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Structured programming

Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection and repetition, block structures, subroutines. It emerged in the late 1950s with the appearance of the ALGOL 58 and ALGOL 60 programming languages, with the latter including support for block structures. Contributing factors to its popularity and widespread acceptance, at first in academia and among practitioners, include the discovery of what is now known as the structured program theorem in 1966, the publication of the influential "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" open letter in 1968 by Dutch computer scientist Edsger W. Dijkstra, who coined the term "structured programming". Structured programming is most used with deviations that allow for clearer programs in some particular cases, such as when exception handling has to be performed. Following the structured program theorem, all programs are seen as composed of control structures: "Sequence".

"Selection". This is expressed with keywords such as if..then..else..endif. "Iteration". This is expressed with keywords such as while, for or do..until. It is recommended that each loop should only have one entry point. "Recursion". While similar in practice to iterative loops, recursive loops may be more computationally efficient, are implemented differently as a cascading stack. Subroutines. Blocks are used to enable groups of statements to be treated. Block-structured languages have a syntax for enclosing structures in some formal way, such as an if-statement bracketed by if..fi as in ALGOL 68, or a code section bracketed by BEGIN.. END, as in PL/I and Pascal, whitespace indentation as in Python - or the curly braces of C and many languages, it is possible to do structured programming in any programming language, though it is preferable to use something like a procedural programming language. Some of the languages used for structured programming include: ALGOL, Pascal, PL/I and Ada, but most new procedural programming languages since that time have included features to encourage structured programming, sometimes deliberately left out features – notably GOTO – in an effort to make unstructured programming more difficult.

Structured programming enforces a logical structure on the program being written to make it more efficient and easier to understand and modify. The structured program theorem provides the theoretical basis of structured programming, it states that three ways of combining programs—sequencing and iteration—are sufficient to express any computable function. This observation did not originate with the structured programming movement. Therefore, a processor is always executing a "structured program" in this sense if the instructions it reads from memory are not part of a structured program. However, authors credit the result to a 1966 paper by Böhm and Jacopini because Dijkstra cited this paper himself; the structured program theorem does not address how to write and analyze a usefully structured program. These issues were addressed during the late 1960s and early 1970s, with major contributions by Dijkstra, Robert W. Floyd, Tony Hoare, Ole-Johan Dahl, David Gries. P. J. Plauger, an early adopter of structured programming, described his reaction to the structured program theorem: Us converts waved this interesting bit of news under the noses of the unreconstructed assembly-language programmers who kept trotting forth twisty bits of logic and saying,'I betcha can't structure this.'

Neither the proof by Böhm and Jacopini nor our repeated successes at writing structured code brought them around one day sooner than they were ready to convince themselves. Donald Knuth accepted the principle that programs must be written with provability in mind, but he disagreed with abolishing the GOTO statement. In his 1974 paper, "Structured Programming with Goto Statements", he gave examples where he believed that a direct jump leads to clearer and more efficient code without sacrificing provability. Knuth proposed a looser structural constraint: It should be possible to draw a program's flow chart with all forward branches on the left, all backward branches on the right, no branches crossing each other. Many of those knowledgeable in compilers and graph theory have advocated allowing only reducible flow graphs. Structured programming theorists gained a major ally in the 1970s after IBM researcher Harlan Mills applied his interpretation of structured programming theory to the development of an indexing system for The New York Times research file.

The project was a great engineering success, managers at other companies cited it in support of adopting structured programming, although Dijkstra criticized the ways that Mills's interpretation differed from the published work. As late as 1987 it was still possible to raise the question of structured pr

Ó Coileáin

Ó Coileáin is a Modern Irish surname belonging to the descendants of the last leading family of the Uí Chonaill Gabra, a sept and small but notable overkingdom of medieval and ancient Ireland, based in western County Limerick. Throughout much of their history the Uí Chonaill Gabra were in turn the leading sept of the greater regional overkingdom of the Uí Fidgenti, considered among the highest ranked princes or flatha in all the Province of Munster. Ó Coileáin/Ua Cuiléin is most anglicized O'Collins and O'Cullane. The surname has long been found in County Cork, believed due to the migration there in the late 12th or early 13th century, of a junior branch of the County Limerick dynasty, it is believed that what is a junior branch of the Uí Chonaill kings joined their distant kin the O'Donovan family of the Uí Chairpre Áebda, another great sept of the Uí Fidgenti, in their exodus to Carbery in West Cork between the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Michael Collins, believed his family were descendants of the Uí Chonaill Gabra.

