Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and fast tempo. The songs use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work; the lyrics deal with social issues and criticism of The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the fast drum beats and attitude of hardcore with the double bass drumming and heavy, complex guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal, it emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop music–infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. Thrash metal was an inspiration for subsequent extreme genres such as black metal. Thrash metal features fast tempos, low-register, complex guitar riffs, high-register guitar solos and double bass drumming; the genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal.
It emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop-infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. The rhythm guitar parts are played with heavy distortion and palm muted to create a tighter and more precise sound. Vocally, thrash metal can employ anything from melodic singing to shouted vocals. Most guitar solos are played at high speed and technically demanding, as they are characterized by shredding, use advanced techniques such as sweep picking, legato phrasing, alternate picking, tremolo picking, string skipping, two-hand tapping; the guitar riffs use chromatic scales and emphasize the tritone and diminished intervals, instead of using conventional single scale based riffing. For example, the intro riff of Metallica's "Master of Puppets" is a chromatic descent, followed by a chromatic ascent based on the tritone. Speed and time-changes define thrash metal. Thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style.
For example, drummers use two bass drums, or a double-bass pedal, in order to create a relentless, driving beat. Cymbal stops/chokes are used to transition from one riff to another or to precede an acceleration in tempo; some common characteristics of the genre are fast guitar riffs with aggressive picking styles and fast guitar solos, extensive use of two bass drums as opposed to the conventional use of only one, typical of most rock music. To keep up with the other instruments, many bassists use a plectrum. However, some prominent thrash metal bassists have used their fingers, such as Frank Bello, Greg Christian, Steve DiGiorgio, Robert Trujillo and Cliff Burton. Several bassists use a distorted bass tone, an approach popularized by Motörhead's Lemmy. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include warfare, injustice, suicide, alienation and other maladies that afflict the individual and society. In addition, politics pessimism and dissatisfaction towards politics, are common themes among thrash metal bands.
Humor and irony can be found, but they are limited, are exception rather than a rule. Among the earliest songs to be labeled thrash metal was Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy", recorded and released in 1974; the song was described as being thrash metal "before the term had been invented". Black Sabbath's "Symptom of the Universe", released in 1975, was the inspiration for Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?". Since NWOBHM bands directly influenced the development of early thrash; the early work of artists such as Diamond Head, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Motörhead, Tygers of Pan Tang and Angel Witch, among others, introduced the fast-paced instrumentation that became an essential aspect of thrash. Void is hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover, whose chaotic musical approach is cited as influential, their 1982 split LP with fellow Washington band The Faith showed both bands exhibiting quick, high-speed punk rock. It has been argued that those recordings laid the foundation for early thrash metal, at least in terms of selected tempos.
In Europe, the earliest band of the emerging thrash movement was Venom from Newcastle upon Tyne, formed in 1979. Their 1982 album Black Metal has been cited as a major influence on many subsequent genres and bands in the extreme metal world, such as Bathory, Hellhammer and Mayhem; the European scene was exclusively influenced by the most aggressive music Germany and England were producing at the time. British bands such as Tank and Raven, along with German band Accept, motivated musicians from central Europe to start bands of their own producing groups such as Sodom and Destruction from Germany, as well as Switzerland's Coroner; the Swedish punk band Warheads have been described as a proto-thrash band. In 1981, a Southern California band Leather Charm wrote a song entitled "Hit the Lights". Leather Charm soon disbanded and the band's primary songwriter, vocalist/rhythm guitarist James Hetfield met drummer Lars Ulrich through a classified advertisement. Together and Ulrich formed Metallica, the first of the "Big Four" thrash bands, with lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, who would form Megadeth, another of the "Big Four" originators of thrash, bassist Ron McGovney.
