Molly Scott Cato
Sarah Margaret "Molly" Scott Cato is a British Green politician, academic and community activist, green economist, the current Member of the European Parliament for the South West England electoral region for the Green Party. She was elected in May 2014, is the first Green Party MEP to represent the region. From 2012, until her election as an MEP, she was Professor of Strategy and Sustainability at the University of Roehampton. Scott Cato speaks for the Green Party on finance issues, is known for her work in the field of co-operative studies, she has published on green economics and anti-capitalism, has contributed to works on the risks of nuclear power, the use of which she opposes. Scott Cato grew up in Bath, attending Bath High School for Girls, before reading Philosophy and Economics at Oxford, where her stated areas of interest included "the politics of Latin America and international politics". After working in the publishing industry, in 2001 she earned her Ph. D. from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth with a thesis on employment policy in the South Wales Valleys, including research into the Tower Colliery workers' co-operative.
Her book, The Pit and the Pendulum, is based on this research. She holds an MSc in advanced social research methods from the Open University. After working for the Oxford University Press from 1987 to 1998, Scott Cato tutored at Aberystwyth University in 2000 from 2001 to 2012, was Senior lecturer and Reader in green economics at Cardiff Metropolitan University. In 2007 she was appointed Director of the Cardiff Institute for Co-operative Studies. In 2012 she became Professor of Sustainability at the University of Roehampton. Scott Cato's academic work covers three main areas: firstly the green economy, that is, one which recognises planetary limits and achieves social justice, she has published on green economics and anti-capitalism. She wrote Seven Myths About Work in 1996, updating it in 2002 under the title Arbeit Macht Frei and Other Lies about Work, she co-edited Green Economics: Beyond Supply and Demand to Meeting People's Needs in 1999 with Miriam Kennet. Her report, co-authored with Christopher Busby and Richard Bramhall, on the structure of government specialist science advice committees, I Don't Know Much About Science "influenced the structure of the government's new committee examining the effects of low-level radiation".
In 2009 she published Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, where she argues that society should be embedded within the ecosystem, that markets and economies are social structures that should respond to social and environmental priorities. She includes examples of effective green policies that are being implemented across the world policy prescriptions for issues including climate change, citizens' income, economic measurement and trade. In his review of the book in the Journal of Economic Geography Danny Dorling called it "a serious book written by the grown-up version of the kinds of people who are invading airports, chaining themselves to those coal trucks on the way to power stations and populating climate camps", her 2011 book Environment and Economy describes the main academic responses to the need to resolve the tension between economy and environment: environmental economics, ecological economics, green economics, anti-capitalist economics. It covers topics including an introduction to economic instruments such as taxes and regulation.
Scott Cato joined the UK Green Party in 1988, before it became three separate parties for England and Wales and Northern Ireland in 1990. She has been Co-Chair of the Green Party Regional Council and served on the Green Party Executive as Campaigns Co-ordinator, she wrote Seven Myths About Work as part of a Green Party campaign, Why Work?. She speaks for the Green Party on finance issues. Scott Cato stood as the Green Party candidate for the Preseli Pembrokeshire constituency at the 1997 and 2005 general elections, resulting in sixth-placed results. For 2017, Scott Cato was selected by the party to stand for the constituency which saw its greatest-swing result in 2015, Bristol West, where the party finished second-placed in 2015, a seat with a high student and academic contingent to its electorate, she was endorsed by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall. She finished in third place in the 2017 election, with the Green share of the vote dropping from 26.8% to 12.9%. In May 2011, Scott Cato was elected to represent Valley Ward on Stroud District Council.
In May 2012, she became leader of the Green Group on the council and made an agreement with the Labour and Liberal Democrat groups to take overall control of the council, calling for "constructive co-operation" and rejecting the "tribalism of party politics" in favour of a "more inclusive" approach. She said, "We believe that no one party has a monopoly on good ideas and we will seek co-operation to achieve advances of our policy platform on an issue-by-issue basis." She became chairman of the council's Audit and Standards Committee in May 2013. At the council's AGM in June 2014, Scott Cato announced her resignation, to take effect from 1 July, the start of her mandate in the European Parliament. In the May 2014 elections for the European Parliament, she was elected as an MEP in South West England for the Green Party, being the lead candida
The Lewes Pound is a local currency in use in the town of Lewes, East Sussex. Inspired by the Totnes pound and BerkShare, the currency was introduced with the blessing of the town council in September 2008 by Transition Town Lewes - a community response to the challenges of climate change and peak oil. Lewes first introduced its own currency in 1789, but this was discontinued in 1895 along with a number of other local currencies, its reintroduction in September 2008 achieved national media coverage. On 3 July 2009, it was announced that the scheme was to be extended and that new notes of £5, £10 and £21 denominations would be issued; the £21 note emphasises the fact that five pence of each Lewes pound bought goes to the local charity the Live Lewes Fund. As of 2017, notes in circulation are: 1 Pound, undated 1 Pound, green, 2009 1 Pound, green, 2017 5 Pounds, blue, 2009 5 Pounds, blue, 2013 5 Pounds, blue, 2017 10 Pounds, yellow, 2009 10 Pounds, blue, 2014 21 Pounds, red, 2009 The value of the Lewes Pound is fixed at £1 Sterling, by January 2009 could used in any of 130 shops in Lewes.
