Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
Ashley Nicole Rickards is an American actress, known for her role as Jenna Hamilton in the MTV comedy-drama series Awkward, as Samantha "Sam" Walker, a troubled young girl in The CW's teen drama series One Tree Hill. She starred in the 2011 independent drama film Fly Away as Mandy, a autistic girl. Rickards was born in Florida, she grew up on a horse farm. She attended a local Montessori school where, at age 13, she had her first taste of acting in an opera production. Rickards is a member of Mensa. After attending a local talent showcase, organized by Lou Pearlman, Rickards traveled to Los Angeles where she gathered a team of representatives. Upon graduating, Rickards began to appear in a number of minor roles, while child labor laws restricted the number of hours she was able to work. After making a number of guest appearances and shorts, she landed the role of Samantha Walker, a runaway foster child, in the sixth season of The CW's One Tree Hill. Although not aware of the show before auditioning, Rickards found that she "learned so much from acting techniques to different ways of shooting things".
Her character did not return the following season, while in the same year she had a bit part in her first feature film, Gamer. Rickards spent much of 2009 attending auditions while a proposed lead role in the film Dirty Girl fell through. In 2010, she appeared opposite Jimmy Smits in an episode of the legal drama Outlaw while she auditioned for the lead role in the MTV series Awkward. Rejected, her manager Adam Griffin sent the producers a tape Rickards had made for Fly Away "to show how she can do anything"; the actress landed both roles and filmed the pilot for the MTV series prior to Fly Away, a feature where she played a girl with severe autism. As the lead in Awkward, Rickards' profile began to rise and she was given the opportunity to direct an episode. In 2012, she had a minor role in the moderately successful comedy Struck by Lightning and another coming-of-age film Sassy Pants. In 2014 Rickards moved into the horror genre with a lead role in At the Devil's Door and as a teenage daughter in A Haunted House 2.
In 2015, she filmed the final season of Awkward. In August 2016 it was announced that Rickards would play Rosalind "Rosa" Dillon/The Top in the CW series The Flash. In 2011, Rickards helped to launch the Project Futures Somaly Mam Foundation, which works to prevent and end human trafficking and sexual slavery in Southeast Asia. In March 2015, she published a book A Real Guide to Getting It Together Once and For All. Over the course of her career, she has appeared in various music videos such as The Fray's "How to Save a Life", The Format's "She Doesn't Get It" and M83's "Claudia Lewis". Ashley Rickards on IMDb Ashley Rickards at the Music Television Ashley Rickards Official Website
Carter Mark Jenkins is an American actor. He is best known for his roles in the films Aliens in the Attic, Valentine's Day, Struck by Lightning. On television, Jenkins was part of the main cast of Surface, Viva Laughlin, Famous in Love. Jenkins was born in Tampa, Florida to Mary and Eric Jenkins, was raised in Carrollwood, where he attended Independent Day School, his family moved to Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles. He has an older brother, Renneker Jenkins, an actor, an older sister, Tiffany. Like his character in Keeping Up with the Steins, Jenkins was raised Jewish, attended Hebrew school. Jenkins began performing in community theatre, on local and national commercials, he played lead roles in the television series Surface and Viva Laughlin, guest starred in episodes of CSI: Miami, House, CSI: NY, Without a Trace, The Bernie Mac Show, Unfabulous. He has starred in feature films such as Bad News Bears and Keeping Up with the Steins, starred in the television film Life Is Ruff. In 2009, Jenkins appeared in the film Aliens in the Attic.