Metallica relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area. McGovney was replaced with Cliff Burton, Mustaine was replaced with Kirk Hammett. "Hit the Lights" was featured on th
Shawn Lane was an American musician who released two studio albums and collaborated with a variety of musicians including Ringo Starr, Kris Kristofferson, Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Reggie Young, Joe Walsh, Jonas Hellborg and many others. After studying the piano, he mastered the guitar. Born in Memphis, Lane began playing piano with his sisters at the age of eight, but did not play guitar until he was ten. At age 12–13 he began to practice heavily. At fourteen, he became the lead guitarist for Black Oak Arkansas and alongside members, including drummer Tommy Aldridge, toured over the next four years opening shows for bands including REO Speedwagon, Ted Nugent, Cheap Trick, Molly Hatchet and Blue Öyster Cult. During 1979 Shawn played in The Streets recording studio demos with Andy Tanas on bass, Chris Craig on drums and Jimmy Henderson on guitar securing a deal with Epic Records. At age fifteen Lane saw Allan Holdsworth play guitar with the progressive band U. K. which inspired him to develop his own style of playing guitar.
Lane played in Savage Innocence with singer Jim "Dandy" Mangrum, keyboardist Billy Batte, drummer Chris Craig and bassist Kinley Wolfe who played with The Cult. As the original members dropped out, Lane replaced them with players from his high school days. Lane began to play a style close to jazz fusion. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Lane played in The Willys, a band consisting of singer/keyboardist Sam Bryant, singer/bassist Rob Caudill and his brother, drummer Russ Caudill; the Caudill brothers had played in The Breaks with Susanne Jerome-Taylor. Lane performed in the fusion band Out of Bounds, with Barry Bays and DeGarmo and Key drummer Chuck Reynolds. From age eighteen to twenty-six, Lane studied music, composed music, played piano. In 1983 he became a father to a daughter named Ashley. Much of the material on Lane's first studio album, Powers of Ten, was written on his home piano, he developed his technique on the keyboard as well, taking influence from pianists such as Franz Liszt, Art Tatum and Georges Cziffra.
His demo tapes led Shawn to be sought out by Jim Ed Norman and a recording contract with Warner Bros. Records. Except for one cover song, Lane wrote all the material and played all the instruments on his debut album; the album earned several magazine awards. Following its release in 1992, Guitar Player magazine named him "Best New Talent" and Keyboard Magazine placed him second in the "Best Keyboard Player" category. During the production of the album, Lane continued to do session work. On September 19, 1992, Lane played in Guitar Player Magazine's 25th anniversary concert at Warfield Theatre, San Francisco alongside Steve Morse, John Lee Hooker, Dick Dale, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, Adrian Belew, Ry Cooder and others, he performed on the Mark Varney Project's Centrifugal Funk album along with Brett Garsed, Frank Gambale, Jimmy Earl, T. J. Helmerich. To promote his album, he formed The Powers of Ten band with Barry Bays on bass, keyboardist Doug Scarborough, Todd Bobo on saxophone and drummer Sean Rickman.
Lane released two more solo albums following Powers of Ten. During 1994 Lane met bassist Jonas Hellborg. Lane and Hellborg played with drummer Jeff Sipe in Hellborg, Sipe. Between 1994 and 1995, Lane played with D. D. T. A band consisting of Paul Taylor, Luther Dickinson, Cody Dickinson. Lane developed curricula and taught at several European conservatories, including the American Institute of Music in Vienna with Joey Tafolla and Milan Polak, he wrote columns for Young Guitar Magazine in Japan which were published between February 1995 and 1996. During 1996 he wrote columns for Guitar for the Practicing Musician in their Over the Top series, he co-produced the album Red Reign by Steven Patrick of Holy Soldier. In September 1995, Hellborg and drummer Anders Johansson played with Chinese pop singer Wei Wei and the trio appeared as an opening act at Chinaese venues. Lane played the Warsaw Summer Jazz Days festival on June 19, 1998 with Hellborg and Félix Sabal Lecco. In 1998 he played the guitar solo on Bang a Drum featuring Jon Bon Jovi and Chris LeDoux, reaching number 68 on Hot Country Songs.