They belonged to the minor landed gentry of Carbery, were situated in the right place near to O'Donovan country, for this to be quite plausible. Con Collins, County Limerick politician Mountcollins, village in the extreme southwest of County Limerick

Circus Money

Circus Money is the second and final solo album by Walter Becker released on June 10, 2008 through the 5 Over 12 label both in CD and digital download formats. The traditional mask featured on the album's cover is based on traditional Central Alaskan Yup'ik facewear. Door Number Two Downtown Canon Bob Is Not Your Uncle Anymore Upside Looking Down Paging Audrey Circus Money Selfish Gene Do You Remember The Name Somebody's Saturday Night Darkling Down God's Eye View Three Picture Deal Dark Horse Dub**International release only MusiciansWalter Becker – vocal, bass Keith Carlockdrums, percussion Jon Heringtonguitar Dean Parks – guitar Ted Bakerkeyboards Jim Beard – keyboards Henry Hey – keyboards Larry Goldingsorgan Luciana Souzapandeiro, background vocals Gordon Gottlieb – percussion Chris Pottertenor sax Roger Rosenberg – horns Larry Klein – bass Carolyn Leonhart-Escoffery – background vocals Kate Marokowitz – background vocals Cindy Mizelle – background vocals Windy Wagner – background vocals Carmen Carter – background vocals Tawatha Agee – background vocals Sharon Bryant – background vocals Sweet Pea Atkinson – background vocals Sir Harry Bowens – background vocals Terry Dexter – background vocals Franki Richard – background vocals Tiffany Wilson – background vocals ProductionLarry Klein – Producer Helik Hadar – Engineer Jay Messina – Engineer Elliot Scheiner – Engineer Bernie GrundmanMastering engineer

Giulio Costanzi

Giulio Cesare Costanzi, was an officer of the ITAF Engineers Corps and a pioneer of space studies in Italy. In 1914, he wrote a paper on space navigation and nuclear propulsion, regarded as the first Italian contribution to space flights on record. Costanzi started his career as a civil engineer entered the Army in the Artillery Corps. From 1911, he served as an officer in the Specialized Engineers Corps, the first nucleus of the future Italian Air Force; the Corps manned aerostatic balloons and airships and was equipped with a range of laboratories planned by Gaetano Arturo Crocco, plus a wind tunnel. In World War I, Costanzi headed a squadron of reconnaissance aircraft and in 1923 was put in charge of an experimental section of the Italian Air Force. In 1928, he left the service as a general, was named member of the State Council and from 1938 to 1945 served as president of the Italian Air Registry, the equivalent of the US Federal Aviation Agency. In 1914, in a specialized magazine, Costanzi published an article on navigation in space suggesting nuclear propulsion to propel spaceships.

It is the first scientific contribution by an Italian to space flight, anticipating many problems related to exploration of outer space. “After the conquest of the air through aircraft, it is high time to abandon Earth and found new colonies in space” he writes, expounds the problem of powering spaceships in the void, without any support from the atmosphere, as in the case of airplanes. He advocates space travel on the basis of action-reaction dynamics, plans a flight Earth-Moon and to overcome the force of gravity he postulates the need for a new source of power, he identifies this source with its yet unknown characteristics. In his article, Costanzi describes what would be the dangers and sensations experienced by an astronaut, such as suffering extreme heat, poisonous radiations, G-acceleration and weightlessness, the latter resulting in a feeling of falling, he concludes affirming that ‘the obstacles to this last dream are not beyond human reasoning, for the time being we are bound only by the lack of appropriate technology”.

Giulio Costanzi "To Escape from the Planet", AER 5, 1914 Smithsonian Annals of Flight n. 10 Costanzi entry in Treccani it:Giulio Costanzi, article in the Italian Wikipedia

SIG MCX

The SIG MCX is a series of firearms designed and manufactured by SIG Sauer, produced in both selective fire and semi-automatic only configurations, features a short-stroke gas piston system, carried over from the SIG MPX submachine gun. The SIG MCX is available in rifle, short-barreled rifle, pistol configurations; the SIG MCX was first introduced at SHOT Show 2015. In 2016, SIG recalled some of the rifles that had the first generation bolt carrier group. A SIG MCX was used in the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting, which at the time was the deadliest mass shooting in U. S. history, now second to the 2017 Las Vegas shooting. The SIG MCX series features a short-stroke gas piston system to reduce recoil and improve the reliability of the weapon; the MCX features a system that allows for conversion between 5.56×45mm NATO.300 AAC Blackout, 7.62×39mm ammunition, using standard 5.56 mm STANAG magazines for 5.56×45mm NATO and.300 AAC Blackout, specially designed STANAG-compatible magazines for 7.62×39mm.

