A stage weight or brace weight is a heavy object used in a theatre to provide stability to a brace supporting objects such as scenery or to stabilize items such as lighting stands
Socapex is a brand of electrical connectors, known in the entertainment industry for their 19-pin electrical connectors known as Socapex connectors, used in film and stage lighting to terminate the ends of a multicable. They are wired with six hot/live pins, six neutral pins, six ground/earth pins, a final central pin used to aid alignment of the male end of the connector with a female receptacle; the Socapex was first created by a company called Socapex in 1961, which on became Amphenol Socapex. "Socapex" became a brand name owned by Amphenol Socapex, the term is now applied to similar off-brand connectors as a genericized trademark. "Breakouts" are used to connect fixtures to the cable. The breakout consists of a male Socapex connector with six "tails" with female parallel blade receptacle, stage pin connector, IEC 60309 16 A, NEMA L5-20P'twist-lock', BS 546 15 A or Schuko connectors, according to the standards of the region in which the assembly is being used. A "breakin" is the opposite, consisting of "tails" with male Parallel Blade, stage pin connectors, IEC 60309 16 A, NEMA L5-20R'twist-lock', BS 546 or Schuko connectors feeding a female socapex connector.
These are used to connect Socapex cables to dimmer packs. Some fixtures and assemblies containing several lamps, such as PARbars may use a panel mounted Socapex connector to avoid the need for a separate breakout, many such fixtures incorporate a female Socapex connector to allow further similar fixtures to be chained from the same supply. Amphenol Socapex is still selling the original Socapex; these connectors are not keyed to prevent insertion into a circuit with the wrong voltage, or to prevent insertion of audio cables on power circuits. Official Socapex Website
Video design or projection design is a creative field of stagecraft. It is concerned with the creation and integration of film, motion graphics and live camera feed into the fields of theatre, dance, fashion shows and other live events. Video design has only gained recognition as a separate creative field. Prior to this, the responsibilities of video design would be taken on by a scenic designer or lighting designer. A person who practices the art of video design is known as a Video Designer. However, naming conventions vary around the world, so practitioners may be credited as Projection Designer, "Media Designer", Cinematographer or Video Director; as a new field of stagecraft, practitioners create their own definitions and techniques. Filmmaking and video production content has been used in performance for many years, as has large format slide projection delivered by systems such as the PANI projector; the German Erwin Piscator, as stage director at the Berlin Volksbühne in the 1920s, made extensive use of film projected onto his sets.
However, the development of digital projection technology in the mid 90s, the resulting drop in price, made it more attractive and practical to live performance producers and scenic designers. The role of the video designer has developed as a response to this, in recognition of the demand in the industry for experienced professionals to handle the video content of a production. United Scenic Artists' Local 829, the Union representing Scenic Artists in the USA has included "Projection Designers" as of mid- 2007; this means anybody working in this field will be doing so as "Projection Designer" if he or she is working under a union contract if the design utilises technology other than video projectors. The term "Projection Designer" stems from the days when slide and film projectors were the primary source of projection and is now in wide use across North America. MA Digital Theatre, University of the Arts London is the first Master's level course in the UK designed to teach video design as a specific discipline, rather than embedding it into scenic design.
Opera Academy Verona has a Workshop Laboratory from 2009 of Projection Design for Opera and Theatre, Directed from Carlo Saleti, Gianfranco Veneruci and Florian CANGA. In the USA, a number of programs started at about the same time reflecting the growing acceptance of the profession and the need for skilled projection designers. Yale University began a graduate level program in Projection Design in 2010. It's being headed by Wendall K. Harrington. CalArts had their concentration Video For Performance since the mid-2000s and is led by Peter Flaherty while UT Austin started the MFA concentration Integrated Media for Live Performance in 2010, it is being led by the Sven Ortel. Both the UT Austin and Yale program are part of an MFA in Design and graduated their first students in 2013. Depending on the production, due to the crossover of this field with the fields of lighting design and scenic design, a video designer's roles and responsibilities may vary from show to show. A video designer may take responsibility for all of the following.