During May 1999 he played with drummer Steve Ferrone at the Disma Music show, Italy. He and Hellborg formed an East-West fusion band with Indian musicians V. Selvaganesh and V. Umamahesh. On April 19, 2002, HLS opened for guitarist John Scofield at the Variety Atlanta. While in Memphis, Lane played with the Time Bandits, with singer Regina Parker, steel guitarist Tony Sutton, drummer Steve Sutton, bassist Adam Sutton. In February 2003, Lane and Hellborg toured India with drummer Andrea Marchesini, playing the Great Indian Rock Festival, Hamsadhwani Theatre, Pragati Maiden, New Delhi. Lane played the Swedish Jazz Celebration Festival, Stockholm, on March 29, 2003 with Hellborg, V. Umamahesh, V. Umashankar and Ramakrishnan, his last concert was at Smilefest in North Carolina with Hellborg and Jim Britt on May 31, 2003. The Shawn Lane Memorial Concert was held on August 28, 2005 at the New Daisy Theatre in Memphis, celebrating the life and music of Shawn Lane with Andy Timmons, Jimi Jamison, Lord Tracy, Craig Erickson, Kevin Paige, FreeWorld, Jim "Dandy" Mangrum.
Lane was influenced by many other artists but an important one was Pakistani musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Called "the King of Kings of Qawwali" and popular in Pakistan and Southern Asia, Khan fascinated Lane with his wide vocal
A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. In the 20th and 21st century traditional music and popular music such as blues, jazz, jazz fusion and metal guitar solos contain virtuoso techniques and varying degrees of improvisation. Guitar solos on classical guitar, which are written in musical notation, are used in classical music forms such as chamber music and concertos. Guitar solos range from unaccompanied works for a single guitar to compositions with accompaniment from a few other instruments or a large ensemble; the accompaniment musicians for a guitar solo can range from a small ensemble such as a jazz quartet or a rock band, to a large ensemble such as an orchestra or big band. Unaccompanied acoustic guitar music is found in folk and classical music dating as far back as the instrument has existed, the use of an acoustic guitar as a solo voice within an ensemble dates back at least to the Baroque concerto.
The classical guitar is an acoustical wooden guitar with six strings nylon, as opposed to the metal strings used in acoustic and electric guitars. Classical guitar is played by plucking individual strings with the fingernails or the fingertips. A classical guitar solo concert is called a recital; the most important composer who did not write for the guitar but whose music is played on it is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose baroque lute works have proved adaptable to the instrument. Of music written for guitar, the earliest important composers are from the classical period and include Fernando Sor and Mauro Giuliani, both of whom wrote in a style influenced by Viennese classicism. In the 19th century guitar composers such as Johann Kaspar Mertz were influenced by the dominance of the piano. Not until the end of the nineteenth century did the guitar begin to establish its own unique identity. Francisco Tárrega was central to this, sometimes incorporating stylized aspects of flamenco's Moorish influences into his romantic miniatures.
This was part of late 19th century mainstream European musical nationalism. Albéniz and Granados were central to this movement; some classical guitarists play concertos, which are solos written for performance with the accompaniment of an orchestra. Not many classical guitar concertos have been written, which may be laid to the imbalance between the volume of multi-instrumental orchestra as compared to a single guitar; some guitar concertos are nowadays wide known and popular Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez and Fantasía para un gentilhombre. Composers who wrote well known guitar concertos are: Antonio Vivaldi, Mauro Giuliani, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Manuel Ponce, Leo Brouwer and Lennox Berkeley. In the 2000s, contemporary composers are writing guitar concertos. Composers of the Renaissance period who wrote for four course guitar include Alonso Mudarra, Miguel de Fuenllana, Adrian Le Roy and Guillaume de Morlaye; some well known composers of the baroque guitar were Gaspar Sanz, Robert de Visée and Francesco Corbetta.