The MCX is designed to deliver optimal performance with.300 AAC Blackout and an optional suppressor. SIG Sauer is yet to deliver the 7.62×39mm configuration and has removed the calibre as an option in their official website. The barrel's profile is tapered at the crown to allow the installation of muzzle devices and direct-thread sound suppressors without the use of washers that degrade performance and allows the devices to self-centre on installation; the barrel can be changed in a matter of seconds to another length or a different calibre. Additionally the barrels are nitride coated for corrosion resistance, it features hardened steel wear points. All MCX variants have a forend made of aluminium with a KeyMod system to add accessories. Controls are ambidextrous including the charging handle but not the bolt release. Four types of stocks are available for the MCX carbine. SIG designed the upper receiver to be compatible with standard AR-15 and M16 lower receivers with the help of an adapter; the overall layout of the two rifles is similar.

The SIG MCX is available with a safe/semi-automatic trigger group for the U. S. civilian market, or safe/semi-automatic/fully automatic trigger group for the military and law enforcement agencies. SIG Sauer offers the rifle in semi-automatic only in three different configurations for the civilian market: The SIG MCX being the standard configuration of the rifle with a 406 mm barrel; the SIG MCX SBR is the short-barreled rifle configuration of the rifle with a 229 mm barrel.. The SIG MCX Pistol is the pistol configuration of the rifle with a 229 mm barrel or 292 mm barrel and comes either with the SIG Sauer SBX or SIG Sauer PCB.. The SIG MCX Low Visibility Assault Weapon is a short-barreled, select-fire variant available only available to the military and law enforcement agencies, it is nicknamed as the "Black Mamba". The SIG MCX VIRTUS is the second generation of the SIG MCX series and was introduced in 2017; the SIG MCX VIRTUS Patrol is the standard configuration that features a 406 mm barrel, a 1:7 inch twist, a custom Sig Matchlite Duo Trigger for improved accuracy, a folding and collapsing 5-position stock, four handguard lengths to choose from, interchangeable barrels and a special internal recoil system.

The SIG MCX VIRTUS SBR is the short-barreled rifle configuration of the MCX VIRTUS. It features a barrel an 292 mm barrel for the 5.56×45mm NATO calibre, a 140 mm barrel and 229 mm barrel for the.300 AAC Blackout calibre. The SIG MCX VIRTUS Pistol is the pistol configuration of the MCX VIRTUS which features an SBX stabiliser brace, it features an 292 mm barrel for the 5.56×45mm NATO calibre, a 229 mm barrel for the.300 AAC Blackout calibre. The SIG MCX RATTLER features a 140 mm barrel and comes either in short-barreled configuration or with a SIG Sauer PCB, it is available in 5.56×45mm and.300 AAC Blackout. The SIG MCX-MR is SIG Sauer's unsuccessful submission for the United States Army's Compact Semi-Automatic Sniper System program, it is chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO and has selective fire capabilities. It weighs 8.9 lb and features a 406 mm fluted, 416 stainless steel barrel, with a 1:10 inch twist, manufactured by Bartlein Barrels. The gas system features suppressed and unsuppressed settings.

Unlike the handguard of the MCX, which slides off after pulling the front pivot pin, the MCX-MR requires popping off two screws first. It features both an M16/AR-15 type charging handle and a left side charging handle, it is uses a 20-round magazine and is compatible with SR-25 lower receivers for use of SR-25 box magazines. Australia: Victoria Police Special Operations Group use the SIG MCX SBR configuration. New South Wales Police Force Tactical Operations Unit use the SIG MCX VIRTUS series including the RATTLER in.300 AAC Blackout. Canada: Saskatchewan Conser

Life After Death Row

Life After Death Row is a documentary on the musical career of the rapper Crooked I. The tell-all film was released on August 29th, 2006 and illustrates the trials and tribulations Crooked I endured while on the infamous Death Row Records; the film takes the viewer on a journey with Crooked I on building his own record label Dynasty Entertainment. The film contains many guest appearances from other musical figures who share similar views of Crooked I; these individuals include Russell Simmons, Master P, Jim Gittum, Bun B, WC, RBX, Big C Style, Mopreme Shakur, Eastwood, Spider Loc and more. Treacherous Records Life After Death Row Trailer