Waramanga, Australian Capital Territory
Waramanga is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia located in the district of Weston Creek. Waramanga was established in the late 1960s and was named after the Aboriginal tribe of Central Australia known as the Warumungu people; the Weston Creek district was part of Yarralumla Station, a 40,000 acre property dating back to 1828. It was resumed by the Commonwealth in 1913 from Frederick Campbell who bought the property in 1881. In 1920 9,000 acres of the Woden Valley, including the Weston Creek district, were subdivided for soldier settlement leases. A 1950s map of the district shows four paddocks, Weston paddock, Track paddock, Brown Hill paddock and Oakey Hill paddock intersecting the area, now the suburb of Waramanga. Long Gully Road ran through the suburb and the nearest homestead was Cooleman on the Kambah Road just west of the present suburb of Fisher. Cooleman was farmed by the Champion family from about 1932, it was known as Allawah and was leased to the Anderson family in 1920.
Other properties in the district were Avondale and Weston whose homesteads were in the present suburb of Holder, Yamba in the suburb of Phillip and Iloura and Yarra Glen in the suburb of Curtin. In June 1968 the suburb of Waramanga was gazetted; the bushfire which engulfed parts of Canberra on 18 January 2003 flowed out of Mount Taylor Nature Reserve and reached the eastern boundary of the suburb at Badimara Street where it was slowed by residents and stopped by a contrary wind. For more information about the bushfire see Canberra bushfires of 2003. At the 2016 census, Waramanga had a population of 2,629 people. Waramanga residents had a median age of 40 compared to a Canberra median of 35; the median weekly personal income for people aged 15 years was A$991 a week, compared to a Canberra wide figure of $998 and an Australia wide figure of $662. The population of Waramanga is predominantly Australian-born, 73.9% of people being born in Australia. With 3.9% of the population, the second most common birthplace is the England.
Accommodation is separate houses, with semi detached, row or terrace houses and townhouses comprising 20.2%. Waramanga is located in the federal House of Representatives electorate of Canberra. Covering the southside of Canberra and southern ACT, the electorate of Canberra is represented by Gai Brodtmann of the Australian Labor Party; the two federal electorates in the ACT are safe or safe ALP seats. Waramanga is located in the ACT Legislative Assembly electorate of Murrumbidgee. Covering Woden Valley, Weston Creek and the Molonglo Valley, the electorate of Murrumbidgee is represented by two Australian Labor Party members, two Liberal Party members and one ACT Greens member. Deakin Volcanics green grey and purple rhyodacite with spherulitic texture fill up Warramanga from beneath. Waramanga has a busy local shopping centre located on the corner of Damala Street and Waramanga Place; the centre contains a supermarket, Malaysian restaurant, beauty salon, newsagency, medical centre and postal agency.
Government schoolsWaramanga Preschool located on Nemarang Crescent. Arawang Primary located on Nemarang Crescent. Stromlo High on the corner of Badimara Street and Namatjira Drive. Non-government schools and collegesSt John Vianney Primary located in Namatjira Drive. Alliance College of Australia located in Namatjira Drive. St John Vianney Parish Centre of the Catholic Church in Australia located in Namatjira Drive. Woden Valley Alliance Church of the Christian and Missionary Alliance located in Namatjira Drive. Canberra Korean Manse of the Uniting Church in Australia located in Badimara Street. Weston Creek Veterinary Hospital located in Badimara Street. Waramanga Medical Centre located in the shopping centre on the corner of Damala Street and Waramanga Place. ACTION Buses run regular services to Waramanga every hour, or every half-hour in peak periods. Route 27 services most of Waramanga, on its way between the nearest major bus interchange at Woden Town Centre and the Weston Creek Centre. Route 927 provides an evening service but a seat must be booked.
Route 227 provides a more direct service to Civic during rush hours. No other public transportation is available, apart from taxis. Waramanga has extensive open spaces with playing fields on the western side of the suburb, several neighbourhood parks and pedestrian parkland along the ridge in the centre of the suburb. Waramanga is adjacent to Mount Taylor Nature Reserve, part of Canberra Nature Park with grassland and hillside walking tracks and sweeping views across Woden and Tuggeranong Valleys. Weston Creek Community Council Canberra history
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers; the course 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, earth, pass through woodlands and open country, include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both a team sport. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, which takes place during autumn and winter, can include weather conditions of rain, snow or hail, a wide range of temperatures. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics, is a natural terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain; the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships.
