click links in text for more info

Strong interaction

In nuclear physics and particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force, is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, gravitation. At the range of 10−15 m, the strong force is 137 times as strong as electromagnetism, a million times as strong as the weak interaction, 1038 times as strong as gravitation; the strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and neutron. In addition, the strong force binds these protons to create atomic nuclei. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the strong interaction is observable at two ranges and mediated by two force carriers. On a larger scale, it is the force that binds protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale, it is the force that holds quarks together to form protons and other hadron particles.

In the latter context, it is known as the color force. The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles. Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting moving radiation; this property of the strong force is called color confinement, it prevents the free "emission" of the strong force: instead, in practice, jets of massive particles are produced. In the context of atomic nuclei, the same strong interaction force binds protons and neutrons together to form a nucleus. In this capacity it is called the nuclear force. So the residuum from the strong interaction within protons and neutrons binds nuclei together; as such, the residual strong interaction obeys a distance-dependent behavior between nucleons, quite different from that when it is acting to bind quarks within nucleons. Additionally, distinctions exist in the binding energies of the nuclear force of nuclear fusion vs nuclear fission.

Nuclear fusion accounts for most energy production in other stars. Nuclear fission allows for decay of radioactive elements and isotopes, although it is mediated by the weak interaction. Artificially, the energy associated with the nuclear force is released in nuclear power and nuclear weapons, both in uranium or plutonium-based fission weapons and in fusion weapons like the hydrogen bomb; the strong interaction is mediated by the exchange of massless particles called gluons that act between quarks and other gluons. Gluons are thought to interact with quarks and other gluons by way of a type of charge called color charge. Color charge is analogous to electromagnetic charge, but it comes in three types rather than one, which results in a different type of force, with different rules of behavior; these rules are detailed in the theory of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of quark-gluon interactions. Before the 1970s, physicists were uncertain as to, it was known that the nucleus was composed of protons and neutrons and that protons possessed positive electric charge, while neutrons were electrically neutral.

By the understanding of physics at that time, positive charges would repel one another and the positively charged protons should cause the nucleus to fly apart. However, this was never observed. New physics was needed to explain this phenomenon. A stronger attractive force was postulated to explain how the atomic nucleus was bound despite the protons' mutual electromagnetic repulsion; this hypothesized force was called the strong force, believed to be a fundamental force that acted on the protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus. It was discovered that protons and neutrons were not fundamental particles, but were made up of constituent particles called quarks; the strong attraction between nucleons was the side-effect of a more fundamental force that bound the quarks together into protons and neutrons. The theory of quantum chromodynamics explains that quarks carry what is called a color charge, although it has no relation to visible color. Quarks with unlike color charge attract one another as a result of the strong interaction, the particle that mediated this was called the gluon.

The word strong is used since the strong interaction is the "strongest" of the four fundamental forces. At a distance of 1 femtometer or less, its strength is around 137 times that of the electromagnetic force, some 106 times as great as that of the weak force, about 1038 times that of gravitation; the strong force is described by quantum chromodynamics, a part of the standard model of particle physics. Mathematically, QCD is a non-Abelian gauge theory based on a local symmetry group called SU; the force carrier particle of the strong interaction is a massless boson. Unlike the photon in electromagnetism, neutral, the gluon carries a color charge. Quarks and gluons are the only fundamental particles that carry non-vanishing color charge, hence they participate in strong interactions only with each other; the strong force is the expression of the gluon interaction with other gluon particles. All quarks and gluons in QCD interact with each other through the strong force; the strength of interaction is parameterized by the strong coupling constant.

This strength is modified by the gauge

Mauritia eglantina

Mauritia eglantina, the'Dog-Rose Cowry' or'Eglantine Cowry', is a species of sea snail, a cowry, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries. These quite common shells reach on average 44–52 millimetres of length, with a maximum size of 80 millimetres and a minimum size of 27 millimetres; these cowries are rather elongated and shiny. The basic color of the dorsum is brown, with many thin longitudinal lines. In the middle of the dorsum there is a clearer longitudinal band; the base may be pale pink or pale brown. The edges show several brown dots; the teeth of the aperture are well developed. Mauritia eglantina can be confused with Mauritia arabica. In the living cowry the mantle is thin. Mauritia eglantina is species of Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, ranging from eastern Polynesia and Micronesia, Samoa Islands, New Caledonia up to Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Northern Australia; this species prefers rather shallow waters, lagoon reef habitats and coral rocks at 2–15 metres of depth.

Natural History Museum of Rotterdam: photo Mauritia eglantina "Mauritia eglantina". Retrieved 16 January 2019. M. eglantina Biolib

Price v. Pennsylvania Railroad Co.