Despite its nominal value, some businesses charge a lesser fee in Lewes Pounds, some of the earliest notes have been sold on eBay for higher values. The front features a picture of the South Downs with an image of Lewes resident Thomas Paine and a quotation of his: "We have it in our power to build the world anew". On the back is a picture of Lewes Castle; the notes are printed on traditional banknote paper and have a number of security features including unique numbering and heat marks. The Lewes Pound and the Transition Towns movement have received criticism for a failure to address the needs of the wider Lewes population lower socio-economic groups; such local currency initiatives have been more criticised in light of limited success in stimulating new spending in local economies and as an unrealistic strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Bristol Pound Stroud Pound Totnes pound BerkShares Toronto Dollar Brixton Pound Official web site details and bulletin board Community Currency Online Magazine
Dipsacus is a genus of flowering plant in the family Caprifoliaceae. The members of this genus are known as teazel or teazle; the genus includes about 15 species of tall herbaceous biennial plants growing to 1–2.5 metres tall. Dipsacus species are native to Europe and northern Africa; the genus name is derived from the Greek word for thirst of water and refers to the cup-like formation made where sessile leaves merge at the stem. The name teasel derives from words such as Old English tǣsel. Teasels are identified with their prickly stem and leaves, the inflorescence of purple, dark pink or lavender flowers that form a head on the end of the stem; the inflorescence is ovoid, 4–10 centimetres long and 3–5 centimetres broad, with a basal whorl of spiny bracts. The first flowers begin opening in a belt around the middle of the spherical or oval flowerhead, open sequentially toward the top and bottom, forming two narrow belts as the flowering progresses; the dried head persists afterwards, with the small seeds maturing in mid autumn.
Rain water can collect in the cup like receptacles. A 2011 experiment has shown that adding dead insects to these cups increases the seedset of teasels, implying partial carnivory. Carnivory in teasels was discussed by Francis Darwin in a paper held by the Royal Society; the leaf shape is lanceolate, 20–40 centimetres long and 3–6 centimetres broad, with a row of small spines on the underside of the midrib. The seeds are an important winter food resource for some birds, notably the European goldfinch. Teasels are grown in gardens and encouraged on some nature reserves to attract them. Teasel is considered an invasive species in the United States, it is known to form a monoculture, capable of crowding out all native plant species, therefore is discouraged and/or eliminated within restored open lands and other conservation areas. Two moths useful for biological control were tested in Slovakia in 2003–2004, including the monophagous Endothenia gentianaeana, but the USDA has not approved either of them for introduction as of February 2018.
Instead, the USDA continues to suggest the use of herbicidal chemicals. Selected Dipsacus species: Fuller's teasel saw wide use in textile processing, providing a natural comb for cleaning and raising the nap on fabrics wool; the product of the teasing process is called teased wool. It differs from the wild type in having stouter, somewhat recurved spines on the seed heads; the dried flower heads were attached to spindles, wheels, or cylinders, sometimes called teasel frames, to raise the nap on fabrics. By the 20th century, teasels had been replaced by metal cards, which can be made uniformly and do not require constant replacement as the teasel heads wear. However, some people who weave wool still prefer to use teasels for raising the nap, claiming that the result is better. Teasels are occasionally grown as ornamental plants, the dried heads are used in floristry. Teasels have been naturalised in many regions away from their native range due to the import of fuller's teasel for textile processing, by the seed being a contaminant mixed with crop seeds.
Common teasel and cut-leaved teasel have both been observed as invasive species in the United States. Common is cut-leaved is more aggressive. Due to the chemical dipsacus saponin C, Dipsacus asper has medically significant procoagulant properties due to an increase of intra-cellular calcium, apoptosis of mitochondria; this may be beneficial in certain cirumstances. Ethanol extracts of Dipsacus asper contain phenolic acids including caffeic acid, 2,6-dihydroxycinnamic acid, vanillic acid, 2′-O-caffeoyl-D-glucopyranoside ester, caffeoylquinic acid, iridoid glucosides, triterpenoids oleanic acid and akebiasaponin D
Laurence Edward Alan "Laurie" Lee, MBE was an English poet and screenwriter, brought up in the small village of Slad in Gloucestershire. His most famous work is the autobiographical trilogy Cider with Rosie, As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning, A Moment of War; the first volume recounts his childhood in the Slad Valley. The second deals with his leaving home for London and his first visit to Spain in 1935, the third with his return to Spain in December 1937 to join the Republican International Brigades. Having been born in Stroud on 26 June 1914, Laurie Lee moved with his family to the village of Slad in 1917, the move with which Cider with Rosie opens. After fighting in the First World War with the Royal West Kent Regiment, Lee's father, Reginald Joseph Lee, did not return to the family. Lee and his brothers grew up loving the Lights, the family of their mother, intensely disliking their Lee relations, his sister, Frances Nemariah Joan Lee, died in 1915 aged three. He had older siblings from his father's first marriage: Dorothy and Marjorie.
