Alexander I of Macedon
Alexander I of Macedon, known with the title Philhellene was the ruler of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Alcetas II. Alexander was the son of Queen Eurydice, he had a sister named Gygaea. He gave his sister for marriage to the Persian general Bubares, in the late 6th century BC, in Macedon at the time, in order to stop him from searching for Persian soldiers, killed by Alexander's men following his commands. Alexander I came to the throne during the era of the kingdom's vassalage at the hand of Achaemenid Persia, dating back to the time of his father, Amyntas I, although Macedon retained a broad scope of autonomy. In 492 BC it was made to a subordinate part of the Persian Kingdom by Mardonius' campaign. At that time, Alexander was on the nominal Macedonian throne. Alexander further acted as a representative of the Persian governor Mardonius during peace negotiations after the Persian defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC.
In events, Herodotus several times mentions Alexander as a man, on Xerxes' side and follows the assigned tasks. From the time of Mardonius' conquest of Macedon, Alexander I is referred to as hyparchos by Herodotus, meaning subordinate governor. Despite his cooperation with Persia, Alexander I gave supplies and advice to the Greek city states, warned them of Mardonius' plans before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. For example, Alexander I warned the Greeks in Tempe to leave before the arrival of Xerxes' troops, as well as notified them of an alternate route into Thessaly through upper Macedonia. After their defeat in Plataea, the Persian army under the command of Artabazus tried to retreat all the way back to Asia Minor. Most of the 43,000 survivors were attacked and killed by the forces of Alexander at the estuary of the Strymon river. Alexander regained Macedonian independence after the end of the Persian Wars. Alexander claimed descent from Argive Heracles. After a court of Elean hellanodikai determined his claim to be true, he was permitted to participate in the Olympic Games in 504 BC, an honour reserved only for Greeks.
He modelled his court after Athens and was a patron of the poets Pindar and Bacchylides, both of whom dedicated poems to Alexander. The earliest reference to an Athenian proxenos, who lived during the time of the Persian wars, is that of Alexander I. Alexander I was given the title "philhellene", a title used for Greek patriots. Alexander had a daughter: Alcetas II, future king of Macedon. Perdiccas II, future king of Macedon. Philip Menelaus, father of Amyntas II Amyntas, whose son Arrhidaeus was the father of Amyntas III, he was thought to be the father of Balacrus, father of Meleager and grandfather of Arsinoe of Macedon Stratonice, married by her brother Perdiccas II to Seuthes II of Thrace. Ancient Macedonians List of ancient Macedonians Smith, William. "Alexander I". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little and Company. P. 118
Vitosha, the ancient Scomius or Scombrus, is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Vitosha is one of the symbols of Sofia and the closest site for hiking and skiing. Convenient bus lines and rope ways render the mountain accessible. Vitosha has the outlines of an enormous dome; the territory of the mountain includes Vitosha nature park that encompasses the best known and most visited parts. The foothills of Vitosha shelter resort quarters of Sofia. Vitosha is the oldest nature park in the Balkans; the mountain emerged as a result of volcanic activity and has been subsequently shaped by the slow folding of the granite rock layers and a series of gradual uplifts of the area. It appears dome shaped at first sight, but the mountain, 19 km long by 17 km wide consists of concentric denudational plateaus rising in tiers one above the other. Vitosha is separated into four main parts; this is the highest point of the mountain at 2290 m and is one of 10 peaks of Vitosha over 2000 m in height.
Bulgaria's longest cave – Duhlata, with a total length of 18,200 m, is situated in Vitosha in the karstic region near the village of Bosnek. Since the ancient times of the Thracians a large population has always existed at the base of Vitosha. For the last four thousand years the economy of this large settlement has always been connected, in one way or another, with the neighboring mountain; the name Vitosha comes from the two-peaked, twin ridge mountain, which rises above the Sofia field and has acquired its present shape in stages over many millennia. A meteorological station was built at the top in 1935, is still operating; the station serves as a rest shelter for hikers and is the headquarters for the mountain rescue team. Historical documents show that several centuries ago Vitosha mountain was still covered by the remains of the inaccessible "Great Bulgarian Forest". Today, the natural coniferous forests of Vitosha remain only in the reserve Bistrishko Branishte and around Zlatnite Mostove.
The Golden Bridges is a stone river consisting of a ribbon of huge boulders running down the mountainside. This scenic spot is located along the Vladayska River in an area of mixed deciduous and evergreen forest. However, this is only one of the stone rivers found in Vitosha and they were once the moraines of ancient glaciers, their further formation occurred due to the spherical erosion of the sienite rocks and their gradual movement to down stream valleys by the forces of gravity and moving water. At a time when nature conservation ideas were a long way from the present understanding, some enlightened noblemen took the first step in 1934 by declaring 66 km² of Vitosha a nature park, hence Vitosha became the first park of this kind in the Balkans. During the following year, some of the early Bulgarian reserves, Bistrishko Branishte and Torfeno Branishte, were designated within its boundaries; the park boundaries fluctuated over many years and today it encompasses the entire mountain. Due to a great variability in elevation, a rich diversity of climates and fauna can be found within the park.
