In sociology and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a broader, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think and feel. Alternatively, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations; these relations constitute a structure, behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract structure". Structuralism in Europe developed in the early 1900s in France and Russian Empire, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and the subsequent Prague and Copenhagen schools of linguistics. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, when structural linguistics were facing serious challenges from the likes of Noam Chomsky and thus fading in importance, an array of scholars in the humanities borrowed Saussure's concepts for use in their respective fields of study.
French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss was arguably the first such scholar, sparking a widespread interest in structuralism. The structuralist mode of reasoning has been applied in a diverse range of fields, including anthropology, psychology, literary criticism and architecture; the most prominent thinkers associated with structuralism include Claude Lévi-Strauss, linguist Roman Jakobson, psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. As an intellectual movement, structuralism was presumed to be the heir apparent to existentialism. However, by the late 1960s, many of structuralism's basic tenets came under attack from a new wave of predominantly French intellectuals such as the philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, the philosopher Jacques Derrida, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, the literary critic Roland Barthes. Though elements of their work relate to structuralism and are informed by it, these theorists have been referred to as post-structuralists. In the 1970s, structuralism was criticized for its ahistoricism.
Despite this, many of structuralism's proponents, such as Lacan, continue to assert an influence on continental philosophy and many of the fundamental assumptions of some of structuralism's post-structuralist critics are a continuation of structuralism. The term structuralism in reference to social science first appeared in the works of French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, who gave rise in France to the structuralist movement, influencing the thinking of other writers such as Louis Althusser, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, as well as the structural Marxism of Nicos Poulantzas, most of whom disavowed themselves as being a part of this movement; the origins of structuralism connect with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure on linguistics, along with the linguistics of the Prague and Moscow schools. In brief, Saussure's structural linguistics propounded three related concepts. Saussure argued for a distinction between parole, he argued that the "sign" was composed of both a "signified", an abstract concept or idea, a "signifier", the perceived sound/visual image.
Because different languages have different words to refer to the same objects or concepts, there is no intrinsic reason why a specific signifier is used to express a given concept or idea. It is thus "arbitrary". Signs thus contrasts with other signs; as he wrote, "in language, there are only differences'without positive terms.'"Proponents of structuralism would argue that a specific domain of culture may be understood by means of a structure—modelled on language—that is distinct both from the organizations of reality and those of ideas or the imagination—the "third order". In Lacan's psychoanalytic theory, for example, the structural order of "the Symbolic" is distinguished both from "the Real" and "the Imaginary". Blending Freud and Saussure, the French structuralist Jacques Lacan applied structuralism to psychoanalysis and, in a different way, Jean Piaget applied structuralism to the study of psychology, but Jean Piaget, who would better define himself as constructivist, considers structuralism as "a method and not a doctrine" because for him "there exists no structure without a construction, abstract or genetic".
Although the French theorist Louis Althusser is associated with a brand of structural social analysis which helped give rise to "structural Marxism", such association was contested by Althusser himself in the Italian foreword to the second edition of Reading Capital. In this foreword Althusser states the following: Despite the precautions we took to distinguish ourselves from the'structuralist' ideology... despite the decisive intervention of categories foreign to'structuralism'... the terminology we employed was too close in many respects to the'structuralist' terminology not to give rise to an ambiguity. With a few exceptions... our interpretation of Marx has been recognized and judged, in homage to the current fashion, as'structuralist'... We believe that despite the terminological ambiguity, the profound tendency of our texts was not attached to the'structuralist' ideology. In a development, feminist theorist Alison Assiter enumerated four ideas that she says are common to the various forms of structuralism.
First, that a structure determines the position of each element of a
Top Gear Australia: Ashes Special is a special episode of the motoring series Top Gear Australia and Top Gear. It is part of the Channel Nine revamp of Top Gear Australia, which sees Australian hosts Ewen Page, Steve Pizzati and Shane Jacobson, take on the hosts of Top Gear, James May, Richard Hammond, Jeremy Clarkson in a series of challenges involving the best and worst of British motoring, as well as a rally, driving through a safari park. Other challenges include a drag race between a Holden VE Commodore ute and a standard looking Ford Transit van customised with a Jaguar XJ220 engine, the double car race seen in Series 11 of Top Gear UK. An edited version of the Ashes Special was shown in the UK on 30 January 2011 as part of Series 16, Episode 2 of Top Gear UK; the hosts of Top Gear: Australia Shane Jacobson, Ewen Page and Steve Pizzati are invited by Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May to come to England and experience the best and worst of British motoring. The three Australian hosts are instructed to each get three cars on Britains worst car list and head to a Safari park.
They experience Monkeys. After finishing they are instructed to repeat the trip in the Peel P50, the world's smallest road car. After finishing the trip, the trio encountered a Rhino. In the British version, the Australians were brought on in convict trucks, in reference to the history of Australia. Challenge: A drag race involving the two nations' most used vans; the Bruces using a HSV Maloo, whilst the Nigels used a lowly Ford Transit which turned out to be powered by a Jaguar XJ220 engine. Winner: The Nigels. Challenge: A circuit race with double decker cars from Top Gear; the Australians had the top car placed upside down to "make them feel at home. Each team had another driver; the Nigels had Jodie Kidd, whilst the Bruces had Darryn Lyons Winner: The Nigels. Challenge: Two hosts attempt to do donuts in sync with their partners. James May and Richard Hammond were elected as scorers for the event; the Australians won after Hammond mistakenly held up score cards totalling 11 points instead of the 1.1 as May did.
Winner: The Bruces. Challenge: To herd a flock of sheep into a pen using off-road bikes; the Bruces were mistakenly given Austrian KTM machines, whilst the Nigel's, using BSAs, lost a large number of points for losing the sheep. Winner: The Bruces. Challenge: A rally circuit in the English country side. James May looking rather like The Stig! Winner: The Nigels. Although admittedly, the British presenters cheated in every event they won; the British hosts of Top Gear were: Jeremy Clarkson Richard Hammond James May The Stig The Australian hosts of Top Gear were: Shane Jacobson Ewen Page Steve Pizzati The Stig
David Wade Sullivan is an American film and television actor. David Wade Sullivan was born in Tyler, Texas on April 29, 1977, he grew up in Longview and attended Spring Hill Schools, where he graduated in 1996. He went on to attend Baylor University and majored in marketing and corporate communications, graduating in 2000. During college, he was a member of Delta Tau Delta fraternity, played one year of football and two years of soccer. Sullivan starred as Abe in the 2004 independent film Primer, which won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2004 Sundance Film Festival. Sullivan was nominated for the Film Independent Spirit Award for Best Debut Performance at the 2004 Film Independent Spirit Awards ceremony; the movie spent two years in editing and post-production. Since the debut of Primer, Sullivan moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career as an actor. In August 2010, he filmed Ben Banks. Sullivan had a small part in the 2012 film Argo as Jon Titterton, he has appeared in several television shows including Joey, Big Love, Boston Legal and CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.
In 2015, Sullivan joined the cast of ABC's crime drama series Wicked City as Detective Arnold "Arnie" Bukowski, a crass, loudmouth detective in charge of heading up the ongoing investigation of a Sunset Strip serial killer. He appeared as Dennis in the Netflix original series Flaked, opposite Will Arnett, which premiered in 2016. David Sullivan on IMDb Sullivan's biography on the Primer official website