The overall conceptual design of the video content to be included in the piece, including working with the other members of the production team to ensure that the video content is integrated with the other design areas. The creation of this video content using 2D and 3D animation, motion graphics, stop motion animation, filming or any other method; the management of live cameras, their signal and how it is used on stage as part of the design. The direction, lighting and/or cinematography of any film clips included in the piece; the design of the technical system to deliver the video content, including the specification of video projectors, LED displays and control systems, cabling routes and rigging positions for optimal video effects. The management of the budget allocated to video, including the sourcing of display technologies and control technologies, their delivery and insurance; this is a wide skills base, it is not uncommon for a video designer to work with associates or assistants who can take responsibility for certain areas.
For example, a video designer may conceptually design the video content, but hire a skilled animator to create it, a programmer to program the control system, a production engineer to designer and engineer the control system and a projectionist to choose the optimum projection positions and maintain the equipment. Concert video design is a niche of the filmmaking and video production industry that involves the creation of original video content intended explicitly for display during a live concert performance; the creation of visuals for live music performances bears close resemblance to music videos, but are meant to be displayed as'backplate' imagery that adds a visual component to the music performed onstage. However, as the use of video content during musical performances has grown in popularity since the turn of the 21st century, it has become more common to have self-standing'introductory' and'interstitial' videos that play on screen on stage without the performers; these pieces may include footage of the artist or artists, shot for the video, presented onstage with pre-recorded music so that the final appearance is a music video.
Such stand-alone videos, are only viewed in this live setting and may include additional theatrical sound effects. The earliest concert video visuals date to the period of the late 1960s when concerts for artists such as Jimi Hendrix and The Doors featured psychedelic imagery on projection screens suspended behind the performers. L
In theaters, a batten is a long metal pipe suspended above the stage or audience from which lighting fixtures, theatrical scenery, theater drapes and stage curtains may be hung. Battens that are located above a stage can be lowered to the stage or raised into a fly tower above the stage by a fly system. An electric is a batten that incorporates electrical cables above the pipe enclosed in a raceway, it has power cables for lights and DMX512 data cable for lighting control, may have audio cables for microphones. The cables emerge from one end of the batten and continue through a snake to dimmers, control boards, or patchbays. All cable plugs have identifying numbers printed on them so that they can be referenced by the lighting control system. Loaded electrics are among the heaviest types of battens weighing more than a thousand pounds. Electrics will employ large loops of spring steel that extend outward to prevent adjacent battens from colliding with and damaging the lighting instruments. Electrics have an established trim height so that focusing is consistent.
In some theaters where battens are close together, a heat-resistant fabric is attached to the front of the electric to prevent heat from the lighting instruments from damaging nearby flown objects. A drapery pipe may support tormentor legs, borders, or tabs. Stage-width drapes can be heavy, weighing hundreds of pounds the front curtain. Legs or borders are lighter as they may use less fabric and are not very thick and sewn without fullness. Many theaters have built in shells designed to reflect sound produced on stage back into the audience; these shells include large folding panels which can be flown in. Elements of the set which are flat or light can be flown in on battens; some theatres use spare battens to store unneeded lighting instruments. This practice is discouraged due to the hazard created by overhead storage; some theaters do not employ this system, instead use a static network of pipes accessible from catwalks above the stage. This is sometime considered a safer approach, as there is less chance of pipe accidentally "running" in or out, but it forces electricians and audio engineers to carry equipment or scenery to the pipes via ladders, lifts, or ropes.
Rig Fly system Fly captain Holloway, John. Illustrated Theatre Production Guide. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 978-0-240-81204-5. Retrieved 11 April 2011
A gobo is a stencil or template placed inside or in front of a light source to control the shape of the emitted light. Lighting designers use them with stage lighting instruments to manipulate the shape of the light cast over a space or object—for example to produce a pattern of leaves on a stage floor. Sources The term "gobo" has come to sometimes refer to any device that produces patterns of light and shadow, various pieces of equipment that go before a light. In theatrical lighting, the term more refers to a device placed in'the gate' or at the'point of focus' between the light source and the lenses; this placement is important because it produces design. Gobos placed after the optics do not produce a finely focused image, are more called "flags" or "cucoloris"; the exact derivation of gobo is unclear. It is cited by some lighting professionals as "goes before optics" or, less "goes between optics". An alternative explanation is "graphical optical black out." The term is traced back to the 1930s, originated in reference to a screen or sheet of sound-absorbent material for shielding a microphone from sounds coming from a particular direction, with no application to optics.
