academy of Sciences awarded him the TWAS Prize in Physics. Analysis of primary operators on AdS4 and AdS7 Three-point functions in N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory and AdS/CFT Noncommutative perturbative dynamics Noncommutative solitons OM-theory Stringy interactions in pp-waves Some insights about tachyon condensation Dualities in supersymmetric gauge theories, in particular Chern-Simons-matter theories Comnections between hydrodynamics and AdS/CFT. Bhattacharyya, Sayantani. "Local fluid dynamical entropy from gravity". Journal of High Energy Physics. 2008: 055. ArXiv:0803.2526. Bibcode:2008JHEP...06..055B. Doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2008/06/055. Official website Shiraz Minwalla's articles in the INSPIRE-HEP database
Nima Arkani-Hamed is an Iranian-American-Canadian theoretical physicist of Iranian descent, with interests in high-energy physics, string theory and cosmology. Arkani-Hamed is now on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, director of The Center for Future High Energy Physics in Beijing, China, he was a professor at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley. Arkani-Hamed's parents, Jafargholi "Jafar" Arkani-Hamed and Hamideh Alasti are both physicists from Iran, his father, a native of Tabriz, had worked for the Apollo program in the early 1970s, was chairman of the physics department at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, taught earth and planetary sciences at McGill University in Montreal. Arkani-Hamed immigrated to Canada as a child with his family. Arkani-Hamed graduated at the University of Toronto with a joint honours degree in mathematics and physics in 1993, went to the University of California, for his graduate studies, where he worked under the supervision of Lawrence Hall.
The majority of his graduate work was on studies of flavor physics. His Ph. D. dissertation was titled "Supersymmetry and Hierarchies". He completed his Ph. D. in 1997 and went to SLAC at Stanford University for post-doctoral studies. During this time he worked with Savas Dimopoulos and developed the paradigm of large extra dimensions. In 1999 he joined the faculty of the University of Berkeley physics department, he took a leave of absence from Berkeley to visit Harvard University beginning January 2001. Shortly after arriving at Harvard he worked with Howard Georgi and Andrew Cohen on the idea of emergent extra dimensions, dubbed dimensional deconstruction; these ideas led to the development of little Higgs theories. He joined Harvard's faculty in the fall of 2002. Arkani-Hamed has appeared on various television programs and newspapers talking about space and dimensions and the current state of theoretical physics. In 2003 he won the Gribov Medal of the European Physical Society, in the summer of 2005 while at Harvard he won the Phi Beta Kappa award for teaching excellence.
He appeared in the 2013 documentary film Particle Fever. He participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007. In 2008, he won the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize given at Tel Aviv University to young scientists who have made outstanding and fundamental contributions in Physical Science. Arkani-Hamed was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009. In 2010, he gave. Nima Arkani-Hamed was a professor at Harvard University from 2002–2008, is now at the Institute for Advanced Study. Arkani-Hamed was selected for being a member of The Selection Committee for the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, he is currently an A. D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University. In July 2012, he was an inaugural awardee of the Fundamental Physics Prize, the creation of physicist and internet entrepreneur, Yuri Milner, he has won the Sackler Prize from Tel Aviv University in 2008, the Gribov Medal from the European Physical Society in 2003, the INFN-Pisa Gamberini prize in 1997.
He was awarded the Packard and Sloan Fellowship in 2000. The paradigm of "large extra dimensions":N. Arkani-Hamed. "The Hierarchy Problem and New Dimensions at a Millimeter". Phys. Lett. B. 429: 263–272. ArXiv:hep-ph/9803315. Bibcode:1998PhLB..429..263A. Doi:10.1016/S0370-269300466-3. I. Antoniadis. "New Dimensions at a Millimeter to a Fermi and Superstrings at a TeV". Phys. Lett. B. 436: 257–263. ArXiv:hep-ph/9804398. Bibcode:1998PhLB..436..257A. Doi:10.1016/S0370-269300860-0. N. Arkani-Hamed. "Phenomenology and Cosmology of Theories with Sub-Millimeter Dimensions and TeV Scale Quantum Gravity". Phys. Rev. D. 59: 086004. ArXiv:hep-ph/9807344. Bibcode:1999PhRvD..59h6004A. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.59.086004. Arkani-Hamed, Nima. "The Universe's Unseen Dimensions". Scientific American. 283: 62–69. Bibcode:2000SciAm.283b..62A. Doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0800-62. PMID 10914401. Deconstruction:N. Arkani-Hamed. G. Cohen. "Constructing Dimensions". Phys. Rev. Lett. 86: 4757–4761. ArXiv:hep-th/0104005. Bibcode:2001PhRvL..86.4757A. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.4757.