Price v. Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 113 U. S. 218, was a case where the plaintiff sued the defendant for the loss of her husband by a death which the jury found, by a special verdict, to be caused by the negligence of the company's servant or servants. The verdict read as follows: We find for the plaintiff in the sum of five thousand dollars, subject to the opinion of the court on the question of law reserved, to-wit: we find that A. J. Price at the time of his death was route agent of the United States Post Office Department, duly appointed and commissioned, his route being on the Western Pennsylvania Railroad from Allegheny City to Blairsville, in the State of Pennsylvania; that said collision was caused by the negligence or misconduct of the conductor and engineer in charge of the train going east in neglecting or disobeying orders, in failing to take necessary precaution to avoid a collision. We find that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, by resolution dated April 16, 1868, accepted the provisions of the Act of Assembly, approved 4th April 1868, P.

L. p. 59, that time of the collision the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was operating the Western Pennsylvania Railroad under lease. If, under this finding of facts, under the acts of Congress and acts of assembly offered in evidence, the postal regulations in evidence, the court should be of the opinion that the plaintiffs, as widow and children of deceased, are entitled to recover judgment to be entered on the verdict in favor of the plaintiffs. If the court should be of the opinion that the law is with the defendant judgment to be entered in favor of the defendant non obstante veredicto; the trial judge held that the deceased was a person engaged in and about the train, within the meaning of the act of 1868, but that he was within the proviso as a passenger, gave judgment for plaintiff on the verdict. The judgment was reversed by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania on the ground that the deceased was not a passenger within the meaning of the proviso, a judgment was rendered for defendant, to which this writ of error was prosecuted.

A person traveling on a railroad in charge of mails, under the provision of § 4000 Rev. Stat. Does not thereby acquire the rights of a passenger in case he is injured on the railroad through negligence of the company's servants. A statute of Pennsylvania passed April 15, 1851, Tit. Negligence 2, 1093, makes the provision, now become common, for a recovery by the widow or children of a person whose death was caused by the negligence of another, of damages for the loss of the deceased. A statute passed April 4, 1868, Tit. Negligence 5, 1094, provides that "Where any person shall sustain personal injury or loss of life while lawfully engaged or employed on or about the road, works and premises of a railroad company, or in or about any train or car therein or thereon, of which company such person is not an employee, the right of action or recovery in all such cases against the company shall be such only as would exist if such person were an employee, provided that this section shall not apply to passengers."

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 113 Text of Price v. Pennsylvania R. Co. 113 U. S. 218 is available from: Justia Library of Congress

Tommy Noonan

Tommy Noonan was a comedy genre film performer and producer. He acted in a number of high-profile films as well as B movies from the 1940s through the 1960s, he is best known for his supporting performances as Gus Esmond, wealthy fiancé of Lorelei Lee in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, as the musician Danny McGuire in A Star Is Born, he played a stock room worker in the film Bundle of Joy with Debbie Reynolds. Born Thomas Noone in Bellingham, Washington, he was the younger half-brother of actor John Ireland. Noonan was the son of Michael James Gracie Ferguson, his father was a native of Galway County, Ireland. His mother, a piano teacher, was from Scotland, he attended New York University. In 1934, Noonan and Ireland made their stage debuts with a New York-based experimental theater, they appeared together in three films, including I Shot Jesse James. Noonan had a repertory company of his own prior to World War II. On Broadway, Noonan appeared in How to Make a Men to the Sea. After serving in the U. S. Navy, Noonan made his film debut in George White's Scandals.

He teamed with Peter Marshall to form a comedy team in the late 1940s. The team's performances were limited because they continued their individual careers, "working together only when both were available at the same time". Working as Noonan and Marshall, they appeared on television, in the films Starlift, FBI Girl, The Rookie, Swingin' Along; the duo went their separate ways after the release of Swingin' Along. In 1953, Noonan appeared in the classic musical movie "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" as Gus Esmond. Esmond is the nerdy fiancé of Marilyn Monroe's character Lorelei Lee. In 1955 he played a voyeuristic bank manager in the Richard Fleischer Film Noir Melodrama, Violent Saturday. In 1961, Noonan appeared on the CBS courtroom drama Perry Mason as the defendant and episode's title character, comedian Charlie Hatch, in "The Case of the Crying Comedian." In the early 1960s, Noonan appeared in a few B movies, including Promises! Promises! with Jayne Mansfield and Three Nuts in Search of a Bolt with Mamie Van Doren, which he directed and produced.

His last effort as a producer was Cottonpickin' Chickenpickers, Sonny Tufts' last movie. Noonan was married two times, his last wife was actress Pocahontas Crowfoot. They were married 16 years. Eight months after he had an operation for a brain tumor, Noonan died at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital, just a few days shy of his 47th birthday. Tommy Noonan on IMDb Tommy Noonan at the Internet Broadway Database Tommy Noonan at Find a Grave

Gilbert Bulawan

Gilbert D. Bulawan was a Filipino professional basketball player who played for the Blackwater Elite, Meralco Bolts and Barako Bull Energy Cola in the Philippine Basketball Association, he was drafted 17th overall in the 2011 PBA draft by the Alaska Aces. Bulawan played for the San Sebastian College–Recoletos Men's Senior Basketball team from 2006 to 2010. In Season 85, He was one of the members of the San Sebastian Stags who won the title against three-time defending champions San Beda Red Lions in a sweep 2-0. After Bulawan has finished his college career, he decided to apply for the 2011 PBA draft. In the draft, he was drafted 17th overall by the Aces before being traded to the Bolts. On June 2013, Bulawan was traded to Barako Bull Energy Cola from Meralco in a three-team trade that sent Jared Dillinger and Don Allado to Meralco. In the 2014 season, Bulawan was one of the players dropped by Barako, allowing him to join the 2014 PBA Expansion Draft, where he was picked 15th by Blackwater. On July 3, 2016, Bulawan died after collapsing while on team practice with Blackwater Elite.