Cross country courses are laid out on an woodland area. The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, have rolling terrain with frequent but smooth turns. Courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and across rivers, it includes running down and up hills. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, not desirable. Part of cross country running's appeal is the distinct characteristics of each venue's terrain and weather, as in other outdoor sports like motor racing and golf. According to the IAAF, an ideal cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land, it should be covered by grass, as much as possible, include rolling hills "with smooth curves and short straights". While it is acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths.
Parks and golf courses provide suitable locations. While a course may include natural or artificial obstacles, cross country courses support continuous running, do not require climbing over high barriers, through deep ditches, or fighting through the underbrush, as do military-style assault courses. A course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race. Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, spectators from interfering with the competition. Markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones; some classes use colored flags to indicate directions: red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, blue flags to continue straight or stay within ten feet of the flag. Courses commonly include distance markings at each kilometer or each mile; the course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact and congestion at the start. However, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance.
Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 2000 meters. Athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course. Senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course. In the United States, college men compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km. High school courses are 5 km. Middle school courses are 1.5 mi or 2 mi long. All runners start at the same time, from a starting arc marked with lines or boxes for each team or individual. An official, 50 meters or more in front of the starting line, fires a pistol to indicate the start. If runners collide and fall within the first 100 meters, officials can call the runners back and restart the race, however this is done only once. Crossing the line or starting before the starting pistol is fired is considered a false start and most results in disqualification of the runner; the course ends at a finish line located at the beginning of a funnel or chute that keeps athletes single-file in order of finish and facilitates accurate scoring.
Depending on the timing and scoring system, finish officials may collect a small slip from each runner's bib, to keep track of finishing positions. An alternative method is to have four officials in two pairs. In the first pair, one official reads out numbers of finishers and the other records them. In the second pair, one official reads out times for the other to record. At the end of the race, the two lists are joined along with information from the entry information; the primary disadvantage of this system is that distractions can upset the results when scores of runners finish close together. Chip timing has grown in popularity to increase accuracy and decrease the number of officials required at the finish line; each runner attaches a transponder with RFID to her shoe. When the runner crosses the finish line, an electronic pad records the chip number and matches the runner to a database. Chip timing allows officials to use checkpoint mats throughout the race to calculate split times, to ensure runners cover the entire course.
This is by far the most efficient method, although it is t
A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools; the names for these schools vary by country but include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is called a university college or university, but these higher education institutions are not compulsory. In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to young children. University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.
There are non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be required. Other private schools can be religious, such as Christian schools, hawzas and others. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training, military education and training and business schools. In home schooling and online schools and learning take place outside a traditional school building. Schools are organized in several different organizational models, including departmental, small learning communities, academies and schools-within-a-school; the word school derives from Greek σχολή meaning "leisure" and "that in which leisure is employed", but "a group to whom lectures were given, school". The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece, ancient Rome ancient India, ancient China; the Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level.
According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the primary education system began in 425 AD and "... military personnel had at least a primary education...". The sometimes efficient and large government of the Empire meant that educated citizens were a must. Although Byzantium lost much of the grandeur of Roman culture and extravagance in the process of surviving, the Empire emphasized efficiency in its war manuals; the Byzantine education system continued until the empire's collapse in 1453 AD. In Western Europe a considerable number of cathedral schools were founded during the Early Middle Ages in order to teach future clergy and administrators, with the oldest still existing, continuously operated, cathedral schools being The King's School, King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School and Thetford Grammar School. Beginning in the 5th century CE monastic schools were established throughout Western Europe, teaching both religious and secular subjects. Islam was another culture. Emphasis was put on knowledge, which required a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge, purpose-built structures.
At first, mosques combined both religious performance and learning activities, but by the 9th century, the madrassa was introduced, a school, built independently from the mosque, such as al-Qarawiyyin, founded in 859 CE. They were the first to make the Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the Caliph. Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning; the Ottoman system of Külliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital and public kitchen and dining areas, revolutionized the education system, making learning accessible to a wider public through its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation. In Europe, universities emerged during the 12th century. During the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools was to teach the Latin language; this led to the term grammar school, which in the United States informally refers to a primary school, but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants based on ability or aptitude.