His brother Jack Lee was to become a film director. At 12, Lee went to the Central Boys' School in Stroud. In his notebook for 1928, when he was 14 he listed "Concert and Dance Appointments", for at this time he was in demand to play his violin at dances, he left the Central School at 15 to become an errand boy at a Chartered Accountants in Stroud. In 1931 he first found the Whiteway Colony, two miles from Slad, a colony founded by Tolstoyan anarchists; this gave him his first smattering of politicisation and was where he met the composer Benjamin Frankel and the "Cleo" who appears in As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning. In 1933 he met Sophia Rogers, an "exotically pretty girl with dark curly hair" who had moved to Slad from Buenos Aires, an influence on Lee who said in life that he only went to Spain because "a girl in Slad from Buenos Aires taught me a few words of Spanish." At 20 he worked as an office clerk and a builder's labourer, lived in London for a year before leaving for Vigo, in northwest Spain, in the summer of 1935.
From there he travelled across Spain as far as Almuñecar on the coast of Andalusia. Walking more than not, he eked out a living by playing his violin, his first encounter with Spain is the subject of. During this period he met a woman, Wilma Gregory, who supported him financially, met Mary Garman and Roy Campbell. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936 Lee was picked up by HMS Blanche, a British destroyer from Gibraltar, collecting marooned British subjects on the southern Spanish coast, he started to study for an art degree but returned to Spain in 1937 as an International Brigade volunteer. His service in the Brigade was cut short by his epilepsy; these experiences were recounted in A Moment of War, an austere memoir of his time as a volunteer in the Spanish Civil War. According to many biographical sources, Lee fought in the Republican army against Franco's Nationalists. After his death there were claims. Lee met Lorna Wishart in Cornwall in 1937, they had an affair lasting until she left him for Lucian Freud in 1943.
They had Yasmin David, together. Wishart's husband Ernest agreed to raise the girl as his own. Before 1951 Lee worked as a journalist and as a scriptwriter. During the Second World War he made documentary films for the Crown Film Unit. From 1944 to 1946 he worked as the Publications Editor for the Ministry of Information. In 1950 Lee married Catherine Francesca Polge, whose father was Provençal and whose mother was another of the Garman sisters, Helen. From 1950 to 1951 he was caption-writer-in-chief for the Festival of Britain, for which service he was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1952; the success of the autobiographical novel Cider with Rosie in 1959 allowed Lee to become a full-time independent writer. It continues to be one of the UK's most popular books, is used as a set English literature text for schoolchildren; the work depicts the hardships and simplicity of rural life in the time of Lee's youth. Lee said that the creation of the book took him two years, that it was written three times.
With the proceeds Lee was able to buy a cottage in the village of his childhood. Lee's first love was always poetry. Lee's poems had appeared in the Gloucester Citizen and the Birmingham Post, in October 1934 his poem'Life' won a prize from, publication in, the Sunday Referee, a national paper. Another poem was published in Cyril Connolly's Horizon magazine in 1940 and his first volume of poems, The Sun My Monument, was launched in 1944; this was followed by The Bloom of My Many-coated Man. Several poems written in the early 1940s reflect the atmosphere of the war, but capture the beauty of the English countryside; the poem "Twelfth Night" from My Many-coated Man was set for unaccompanied mixed choir by American composer Samuel Barber in 1968. Other works include A Rose for Winter, about a trip he made to Andalusia 15 years after the civil war.
Chiemgau is the common name of a geographic area in Upper Bavaria. It refers to the foothills of the Alps between the rivers Inn and Traun, with the Chiemsee at its center; the political districts that contain the Chiemgau are Traunstein. Wendelstein is the name of a famous mountain close by but not in the Chiemgau, while Kampenwand is the most inviting peak south of Chiemsee; the name Chiemgau and Chiemsee together with the place name Chieming go back to the Old High German personal name Chiemo. At the end of the 8th century the name Chiemgau appeared for the first time in documents as Chimigaoe but it stood at that time for a smaller area around the village of Chieming. From the New Stone Age to the Bronze and Iron Ages humans have left their traces in the Chiemgau. After that this region was settled by the Celts and by the Romans; the Romans settled near the river Alz and made a crossing for their Roman road which goes from Salzburg to Augsburg at Seebruck. At that time the Chiemgau was on the outskirts of the Roman province of'Noricum'.