He was declared dead on arrival at Capitol Medical Center in Quezon City, Philippines. Bulawan is the youngest and first active player to die in the PBA; the autopsy said. Bulawan had a rare condition, a thickened blood vessel, so rare ECG tests and numerous team medical checks were unable to reveal his condition. Blackwater Elite owner Dioceldo Sy had asked the PBA for a small ceremony on its first game on the 2016 Governors' Cup for the retirement of Bulawan's jersey, #11


Mirotic is the fourth Korean studio album by South Korean pop group TVXQ, released on September 26, 2008 by S. M. Entertainment; this is the group's last Korean album to feature members Jaejoong and Junsu. The album was a major commercial breakthrough and is TVXQ's most critically successful album to date; the best-selling album of 2008, Mirotic debuted atop the Hanteo charts and sold 110,000 albums in one week, setting the record for one-week sales in South Korea on that chart. Version A of the album sold over 208,000 copies in a month, cumulative sales surpassed 500,000 copies 109 days after its release. Mirotic is the first Korean album in four years to break 500,000 sales, a number, last achieved by Seo Taiji's 2004 album 7th Issue. Mirotic sold over 541,000 copies by 2014; the album had been in production since 2007, but the title was not decided upon until January 2008. TVXQ members Xiah Junsu and Max Changmin participated directly in the making of the album, penning the lyrics for "노을.. 바라보다" and "Love in the Ice", respectively.

In addition, members Hero Jaejoong and Micky Yoochun composed and wrote the lyrics to "사랑아 울지마" and "사랑 안녕 사랑" for version C of the album. TVXQ had two promotional singles from the album; the title single "Mirotic" won a total of nine number-one trophies on Korean music programs The Music Trend, Music Bank, M! Countdown, is touted by critics as a staple song of K-pop. Though succeeding single "Wrong Number" was unable to meet the success of its predecessor, it was an acclaimed K-pop hit. Mirotic won the Disk Daesang at the 23rd Golden Disk Awards and Album of the Year at the 2008 Mnet KM Music Festival, it is the best-selling album among Korea's second-generation idols, earning the name "Album of the Decade."The choreography of "주문-Mirotic," the title track of the album, was done in a collaboration between Korean choreographers and Kenny Wormald, who had worked with pop stars Justin Timberlake, Chris Brown and Christina Aguilera. The song features a "reverse beat" track, meaning that the bass beat is either a half beat or a whole beat late in coming into a new phrase.

While in most genres of music, the bass note comes in directly on the first beat of the measure in setting the chord of the phrase, reverse beat songs alter this usual method. In doing so, the reverse beat genre is said to have an effect of "growing on" the listener, having an addictive sound. "Mirotic" is a newly coined term, created by member Hero Jaejoong, that combines the Korean miro, meaning "maze", the English suffix "-tic". The title song was composed by the Danish producers, Lucas Secon and Thomas Troelsen; the German singer, Sarah Connor bought the copyright to the song. Despite the fact that the two original songs were the same composed piece, they have musical differences. "Mirotic" is one of the most successful singles in South Korea, in 2008 the song was downloaded 2,337,864 times. By the end of 2011 the song was downloaded 4,173,225 times. Mirotic has received positive acclaim from music critics. Hwang Seon-eop of online magazine IZM rated the album 3.5 out of 5 stars, putting Mirotic as TVXQ's most critically successful album to date.

In November 2008, the Korean Commission of Youth Protection ruled that Mirotic was detrimental to youths and declared that the lyrics were provocative and overly sexual. As a result, the album was labeled with stickers indicating that it was unsuitable for people under 19 years old and any performances of the song would have to be broadcast after 10 PM. In response to the ruling, SM Entertainment agreed to make a clean version but had filed an injunction to overrule the commission's decision After the Commission of Youth Protection released their statement regarding the ban on the album, SM Entertainment said, TVXQ performed the clean version at the 23rd Annual Golden Disk Awards; the lyrics were changed from "I got you" to "I chose you" and "I got you under my skin" to "I got you under my sky."In March 2009, the Seoul Administrative Court ruled in favor of SM Entertainment, stating: On April 9, 2009, the Commission of Youth Protection announced they would appeal the ruling to a high court after having an emergency meeting and deeming that the phrase, "I got you under my skin", was inappropriate for minors