Following this, the school curriculum has broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic and practical subjects. Obligatory school attendance became common in parts of Europe during the 18th century. In Denmark-Norway, this was introduced as early as in 1739-1741, the primary end being to increase the literacy of the almue, i.e. the "regular people". Many of the earlier public schools in the United States and elsewhere were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation provided by kid hacks and school buses; the use of the term school varies by country, as do the names of the various levels of education within the country
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Mount Taylor (Australian Capital Territory)
Mount Taylor is a prominent hill with an elevation of 856 metres AHD , located between the Woden Valley, Weston Creek district and Tuggeranong Valley, in Canberra, within the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Mount Taylor is part of the Canberra Nature Park and is surrounded by the suburbs of Kambah, Waramanga, Chifley and Torrens. There are walking tracks to the peak. While there is no public road access to the peak there is a fire trail up the mountain from the end of Waldock St, Chifley where there is a car park and picnic tables; the fire trail is closed to public vehicular access by locked gates, but the gates contain access points for walkers. The trail is popular with families and older walkers as it provides the easiest and most leisurely access to the peak. A dirt road, it was sealed in 2009 on the steeper grades to make it safer for walkers and mountain bike riders. From the Tuggeranong side there is a popular foot trail up the mountain that can be accessed from a car parking area off Sulwood Drive.
The carpark has been upgraded and was potholed and unsafe with numerous car accidents occurring. This foot track up the mountain can be accessed from Gouger St, Torrens. Unlike the fire trail, this is a properly constructed reinforced footpath, concrete but packed clay and fine, compacted gravel in other places; this track is longer and steeper than the fire trail making it popular among fitness enthusiasts who incorporate running up and down the track into their training routines. Dog owners use the track to exercise their pets. Part of the track follows the 750m contour line and there are rest benches along the way, it is picturesque, passing through a treed area near the summit and there are steps in this vicinity due to the steepness. Near the summit, the foot track from Tuggeranong merges into the sealed fire trail coming from the Woden side. On the north face of the mountain is the zig-zag track to the summit, constructed in 2007; this foot trail has signs containing historic photos and information about wildlife at each change of direction.
After the first change of direction the track passes through a grove of Casuarina trees. Three quarters of the way along is a seat made of railway sleepers. Near the summit the track passes over a small rocky outcrop with natural steps made of rocks; this track replaced the vertical rough track up the mountain, by far the most difficult route, remnants of which can still be seen from a distance. An attempt was made in the early 1990s to make that track safer as part of a project by long-term unemployed under the guidance of the Richmond Fellowship. Steps consisting of restraining planks of wood were installed and on the top step was a sign saying "You made it!" The track suffered bad erosion due to wet weather and the steep incline, the steps became unsafe and a public liability risk with holes appearing. The zig-zag track is reinforced and far safer and, although longer, provides an easier and more leisurely walk to the summit. There is a fourth track to the summit on the eastern face of the mountain.
A less formed, rougher track and steep proceeding vertically to the summit from the water supply reservoir on Hawker St, Torrens. Because of its steepness and challenge, many of the walkers who were disenfranchised when the Richmond Fellowship Track was closed in 2007 now use this track. About halfway along it passes near an area known as The Sandpit, an circular erosion gully which appeared after heavy rains in 1969. With the passage of time nature has reclaimed part of the area, but it can still be seen from a distance. Near the summit the track passes a power pole, installed in the mid 1970s to provide electricity to the National Transmission Station on the summit. At the top of Mount Taylor there is a trig point, a National Transmission Station to relay television and FM radio to the Tuggeranong valley and parts of Woden/Weston Creek, two bench seats and two panoramic maps, one facing Woden and the other facing Tuggeranong. Mount Taylor was named after James Taylor, an early squatter in the district prior to 1829.
An early map entitled Survey of part of the Morombidgee and Country South of Lake George by Surveyor White shows Taylor's huts close to the site of Yarralumla homestead. Taylor was a son-in-law of Colonel George Johnston who commanded the New South Wales Corps, which deposed Governor William Bligh during the Rum Rebellion of 1808. Mount Taylor was named Taylor's Hill but was renamed Mount Taylor during the early years of Canberra. Mount Taylor is listed on the Register of the National Estate as the most prominent landmark in southern Canberra, together with nearby Oakey Hill, Wanniassa Hills and Isaacs Ridge, is valued as a key part of the landscape of Canberra, it contains one of the most significant populations known of the nationally endangered Pink-tailed Legless Lizard, Aprasia parapulchella and a nationally endangered plant, the Small Purple-pea Swainsona recta. It provides examples of two nationally endangered communities - Eucalyptus melliodora — E blakelyi woodland community, the lowland temperate grassland community - plus a regionally significant vegetational transitional stage, between dry sclerophyll forest and woodland.