In 2010, he appeared in the romantic-comedy Valentine's Day, playing Alex Franklin, the boyfriend of Emma Roberts' character. Jenkins had a supporting role in the 2012 coming-of-age comedy-drama Struck by Lightning, which starred Chris Colfer, who wrote the screenplay. In 2015, Jenkins portrayed one of the main roles in the supernatural thriller film Nightlight; as of now, he stars as Rainer Devon on Freeform's Famous in Love. Carter Jenkins on IMDb Carter Jenkins' fashion shoot in The Block. Issue 20 - Fame
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Polly Bergen was an American actress, television host and entrepreneur. She won an Emmy Award in 1958 for her performance as Helen Morgan in The Helen Morgan Story. For her stage work she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for her performance as Carlotta Campion in Follies in 2001, her film work included Cape Fear and The Caretakers, for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. She hosted her own variety show for one season, as an author wrote three books on beauty and charm. Bergen was born in Tennessee, to Lucy and William Hugh Burgin, a construction engineer. "Bill Bergen", as he was known, had singing talent and appeared with his daughter in several episodes of her 18-episode NBC comedy/variety show, The Polly Bergen Show, which aired during the 1957–1958 television season. Bergen appeared in many film roles, most notably in the original Cape Fear opposite Gregory Peck and Robert Mitchum, she had roles as the romantic interest in three Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis comedy films in the early 1950s: At War with the Army, That's My Boy and The Stooge.
She was featured in a number of Westerns during the 1950s, including Warpath and Escape from Fort Bravo. She starred in a horse racing comedy, Fast Company, as the first female commander-in-chief in Kisses for My President and as the wife of James Garner in the romantic comedy Move Over, Darling starring Doris Day. Bergen's roles included Mrs. Vernon-Williams in Cry-Baby, a John Waters film. Bergen received an Emmy Award for her portrayal of singer Helen Morgan in the episode The Helen Morgan Story of the 1950s television series Playhouse 90. Signed to Columbia Records, she enjoyed a successful recording career during this era, as well. In the 1950s, she was known as "The Pepsi Cola Girl", having done a series of commercials for that product, she was a regular panelist during its original run. She was a panelist and Mystery Guest on CBS' What's My Line?. She appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood, she earned an Emmy Award nomination for her role as Rhoda Henry, wife of Captain "Pug" Henry, in two ABC miniseries, The Winds of War and its sequel and Remembrance.
She starred in a 2001 Broadway revival of Stephen Sondheim's Follies at the Belasco Theater and received a Tony Award nomination as Best Featured Actress in a Musical. In 2003, she starred at the same theatre in Six Dance Lessons in Six Weeks opposite Mark Hamill in a role she took over from Rue McClanahan. Bergen played Fran Felstein on HBO's The Sopranos, the former mistress of Johnny Soprano and John F. Kennedy. From 2007 to 2011 Bergen had a guest role in Desperate Housewives as Lynette Scavo's mother, Stella Wingfield, which earned her an Emmy Award nomination, she was a semi-regular cast member of Commander-in-Chief as the mother of Mackenzie Allen, the President of the United States, played by Geena Davis. Bergen herself had once played the first female President of the United States, as President Leslie McCloud in the film Kisses for My President. Another late appearance came in the Hallmark Hall of Fame presentation, Candles on Bay Street, in which she played the assistant to a husband-and-wife team of veterinarians.
In 1965, Bergen created the Polly Bergen Company cosmetics line. She created lines of jewelry and shoe brands, authored three books on beauty. Bergen was married to actor Jerome Courtland in the early 1950s. In 1957, she married Hollywood agent-producer Freddie Fields with whom she had two adopted children, Pamela Kerry Fields and Peter William Fields, stepdaughter, Kathy Fields. Bergen converted from Southern Baptist to Judaism upon marrying Fields; the couple divorced in 1975. She was married to entrepreneur Jeffrey Endervelt in the 1980s. Bergen was feminist, she was women's education and Planned Parenthood. Bergen's niece is the television producer Wendy Riche. Bergen died of natural causes on September 20, 2014, at her home in Southbury, surrounded by family and close friends, she had been diagnosed with emphysema and other ailments in the late 1990s. Upon her death, she was cremated. Albums list adapted from Discogs. 1955: Little Girl Blue 1956: The Girls" 1956: Today's Hits" 1957: Bergen Sings Morgan 1957: The Party's Over 1958: Polly and Her Pop 1959: My Heart Sings – Columbia #CS 8018 – orchestra conducted by Luther Henderson 1959: All Alone by the Telephone 1959: First Impressions – with Farley Granger and Hermione Gingold 1960: Four Seasons of Love 1961: Sings the Hit Songs from Do-Re-Mi and Annie Get Your Gun 1963: Act One, Sing Too 1958: "Come Prima" Bergen, Polly.