From 1780 to 1850, the guitar had numerous composers and performers including: Filippo Gragnani, Antoine de Lhoyer, Ferdinando Carulli, Francesco Molino, Fernando Sor, Mauro Giuliani, Niccolò Paganini, Dionisio Aguado, Luigi Legnani, Matteo Carcassi, Napoléon Coste and Johann Kaspar Mertz. Beginning in the 1920s, guitar soloist Andrés Segovia popularized the guitar with tours and early phonograph recordings. Modern classical guitar solo performers who are known for playing modern repertoire include Leo Brouwer, John Schneider, Reinbert Evers, Maria Kämmerling, Siegfried Behrend, David Starobin, Mats Scheidegger, John Williams, Magnus Andersson. Though guitar solos are used in a wide range of genres, the term "guitar solo" refers to electric guitar solos played in blues and in rock. Unlike acoustic guitars like the classical guitar or steel-string guitar, the electric guitar is played through a guitar amplifier to make the instrument loud enough. Guitar amplifiers have preamplifier and tone controls, in some cases, overdrive controls that modify the tone.
The use of a guitar solo as an instrumental interlude was developed by blues musicians such as John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters, T-Bone Walker, jazz like Charlie Christian. Ernest Tubb's 1940 honky tonk classic, Walking the Floor over You was the first "hit" recording to feature and highlight a solo by a standard electric guitar–though earlier hits featured electric lap steel guitars. Blues master Lonnie Johnson had recorded at least one electric guitar solo, but his innovation was neither much noted nor influential. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, J
Powers of Ten (album)
Powers of Ten is the first studio album by guitarist Shawn Lane, released in 1992 through Warner Bros. Records. In a 2009 article by Guitar World magazine, the album was ranked seventh on the all-time top ten list of shred albums. Jas Obrecht at Guitar Player praised Powers of Ten as "a solo album in the truest sense.... The immaculate articulations of "Gray Pianos Flying" will awe shred-heads, while "Epilogue... displays the guitarist's more tender side."Daniel Gioffre at AllMusic describing the album as "uneven and frustrating". Among his criticisms were the lack of a full band, the "egregious misstep" of using programmed drums, the "long and meandering" keyboard pieces "Powers of Ten: Suite" and "Piano Concertino: Transformation of Themes", he nonetheless called most of the songs "pleasant enough" and praised Lane as a "phenomenally talented" guitarist and musician. All music composed except where noted. Shawn Lane – guitar, drum programming, arrangement, mixing, production Sean Rickman – drums Barry Bays – bass Bil VornDick – mixing Linel – mixing assistance Andy Johns – engineering, production Richard Landers – engineering assistance, mixing assistance Rail Rogut – engineering, digital editing Bruce Dees – digital editing Michael Patterson – digital editing Denny Purcell – mastering Bernie Grundman – mastering
Paul Brandon Gilbert, is an American hard rock/heavy metal guitarist. He is best known for being the co-founder of the band Mr. Big, he was a member of Racer X, with whom he released several albums. In 1996, Gilbert launched a solo career, for which he has released numerous solo albums, featured in numerous collaborations and guest appearances on other musicians' albums. Gilbert has been voted fourth-best on GuitarOne magazine's "Top 10 Greatest Guitar Shredders of All Time", he has ranked in Guitar World's "50 Fastest Guitarists of All Time" list. Gilbert was raised in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, he began playing music at age five. Around 1981, Gilbert first contacted Mike Varney, asking for a gig with metal mega-star Ozzy Osbourne. At the time, Varney couldn't think, they continued talking over the next 3 years, culminating in Gilbert's 1984 cross-country move to Los Angeles to attend the GIT. At the young age of 17, Gilbert became a local legend due to his advanced alternate picking technique, record-breaking speed, his young age, his massive repertoire of cover material.
He was hired as a GIT instructor in 1985, recorded Racer X's debut album Street Lethal soon after. Formed in Los Angeles in 1985, Racer X was composed of Paul Gilbert, Juan Alderete, Harry Gschoesser, Jeff Martin, they were influenced by Judas Priest, Gilbert's playing was reminiscent of Yngwie Malmsteen, displaying fast-driven solos with extreme-level technique. Gschoesser was replaced by Scott Travis in 1986, Bruce Bouillet, one of Gilbert's private students at GIT, was added as a second guitarist after demonstrating an ability to harmonize Gilbert's string skipping sequences. Gilbert gained recognition as one of the world's fastest guitarists due to technical pieces like "Technical Difficulties", "Frenzy", "Scarified", "Y. R. O." and "Scit Scat Wah". Around this time, Gilbert recorded his first instructional video, Intense Rock, in which he demonstrated a number of his famous techniques and practice regimens in detail. Throughout his career he would go on to release many more instructional videos.