The treatment of the word as an acronym is recent and ignores the original definition in favor of popular invention. There are many online examples of acoustic gobos; the word most is a derivative of "goes between." Gobos are used with projectors and simpler light sources to create lighting scenes in theatrical applications. Simple gobos, incorporated into automated lighting systems, are popular at nightclubs and other musical venues to create moving shapes. Gobos may be used for architectural lighting, as well as in interior design, as in projecting a company logo on a wall. Gobos are made of various materials. Common types include steel and plastic. Steel gobos or metal gobos use a metal template from; these are the most sturdy, but require modifications to the original design—called bridging—to display correctly. To represent the letter "O" for example, requires small tabs or bridges to support the opaque center of the letter; these can be visible in the projected image. Glass gobos are made from clear glass with a partial mirror coating to block the light and produce "black" areas in the projected image.
This accommodates more intricate images. Glass gobos can include colored areas, whether by multiple layers of dichroic glass glued on an aluminium or chrome coated black and white gobo, or by newer technologies that vary the thickness of the dichroic coating in a controlled way on a single piece of glass—which makes it possible to turn a color photo into a glass gobo. Glass gobos offer the highest image fidelity, but are the most fragile. Glass gobos are created with laser ablation or photo etching. Plastic gobos or Transparency gobos can be used in LED ellipsoidal spotlights; these "LED Only" plastic gobos are far less delicate. They are new to the market, as are LED lights, their durability and effectiveness vary between brands. In the past, plastic gobos were custom made for when a pattern requires color and glass does not suffice. However, in a "traditional" light fixture, the focus point position of a gobo is hot, so these thin plastic films require special cooling elements to prevent melting.
A lapse in the cooling apparatus for seconds, can ruin a plastic a gobo in a tungsten-halogen lighting instrument. Theatrical and photographic supply companies manufacture many complex stock patterns, they can produce custom gobos from customer artwork. A lighting designer chooses a pattern from a manufacturer's catalog; because of the large number of gobos available, they are referred to by number, not name. Lighting technicians can hand cut custom gobos out of sheet metal stock, or aluminum pie tins. Gobos are used in weddings and corporate events, they can project the couple's names, or just about any artwork. Some companies can turn a custom gobo out in as little as a week. Designers use "stock" gobo patterns for these events—for example for projecting stars or leaves onto the ceiling; the gobo is placed in the focal plane of the lantern. The gobo is inserted back-to-front; the lighting instrument inverts the projected image. The term "gobo" is used to describe black panels of different sizes or shapes placed between a light source and photographic subject to control the modeling effect of the existing light.
It is the opposite of a photographer using a "reflector" to redirect light into a shadow, "additive" lighting and most used. Use of a gobo subtracts light from a portion of an overall shaded subject and creates a contrast between one side of the face and another, it allows the photographer to expose with wider open apertures giving soft natural transitions between the sharp subject and unsharp background, called bokeh. Bat-Signal
Intelligent lighting refers to stage lighting that has automated or mechanical abilities beyond those of traditional, stationary illumination. Although the most advanced intelligent lights can produce extraordinarily complex effects, the intelligence lies with the designer of the control system rather than the programmer of the show or the lighting operator. For this reason, intelligent lighting is known as automated lighting, moving lights or moving heads. There are many patents for intelligent lighting dating back from 1906, with Edmond Sohlberg of Kansas City, USA; the lantern used a carbon-arc bulb and was operated not by motors or any form of electronics, but by cords that were operated manually to control pan and zoom. 1925 saw the first use of electrical motors to move the fixture, with it the beam position, by Herbet F. King. In 1936 US patent number 2,054,224 was granted to a similar device, with which the pan and tilt were controlled by means of a joystick as opposed to switches. From this point on until 1969, various other inventors made similar lights and improved on the technology, but with no major breakthroughs.