A Mount Taylor park care group was established in 1989. It monitors the bird population and provides guides to the reserve. Over 85 species of birds have been identified on nearby. Mount Taylor is elongated in the north-northwest direction; this is parallel with the genera
The District of Weston Creek is one of the original eighteen districts of the Australian Capital Territory used in land administration. The district is subdivided into divisions and blocks; the district of Weston Creek lies within the bounds of the city of Canberra, the capital city of Australia. The district comprises eight residential suburbs, situated to the west of the Woden Valley district and 13 kilometres southwest of the Canberra City centre. Situated adjacent to the district was the large Stromlo Forest pine plantation until the forest was destroyed by bushfires in 2001 and 2003. Weston Creek was named in honour of Captain George Edward Weston, a former officer of the East India Company who arrived in Australia in 1829, was Superintendent of the Hyde Park Convict Barracks in Sydney. In 1841, Weston was granted land in the district now known as Weston Creek. At the 2011 census, the population of the district was 22,746; the traditional custodians of the district are the indigenous people of the Ngunawal tribe.
Following the transfer of land from the Government of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1911, the district was established in 1966 by the Commonwealth via the gazettal of the Districts Ordinance 1966 which, after the enactment of the Australian Capital Territory Act 1988, became the Districts Act 1966. This Act was subsequently repealed by the ACT Government and the district is now administered subject to the Districts Act 2002. The'four-square mile' grant to George Weston at the'Yarrow-Lumla plains' was completed on 31 October 1831; the land was settled by James Martin, a former soldier in the NSW Corps, who in August 1827 applied to the government for permission to rent 2,000 acres of land on which he had built a dwelling and barn, was grazing cattle and sheep, had sown 12 acres with wheat. Martin's claim, was not successful. Along with the adjacent Woden Valley, the area became part of the 40,000 acres Yarralumla Station, it was owned successively by Sir Terence Aubrey Murray, Augustus Gibbes and Frederick Campbell until it was resumed in 1913 as part of a land acquisition scheme after the Federal Capital Territory was declared in 1911.
The earliest homesteads in the valley were Weston, The Rivers, Blundell's Homestead and Avondale. In the early 1920s 9,000 acres were subdivided for soldier settlement leases. Weston. John and Ellen Fox were amongst the first settlers in the Weston valley, living at the Weston homestead from the 1860s; the homestead was located on what is now a small reserve on the corner of Calder Crescent and Woolrych Street, Holder. Several of John and Ellen's nine children were born at Weston, their son David Fox and his wife Margaret took over the property. In 1920, the Commonwealth Government acquired the land for use in the Soldier Settlement scheme. Fred Dulhunty was granted a five-year soldier settlement lease of 804 acres, expanded to 1,319 acres in 1926 to incorporate most of the Weston property. Dulhunty did not reside at the property, the Foxs continued to live and work there. Following David Fox's death at age 49 in 1926, Margaret continued to reside at the property, but moved to nearby Avondale homestead in about 1933.
The Weston and Taylor's Hill leases were purchased by John Dent in October 1932, used for mixed farming and grazing. The Weston lease was purchased in 1937 by Rudolph and Eileen De Salis. Rudolph was born at Cuppacumalong homestead near Tharwa, had lived at'Bondo' near Cooma and'Yarrawa' near Adaminaby before moving to Weston. Rudolph remained at Weston until he died in February 1957, aged 70. Members of the De Salis family continued to live at Weston up until the late-1960s. Avondale. Avondale was located off of Kambah Lane just to the northeast of the Weston homestead, in the vicinity of what is now a small reserve in De Graaff Street, Holder. Margaret Fox moved to Avondale in about 1933 and remained there until she sold the property in 1955; the property was resumed in 1968 to allow suburban development in Weston Creek. Cooleman. Cooleman was located on the southern side of the Weston valley, located in what is now a reserve in Bertel Crescent, Chapman. Cooleman was farmed by Heather and Philip Champion from 1937.
The Champions moved to the property from Weetangerra. Cooleman continued as a sheep run until residential construction in Weston Creek commenced around 1970. Allawah. In 1926, Kenneth Anderson was granted a 1,503 acres soldier settlement lease in present-day Fisher and Waramanga, extending across to Mount Taylor, called his property Allawah. In November 1932, he transferred the lease to Stella Dent; the Rivers. In 1926, Aubrey Blewitt was allocated a ten-year soldier settlement lease for Block 13 which he called The Rivers; the 1,120 acres block went from the corner of Uriarra Road and Coppins Crossing Road north to the Molonglo River, an area now incorporated into the new suburb of Denman Prospect. Blewitt had been granted 645 acres in present day North Weston and northern Holder in 1920, but it was resumed in 1925 and incorporated into Block 24. Illoura. Thomas Cargill was offered a ten-year soldier settlement lease for the 1,015 acres Block 26A, which extended from present day Curtin and Lyons across to present day North Weston and McCubbin to the west.
In 1928 he sold h