Racer X toured the American southwest the state of California, would sell out thousand-seat venues. Despite their rigorous fan base, the band did not have prospects for a major label deal and Gilbert became disinterested. In 1987, he was approached by Talas bassist Billy Sheehan, one of his biggest influences, about forming a band that would become Mr. Big. Gilbert reformed it after the 1996 breakup of Mr. Big. Paul contacted the members of Racer X, all agreed to return with the exception of Bruce Bouillet, who could play guitar at the time due to a severe bout of carpal tunnel syndrome. In mid-1999, the band recorded the album Technical Difficulties. Racer X's new record label requested a follow-up. To further capitalize on their new-found success in Japan, Universal Japan requested that the band perform for a live-album CD and DVD. On May 25, 2001, the band played their first live performance in thirteen years, to a sold-out crowd, at the world-famous "The Whisky" in Los Angeles; the resulting CD and DVD were released in 2002 under the title Snowball of Doom.
In January 2002, in support of Superheroes and Snowball of Doom, Racer X toured Taiwan. The band performed these shows in their Superheroes costumes; the tour's final show, in Yokohama, was hastily recorded in two tracks on the sound board and released as Snowball of Doom 2. That year, Universal Japan pushed for another Racer X release. In October 2002, all four members of Racer X gathered at Gilbert's house in Las Vegas to record Getting Heavier, sold alongside Snowball of Doom 2 in a package deal. Although the album was a successful release in Japan, some fans were disappointed with the lighter tracks, which resembled a Paul Gilbert solo album more than a conventional Racer X album. Racer X performed at the 2009 NAMM show at the Anaheim Convention Center in California. Andy Timmons and his band opened the show, followed by a solo set from Paul Gilbert, Racer X; the Racer X lineup consisted of Scott Travis, Jeff Martin and John Alderete. When bass guitarist Billy Sheehan left David Lee Roth's solo band in 1988, he and Gilbert co-founded Mr. Big which included Pat Torpey on drums and Eric Martin on vocals.
The band was successful in Japan, but achieved international stardom with the 1991 release of their second studio album Lean into It. This album featured the acoustic ballad "To Be with You" which received strong play on radio stations and MTV, rising to #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. Mr. Big broke up in 1996; when Mr. Big reformed soon after, committed to his own record contract, was replaced by Richie Kotzen. Mr. Big disbanded again in 2002, but Gilbert reunited the original members in June 2009 for a worldwide reunion tour; the band recorded a new album with producer Kevin Shirley titled What If.... The album was released in Japan on Dec. 2010, in Europe on Jan.. 21st, 2011 and in the U. S. in Feb. 2011. A tour to support the album kicked off at the Holly
Jazz fusion is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined jazz harmony and improvisation with rock music and rhythm and blues. Electric guitars and keyboards that were popular in rock and roll started to be used by jazz musicians those who had grown up listening to rock and roll. Jazz fusion arrangements vary in complexity; some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a single key or a single chord with a simple, repeated melody. Others use elaborate chord progressions, unconventional time signatures, or melodies with counter-melodies; these arrangements, whether simple or complex include improvised sections that can vary in length, much like in other form of jazz. As with jazz, jazz fusion employs brass and woodwind instruments such as trumpet and saxophone, but other instruments substitute for these. A jazz fusion band is less to use piano, double bass, drums, more to use electric guitar, bass guitar, drums; the term "jazz rock" is sometimes used as a synonym for "jazz fusion" and for music performed by late 1960s and 1970s-era rock bands that added jazz elements to their music.