During this period, Century Lighting started retailing such units specially made to order, retrofitted onto any of their existing lanterns up to 750 W to control pan and tilt. George Izenour made the next breakthrough in 1969 with the first fixture to use a mirror on the end of an ellipsoidal to redirect the beam of light remotely. In 1969, Jules Fisher, from Casa Mañana area theatre in Texas saw the invention and use of 12 PAR 64 lanterns with 120 W, 12 V lamps fitted, 360 degrees of pan and 270 degrees of tilt, a standard that lasted until the 1990s; this lamp was known as the'Mac-Spot' In Bristol in 1968, progress was being made for use in live music. Peter Wynne Wilson refers to the use of 1 kW profiles, with slides onto which gobos were printed, inserted from a reel just like on a slide projector; the fixtures had an iris, a multiple coloured gel wheel. These lights were fitted with mirrors and made for an impressive light show for a Pink Floyd Gig in London. Another fixture known as the'Cycklops' was used for music in the USA, although it was limited in terms of capabilities.
With only pan and color functions, at 1.2 meters long and weighing in at 97 kilograms including the ballast, they were heavy and cumbersome. These units were designed more for replacing the unreliable local spotlight operators. In 1978 a Dallas, Texas-based lighting and sound company called Showco began developing a lighting fixture that changed color by rotating dichroic filters. During its development, the designers decided to add motors to motorize pan and tilt, they demonstrated the fixture for the band Genesis in a barn in England in 1980. The band decided to financially back the project. Showco spun off their lighting project into a company called Vari-Lite, the first fixture was called the Vari-lite, it used one of the first lighting desks with a digital core and this enabled lighting states to be programmed in. Genesis was to order 55 Vari-lites to use in their next chain of gigs across the UK; the lights were supplied with a Vari-Lite console which had 32 channels, five 1802 processors and a dramatic improvement of the first console, simple and had an external processing unit.
In 1986 Vari-Lite introduced a new series of lighting fixtures and control consoles. They referred to the new system as their Series 200, with the new lights designated "VL-2 Spot Luminaire", "VL-3 Wash Luminaire"; the Series 200 system was controlled by the Artisan console. Vari-Lite retroactively named the original system "series-100"; the Original Vari-Lite console was retroactively named the "series 100 console" and the original Vari-Lite was retroactively named the "VL-1 Spot Luminaire". The prototype fixture shown to Genesis in 1980 was re-designated the "VL-zero" in the mid-1990s to keep the naming consistent. In 1985, the first moving head to use the DMX protocol was produced by Summa Technologies. Up until that time, moving lights were using other communication protocols, such as DIN8, AMX, D54 and the proprietary protocols of other companies, such as VariLite, High End and Coemar; the Summa HTI had a 250 W HTI bulb, two colour wheels, a gobo wheel, a mechanical dimmer and zoom functions.
The first purchasable/mass-produced scanner was the Coemar Robot, first produced in 1986. Produced with either the GE MARC350 lamp, or the Philips SN250. Versions were factory equipped with the Osram HTI400, a modification that High End Systems had been doing since 1987; the Robot used model aircraft servo motors to control Pan, Tilt and Gobo, with the gobo wheel providing the shutter function as well. The Color wheel had 4 dichroic color filters, the gobo wheel contained 4 stamped patterns; the Robot communicated with a proprietary 8bit protocol, yet had no microprocessors/pal's/pics/ram, O/S or other modern logic device. In 1987, Clay Paky began producing their first scanners, the Golden Scan 1 & Crystal Scan, they utilized stepper motors instead of servos and used a HMI 575 lamp and with a far more uniform beam brightness. This was followed by the Intellabeam in 1989, released by High End, who, at the time were the Distributors for Clay Paky. In the 1990s, the future came closer with Martin, a Danish Company that produced fog machines.
They began to manufacture a line of scanners known as Roboscans, with a variety of different specifications for different users. They were named for their wattages, with a range starting with 1004 and 1016. Came the 804 and 805, designed for small venues. Other models were the 218, 518, 812, 918 and 1200Pro units. Martin al