The Chiemgau was for a long time connected with the Bavarian dukes and the princebishops of Salzburg. After the secularisation of 1803, the whole Chiemgau district became part of Bavaria; the Chiemgau is a source of wood and salt. The production of salt, which existed from 1619 till 1912, had a big cultural and economical influence on the Chiemgau; the Chiemgau has traditionally been horse breeding country workhorses. The ice-age, which took place 15000 years ago, formed the foothills of the Alps and the morainic landscape. For this reason the Chiemgau is a hilly countryside with numerous grasslands and fens; the biggest mountains are 2000m high. Karl Streibel, German Nazi SS concentration camp commandant
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio
Chiemgauer is the name of a regional local currency started in 2003 in Prien am Chiemsee, Germany. Named after the Chiemgau, a region around the Chiemsee lake, it is intended to increase local employment, supporting local culture, make the local food supply more resilient; the Chiemgauer operates with a fixed exchange rate, tied to the value of the euro: 1 Chiemgauer = €1. In 2003, Christian Gelleri, a high school teacher, started this project with his students, who are in charge of designing and printing vouchers and take care of administration, accounting and other tasks. Chiemgauer is a member of a regional currencies' network called Regiogeld. Gelleri had been inspired by the economists Silvio Rudolf Steiner; the Chiemgauer is intended for: Employment creation: unemployed and volunteers are hired to work, earning some allowances Promotion of cultural and environmental activities: the Chiemgauer system supports nonprofits who work for such purposes Promotion of sustainability: organic food and renewable energy among others Strengthening the solidarity: enhancing the human relationship between local shoppers and businesses Stimulation of local economy: The Chiemgauer retains purchasing power within the region better than the euro and favors local small businesses, stimulating transactions through demurrage.
Express-Money: Example for a complementary currency on a national level In 2006, an electronic form of the Chiemgauer, the "eChiemgauer", was established. Bank accounts are used for operations. Only businesses and nonprofits need additional electronic accounts, while consumers have the possibility to use electronic cards called "Regiocard". Two-thirds of Chiemgauer turnover is electronic; the demurrage is 6% per year. Chiemgauer use has grown and can be found in Bavaria between Munich and Salzburg, Austria. Chiemgauer, whose value is fixed to the euro, circulates as follows within the districts of Rosenheim and Traunstein: Issuing office: Consumers can change euros into Chiemgauer at about 40 issuing offices. Consumers: Exchange Chiemgauer 1 to 1. €100 are exchanged for 100 Chiemgauer. Chiemgauer can be spent at local businesses at face value, thereby helping both local nonprofits and businesses without any further cost; as a "bonus", those exchanging their euros for Chiemgauer choose a non-profit which receives 3% of the value exchanged.
Businesses: Accept Chiemgauer at face value and spend them for their own purchases, but have the option to exchange 100 Chiemgauer for €95, losing 5% for commission but earning more by attracting Chiemgauer members to their products and/or services. Of this, €2 is allocated to administrative costs, €3 represents the donation to a nonprofit when the Chiemgauer were bought. Nonprofits: Receive 3% of any amount of euros exchanged for Chiemgauer; this motivates supporters to participate in the project. In the registration form consumers choose. Bills of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 Chiemgauer are issued. To maintain an individual bill's validity, a "scrip" corresponding to 2% of the banknote value must be paid every three months; this system, called demurrage, is a form of currency circulation tax invented by Silvio Gesell. Specifically:...in order to prevent this complementary currency from degenerating into a means of hoarding and to confer it on high liquidity. It is required to put a stamp of 2% of the face value every three months to keep it valid, obliging its bearers to give up hoarding this complementary currency and to spend it as soon as possible and stimulating the regional economy.
Because it loses value every quarter, users are incentivized to spend the money. The notes have an expiry date after which they need to be renewed with a sticker costing 2% of their value; the quicker money is spent, the faster, in its velocity. Gesell argued. There are different rules for businesses. Nonprofits can purchase 100 Chiemgauer at €97 increasing the value of their money by 3%. On the other hand, businesses that accept Chiemgauer are subject to 5% commission fee if they want to change it back to euros, which incentivizes them to work within the system and potentially increase Chiemgauer users by, for example, getting local suppliers to accept payments in Chiemgauer. Since 2007, Chiemgauer could be saved without interest at a social cooperative called REGIOS. A microcredit program for businesses and nonprofits has existed since 2010 and loans are available in amounts ranging from €1,000 to €20,000. Interest is calculated at a rate of 9%, but when a loan issued in Chiemgauer is paid back on time and without fault, the entire interest costs are paid back to the debtor.
BerkShares Demurrage Local currency Urstromtaler WIR Bank Wörgl