After a decade of popularity during the 1970s, fusion expanded its improvisatory and experimental approaches through the 1980s in parallel with the development of a radio-friendly style called smooth jazz. Experimentation continued in the 2000s. Fusion albums those that are made by the same group or artist, may include a variety of musical styles. Rather than being a codified musical style, fusion can be viewed as approach. In 1967 John Coltrane died, because rock was the most popular genre of music in America, DownBeat magazine declared in a headline that "Jazz as We Know It Is Dead". Guitarist Larry Coryell, sometimes called the godfather of fusion, referred to a generation of musicians who had grown up on rock and roll when he said, "We loved Miles but we loved the Rolling Stones." In 1966 he started the band the Free Spirits with Bob Moses on drums and recorded the band's first album. Out of Sight and Sound was released in 1967, the same year DownBeat began to report on rock music. After the Free Spirits, Coryell was part of a quartet led by vibraphonist Gary Burton, releasing the album Duster with its rock guitar influence.
Burton produced the album Tomorrow Never Knows for Count's Rock Band, which included Coryell, Mike Nock, Steve Marcus, all of them former students at Berklee College in Boston. The pioneers of fusion emphasized exploration, electricity, intensity and volume. Charles Lloyd played a combination of rock and jazz at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1966 with a quartet that included Keith Jarrett and Jack DeJohnette. Lloyd adopted the trappings of the California psychedelic rock scene by playing at the rock venue the Fillmore, wearing colorful clothes, giving his albums titles like Dream Weaver and Forest Flower, which were bestselling jazz albums in 1967. Flautist Jeremy Steig experimented with jazz in his band Jeremy & the Satyrs with vibraphonist Mike Mainieri; the jazz label Verve released the first album by rock guitarist Frank Zappa in 1966. Rahsaan Roland Kirk performed with Jimi Hendrix at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London. AllMusic states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly separate".
As members of Miles Davis's band, Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock played electric piano on Filles de Kilimanjaro. Davis wrote in his autobiography that in 1968 he had been listening to Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Sly and the Family Stone; when Davis recorded Bitches Brew in 1969, he abandoned the swing beat in favor of a rock and roll backbeat and bass guitar grooves. The album "mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion." Davis played his trumpet like an electric guitar -- pedals. By the end of the first year, Bitches Brew sold 400,000 copies, four times the average for a Miles Davis album. Over the next two years the aloof Davis recorded more worked with many sideman, appeared on television, performed at rock venues. Just as Davis tested the loyalty of rock fans by continuing to experiment, his producer, Teo Macero, inserted recorded material into the Jack Johnson soundtrack, Live-Evil, On the Corner. Although Bitches Brew gave him a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created consternation among some jazz critics, who accused Davis of betraying the essence of jazz.
Music critic Kevin Fellezs commented that some members of the jazz community regarded rock music as less sophisticated and more commercial than jazz. Davis's 1969 album In a Silent Way is considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long improvised suites edited by Teo Macero, the album was made by pioneers of jazz fusion: Corea, Wayne Shorter, Joe Zawinul, John McLaughlin. A Tribute to Jack Johnson has been cited as "the purest electric jazz record made" and "one of the most remarkable jazz rock discs of the era". According to music journalist Zaid Mudhaffer, the term "jazz fusion" was coined in a review of Song of Innocence by David Axelrod when it was released in 1968. Axelrod said. Miles Davis dropped out of music in 1975 because of problems with drugs and alcohol, but his sidemen took advantage of the creative and financial vistas, opened. Herbie Hancock brought elements of funk and electronic music into commercially successful albums such as Head Hunters and Feets, Don't Fail Me Now.
Several years after recording Miles in the Sky with Davis, guitarist George Benson becam
Tapping is a guitar playing technique where a string is fretted and set into vibration as part of a single motion of being tapped onto the fretboard, with either hand, as opposed to the standard technique of fretting with one hand and picking with the other. Tapped passages incorporate the techniques of hammer-on and pull-off, but with both hands freed to produce notes; some players rely extensively or on tapping. Tapping is called tap style, touch-style, two-handed tapping. Tapping is the primary technique intended for some instruments such as the Chapman Stick, is the alternative method for the Warr Guitar and others. Tapping is an extended technique, executed by using either hand to'tap' the strings against the fingerboard, thus producing legato notes. Tapping incorporates pull-offs or hammer-ons. For example, a right-handed guitarist might press down abruptly onto fret twelve with the index finger of the right hand and, in the motion of removing that finger, pluck the same string fretted at the eighth fret by the little finger of their left hand.