PMID 11384341. Little Higgs theories:N. Arkani-Hamed. "Electroweak symmetry breaking from dimensional deconstruction". Phys. Lett. B. 513: 232–240. ArXiv:hep-ph/0105239. Bibcode:2001PhLB..513..232A. Doi:10.1016/S0370-269300741-9. N. Arkani-Hamed. G. Cohen. G. Wacker. "Phenomenology of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Theory Space". JHEP. 0208: 020. ArXiv:hep-ph/0202089. Bibcode:2002JHEP...08..020A. Doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2002/08/020. N. Arkani-Hamed. G. Cohen. E. Nelson & J. G. Wacker. "The Minimal Moose for a Little Higgs". JHEP. 0208: 021. ArXiv:hep-ph/0206020. Bibcode:2002JHEP...08..021A. Doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2002/08/021. N. Arkani-Hamed. G. Cohen. E. Nelson. "The Littlest Higgs". JHEP. 0207: 034. ArXiv:hep-ph/0206021. Bibcode:2002JHEP...07..034A. Doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2002/07/034. Ghost condensation:N. Arkani-Hamed. C. Cheng. "Ghost condensation and a consistent infrared modification of gravity". JHEP. 0405: 074. ArXiv:hep-th/0312099. Bibcode:2004JHEP...05..074H. Doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2004/05/074. Split supersymmetry (with Savas Dim
Willy Fischler is a theoretical physicist. He is the Jane and Roland Blumberg Centennial Professor of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is affiliated with the Weinberg theory group, his contributions to physics include: Early computation of the force between heavy quarks. The invisible axion, as a solution to the strong CP problem; the cosmological effects of the invisible axion and its role as a candidate for dark matter. Pioneering work on the use of supersymmetry to solve outstanding problems in the standard model of particle physics; the first formulation of what became known as the "moduli problem in cosmology". The Fischler-Susskind mechanism in string theory; the original formulation of the holographic entropy bound in the context of cosmology. The discovery of M theory, or BFSS Matrix Theory. M theory is an example of a gauge/gravity duality. Black Hole production in colliders, he is a Licensed Paramedic with Marble Falls Area EMS and was a volunteer EMT with the Westlake Fire Department.
Prof. Fischler's homepage Medic MFAEMS
Michael Duff (physicist)
Michael James Duff FRS, FRSA is a British theoretical physicist and pioneering theorist of supergravity, the Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Abdus Salam Chair of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London. Duff completed his Bachelor of Science in Physics Queen Mary College, London in 1969, he went on to his Doctor of Philosophy in theoretical physics in 1972 at Imperial College London supervised by the Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam. He did postdoctoral fellowships at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, King's College London, Queen Mary College London and Brandeis University. After his postdoctoral fellowships, he returned to Imperial College in 1979 on a Science Research Council Advanced Fellowship and joined the faculty there in 1980, he took leave of absence to visit the Theory Division in CERN, first in 1982 and again as a Staff Member from 1984 to 1987 when he became Senior Physicist. He has held Visiting Fellowships at the University of Texas, Austin.
He took up his professorship at Texas A&M University in 1988 and was appointed Distinguished Professor in 1992. In 1999 he moved to the University of Michigan. In 2001, he was elected first Director of the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics and was re-elected in 2004, he returned again to Imperial College and became Professor of Physics and Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences in 2005. He was appointed Abdus Salam Professor of Theoretical Physics in 2006, his interests lie in unified theories of the elementary particles, quantum gravity, Kaluza–Klein theory, supermembranes and M-theory. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and Recipient of the 2004 Meeting Gold Medal, El Colegio Nacional, Mexico, he is the editor of The World in Eleven Dimensions: Supergravity, Supermembranes and M-theory, ISBN 0-7503-0672-6. A collection of notable scientific articles on string theory.
Imperial College faculty page for Duff Michael Duff on INSPIRE-HEP Duff, M. J.. "Recent applications of the Weyl Anomaly". Mathematical Physics. Dr. Prof. M. J. Duff. Prof. Michael Duff presented and published his paper in National Center for Physics in Islamabad, Pakistan. Pp. 90–101. Bibcode:2007maph.conf...90D. Doi:10.1142/9789812770523_0012. ISBN 978-981-270-591-4. Retrieved 17 January 2013
Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich is a Russian and French mathematician. He is a professor at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques and a distinguished professor at the University of Miami, he received the Henri Poincaré Prize in 1997, the Fields Medal in 1998, the Crafoord Prize in 2008, the Shaw Prize and Fundamental Physics Prize in 2012, the Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics in 2014. He was born into the family of Lev Rafailovich Kontsevich, Soviet orientalist and author of the Kontsevich system. After ranking second in the All-Union Mathematics Olympiads, he attended Moscow State University but left without a degree in 1985 to become a researcher at the Institute for Information Transmission Problems in Moscow. While at the institute he published papers that caught the interest of the Max Planck institute in Bonn and was invited for 3 months. Just before the end of his time there, he attended a 5 day international meeting, the Arbeitstagung, where he sketched a proof of the Witten conjecture to the amazement of Michael Atiyah and other mathematicians and his invitation to the institute was subsequently extended to 3 years.
The next year he finished the proof and worked on various topics on mathematical physics and in 1992 received his Ph. D. at the University of Bonn under Don Bernard Zagier. His thesis outlines a proof of a conjecture by Edward Witten that two quantum gravitational models are equivalent, his work concentrates on geometric aspects of mathematical physics, most notably on knot theory and mirror symmetry. One of his results is a formal deformation quantization, he introduced knot invariants defined by complicated integrals analogous to Feynman integrals. In topological field theory, he introduced the moduli space of stable maps, which may be considered a mathematically rigorous formulation of the Feynman integral for topological string theory. In 1998, he won the Fields Medal for his "contributions to four problems of Geometry". In July 2012, he was an inaugural awardee of the Fundamental Physics Prize, the creation of physicist and internet entrepreneur, Yuri Milner. In 2014, he was awarded Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics.
Kontsevich integral Homological mirror symmetry Motivic integration Kontsevich quantization formula Ring of periods Fields Medal citation at the website of the 2002 International Congress of Mathematicians held in Beijing. Taubes, Clifford Henry "The work of Maxim Kontsevich". In Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Vol. I. Doc. Math. Extra Vol. I, 119–126. O'Connor, John J.. "Maxim Kontsevich", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. Maxim Kontsevich at the Mathematics Genealogy Project AMS Profile of Maxim Kontsevich Official Homepage of Maxim Kontsevich Stankova, Zvezdelina. "Pebbling a Chessboard". YouTube: Brady Haran. Retrieved 19 December 2013. Videos of Maxim Konzewitsch in the AV-Portal of the German National Library of Science and Technology