The Polly Bergen Book of Beauty and Charm. Prentice Hall. ASIN B0007E27RS. Bergen, Polly. Polly's Principles. Bantam Books. ASIN B000H4KY1Y. Bergen, Polly. I'd Love To. G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0872235236. Polly Bergen on IMDb Polly Bergen at the Internet Broadway Database Polly Bergen at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Polly Bergen at AllMusic Polly Bergen – Madame President Gallery: Polly Bergen in Knoxville, TN
Christina Rene Hendricks is an American actress and model. She is best known for her starring role as Joan Holloway on the AMC period drama series Mad Men and as Beth Boland in the NBC crime drama series Good Girls. Hendricks has appeared as Saffron in the Fox space western series Firefly, Celine/"Chair" in the Comedy Central period sitcom Another Period, as Trudy in the SundanceTV drama series Hap and Leonard, her notable film credits include Drive, God's Pocket, Lost River, The Neon Demon, Fist Fight, The Strangers: Prey at Night. A poll of female readers taken by Esquire magazine named Hendricks "the sexiest woman in the world". In 2010, she was voted Best Looking Woman in America by Esquire magazine. Hendricks was born in Tennessee, her father, Robert Hendricks, worked for the United States Forest Service and was English from Birmingham, England. Through her father, she has dual U. S. and UK citizenship. Her mother, Jackie Sue, was a psychologist. Hendricks has one older brother, her family moved several times because of her father's profession, Hendricks spent her early life in Portland and Twin Falls, Idaho.
Hendricks' mother encouraged her and her brother to join a local theater group in Twin Falls as a way of making friends, Hendricks appeared in a production of Grease. "I had all these amazing friends through the theatre company,” she recalled. “And it was a community that respected theatre. The kids would put on a play and the entire town would show, and you were cool if you were an actor.”When Hendricks was a teenager, the family relocated from Idaho to Fairfax, where she attended Fairfax High School. According to Hendricks, she was bullied in high school and described herself as an "outcast" and a "goth". After entering a competition to appear on the cover of Seventeen magazine, she signed with a modeling agency at age 18, moved to New York City. Hendricks began acting in children's musical theater productions in Twin Falls, she was a model from the ages of 18 to 27. She made her television début in the MTV anthology series Undressed, her first starring role was in Choosers. She has starred in the series The Big Time and The Court, as well as the legal drama Kevin Hill, filmed in Fort Cobb, Oklahoma.
She has had recurring roles in ER and Firefly and guest-starred in episodes of Angel, Miss Match, Tru Calling, Presidio Med, Without a Trace, Las Vegas. Hendricks starred in South of Pico. La Cucina, an indie film, stars Hendricks as a writer, she appeared in four episodes of the NBC series Life in the recurring role of Olivia, detective Charlie Crews' soon-to-be stepmother and Ted Earley's love interest. She starred in music videos for "The Ghost Inside" by Broken Bells, Everclear's "One Hit Wonder", she played Joan Holloway on the AMC series Mad Men as the office manager of advertising agency Sterling Cooper & Partners, providing mentoring to a group of women who must deal with the come-ons and callousness of professional advertising executives. Her performance has received critical praise, resulting in six Primetime Emmy nominations for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series, she appeared in the action-thriller Drive, directed by Nicolas Winding Refn, alongside Carey Mulligan and Ryan Gosling.