This finger would be removed in the same way. Thus the three notes are played in quick succession at relative ease to the player. While tapping is most observed on electric guitar, it may apply to any string instrument, several instruments have been created to use the method; the Bunker Touch-Guitar is designed for the technique, but with an elbow rest to hold the right arm in the conventional guitar position. The Chapman Stick is an instrument designed for tapping, is based on the Free Hands two-handed tapping method invented by Chapman in 1969 where each hand approaches the fretboard with the fingers aligned parallel to the frets; the Hamatar, Mobius Megatar, Box Guitar, Solene instruments were designed for the same method. The NS/Stick and Warr Guitar are built for tapping, though not exclusively; the harpejji is a tapping instrument, played on a stand, like a keyboard, with fingers parallel to the strings rather than perpendicular. All of these instruments use string tensions less than a standard guitar, low action to increase the strings' sensitivity to lighter tapping.
Some guitarists may choose to tap using the sharp edge of their pick instead of fingers to produce a faster, more rigid flurry of notes closer to that of trilling, with a technique known as pick tapping. Guitarist John "5" Lowery has been known to use it, has nicknamed it a "Spider-Tap". Tapping has existed in another for centuries. Niccolò Paganini used similar techniques on the violin, striking the string with a bouncing bow articulated by left-hand pizzicato. Paganini considered himself a better guitarist than violinist, in fact wrote several compositions for guitar, most famously the "Grand Sonata for Violin and Guitar." His guitar compositions are performed in modern times, though his violin compositions enjoy multiple performances. Some musicologists believe he wrote his 37 violin sonatas on guitar and transcribed them for violin. Well known to frequent taverns, Paganini was exposed to gypsy guitar techniques from Romani, "gypsies." He preferred playing his guitar for tavern customers instead of audiences.
Similar to two-hand tapping, selpe technique is used in Turkish folk music on the instrument called the bağlama. Tapping techniques and solos on various stringed acoustic instruments such as the banjo have been documented in film and performances throughout the early 20th century. Various musicians have been suggested as the originators of modern two-hand tapping. While one of the earliest players known to use the technique was Roy Smeck, electric pickup designer Harry DeArmond developed a two-handed method as a way of demonstrating the sensitivity of his pickups, his friend Jimmie Webster, a designer and demonstrator for Gretsch Guitars, made recordings in the 1950s using DeArmond's technique, which he described in the instructional book Touch Method for Electric and Amplified Spanish Guitar, published in 1952. Vittorio Camardese developed his own two-handed tapping in the early 1960s, demonstrated it in 1965 during an Italian television show. Tapping was employed by many 1950s and 1960s jazz guitarists such as Barney Kessel, an early supporter of Emmett Chapman.
In August 1969, Chapman developed a new way of two-handed tapping with both hands held perpendicular to the neck from opposite sides, thus enabling equal counterpoint capabilities for each hand. To maximize the technique, Chapman designed a 9-string long-scale electric guitar which he called "the Electric Stick", the most popular dedicated tapping instrument. Chapman's style aligns the right-hand fingers parallel to the frets, as on the left hand, but from the opposite side of the neck, his discovery led to complete counterpoint capability, a new instrument, the Chapman Stick, to his "Free Hands" method. Chapman influenced several tapping guitarists, including Steve Lynch of the band Autograph, Jennifer Batten; the tapping technique began to be taken up by blues guitarists in the late 1960s. One of the earliest such players was Canned Heat guitarist Harvey Mandel, whom Ritchie Blackmore claims to have seen using tapping onstage as early as 1968 at the Whisky a Go Go. George Lynch has corroborated this, mentioning that both he and Edward Van Halen saw Mandel employ "a neo-classic tapping thing" at the Starwood in West Hollywood during the 1970s.
Mandel would use extensive two-handed t