In 2014, she played the lead character in Gosling's directorial debut Lost River, in 2015, in the novel adaptation Dark Places. In 2015, she was cast as one of the leads in Refn's thriller film The Neon Demon. In 2018, she was seen in home-invasion based horror film The Strangers: Prey at Night. Upon release, the film received unfavorable reviews from critics. However, she was praised for her performance in the film. Hendricks has been credited as having an ideal shape for a woman by British Equalities Minister Lynne Featherstone who praised Hendricks' hourglass figure as an ideal shape for women, saying "Christina Hendricks is fabulous... We need more of these role models. There is such a sensation, it shouldn't be so unusual". Los Angeles Times television critic Mary McNamara says her portrayal of Joan has revolutionized perceptions of beauty on television, she has been called the "new modern ideal of Hollywood glamour -- voluptuous. British designer Vivienne Westwood selected Hendricks to represent her "Get A Life" Palladium jewelry collection in March 2011.
Westwood described Hendricks as "the embodiment of beauty". A study by the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons attributed a 10% rise in 2010 of the number of British women receiving breast augmentation surgery in part to Hendricks' influence. Hendricks has moved away from accepting the term "full-figured" and once lambasted a reporter who used the term while interviewing her. Hendricks commented in September 2010 that the media is too focused on women's bodies and not their actual talents, "I was working my butt off on the show and all anyone was talking about was my body". Hendricks is a natural blonde and began coloring her hair red at age 10, inspired by the book Anne of Green Gables, she plays the accordion like her character Joan in Mad Men. On October 11, 2009, Hendricks married actor Geoffrey Arend, she has said in interviews that her husband do not plan to have children. Christina Hendricks on IMDb Christina Hendricks at AllMovie Christina Hendricks at the TCM Movie Database
Brian Dannelly is an American film director and screenwriter best known for his work on the 2004 film Saved!. Dannelly was born in Würzburg, Germany before moving with his family to Baltimore, Maryland aged eleven, he was raised Catholic. He was expelled from first grade for hitting a nun, expelled from high school—which he describes as "one of the strictest schools in the nation"—for excessive demerits, he started questioning his sexuality in high school, claiming, "I remember I'd pray every night that I wasn't gay, please God, please God, anything I could do—just don't make this happen." He came out at the age of seventeen and was thrown out of his house by his parents, who came to accept his sexuality. Dannelly graduated from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County with a degree in visual arts in 1997. Dannelly wrote and directed short film "He Bop" in 2000 before his debut with 2004's religious satire film Saved!, which he directed and co-wrote with Michael Urban. He had begun to write the Saved!
Script after the Columbine High School massacre in 1999, which he claims took him "back to roots" in a Christian high school. He and Urban began writing the script while attending the American Film Institute Conservatory. Much of the story was drawn from his own experiences with "conservative Christian subculture", including Christian rock concerts, being "this gay kid in a Christian school" and having visions of Jesus, he says, "In the Baptist school there was the one Jewish girl that everyone was trying to save, there was a girl who got pregnant, there was a gay kid"—all principal characters in Saved!. He claims that nothing in the film came from his imagination: "Everything in the movie comes from either something I experienced, or something I witnessed, or something I researched."After Saved! was released, Dannelly went on to become a regular series director on the television show Weeds. He has directed the 2006 pilot episode of Help Me Help You and Pushing Daisies' 2007 episode "Corpsicle".
His most recent film, Runner Up, about a beauty pageant queen who organizes a pageant in a women's prison, is in production. He is signed on to direct upcoming romantic comedy film The Guided Man, which he co-wrote with Michael Urban and Steve Adams based on a 1952 story by L. Sprague de Camp, he has written a spec script, Army Geek, about a Texan Napoleon Dynamite-like character who joins the military. In 2017, Dannelly worked as a director on two episodes of the second season of the Netflix original series Haters Back Off, starring Colleen Ballinger, Angela Kinsey and Erik Stocklin. Brian Dannelly on IMDb