Research has revealed that on the comparatively small area of the mountain there are 1,500 species of higher plants, 500 species of fungi, 500 species of algae, 326 species of mosses, 200 species of lichens. Among them 31 species are Balkan endemics and 52 species are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria; the forests are made up of Norway Spruce and Bulgarian Fir, with some Macedonian Pine, Scots Pine, at the tree-line, Mountain Pine, mixed deciduous forest at lower altitudes beech, birch and alder. Regarding the herbaceous plants, well established populations of Veratrum album are present in the mountain so as other species called'lilies'. There are Orchids as the East European green-winged orchid that grows in the higher parts. Lungwort is another widespread herbaceous plant in Vitosha and it develops in dank sites under the shade of the forest. Vitosha Saddle, Rezen Knoll, Komini Peak, Kikish Crag on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica are named for Mount Vitosha, for the Vitosha peaks of Malak Rezen and Golyam Rezen, Kominite Peak, Kikish site.
Vitosha is the name of: Radio Vitosha Vitosha Boulevard - a popular main street in Sofia. Stone rivers Bistrishko Branishte Torfeno Branishte Aleko Etosha National Park - National Park in Namibia with somewhat similar name but with different ecosystem. Photo Gallery Mountain Vitosha Gallery Nature Park Vitosha Web Site Mountain & Ski resort Vitosha - info, properties The Vitosha mountain - virtual tour Hiking in Vitosha Mountains History of the park, travelling information, photographs Vast Image Gallery of Vitosha
The Rilska River is a river in south-western Bulgaria, a left tributary of the Struma. The river drains the western sections of the Rila mountain range. Under the name Manastirska River, it takes its source from the north-eastern corner of the Upper Fish Lake in the western part of Central Rila at an altitude of 2,225 m in a cirque surrounded by the peaks Yosifitsa in the east, Kanarata in the south and Kyoravitsa in the west, it flows through the Lower Fish Lake, turns in north-western direction and after forming a large convex to the north it turns to the south-west. Following the confluence with its largest tributary, the Iliyna River, it flows in western direction under the name Rilska River, it forms deep and densely forested valley until it reaches the town of Rila and enters the plain and wide Dupnitsa Valley. There, the Rilska River turns in south-western direction and after 10 km flows into the Struma at an altitude of 346 m in the outskirts of the town of Kocherinovo, its drainage basin covers a territory of 392 km 2.27 % of Struma's total.
It borders the basins of the rivers Dzherman to the north and north-west, Iskar to the east and north-east, Mesta to the south-east and Blagoevgradska Bistritsa to the south. The Rilska River has predominantly snow-rain feed with high water in late spring and early summer and low water in winter, its left tributaries have more contribution to the annual flow because they are situated in southern end of the valley on slopes that face in northern direction and accumulate more snow. The average annual flow is 6.26 m3/s at the village of Pastra and 3.35 m3/s at the confluence with the Struma. The overall annual flow is 11.4 % of Struma's total. The river has low levels of mineralisation and is saturated with oxygen. There are five settlements along the river: Pastra and Rila in Rila Municipality and Stob and Barakovo in Kocherinovo Municipality; the waters of the upper and middle course are used for electricity by the smalls hydro power stations of Pastra and Rila. The entire length of 38 km of the third class road III-107 between Kocherinovo and the Rila Monastery follows the Rilska River valley.
The whole upper course and watershed of the river falls within borders of the Rila Monastery Nature Park. On the river's left banks some 4.8 km downstream of the confluence with the Iliyna is located the Rila Monastery, one of Bulgaria's oldest and most important sanctuaries. The monastery is an important national and international tourist destination and was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. Further downstream at the village of Stob, just south of Rilska River's left banks are situated the Stob Earth Pyramids, rock formations, known as hoodoos. Мичев, Николай. Географски речник на България. София: Наука и култура. Yankov, Petar. Rila Monastery Nature Park. Management Plan 2004–2013. Sofia: Ministry of Environment and Water
Battle of Kleidion
The Battle of Kleidion took place on July 29, 1014 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire. It was the culmination of the nearly half-century struggle between the Byzantine Emperor Basil II and the Bulgarian Emperor Samuil in the late 10th and early 11th centuries; the result was a decisive Byzantine victory. The battle took place in the valley between the mountains of Belasitsa and Ograzhden near the modern Bulgarian village of Klyuch; the decisive encounter occurred on July 29 with an attack in the rear by a force under the Byzantine general Nikephoros Xiphias, who had infiltrated the Bulgarian positions. The ensuing battle was a major defeat for the Bulgarians. Bulgarian soldiers were captured and reputedly blinded by order of Basil II, who would subsequently be known as the "Bulgar-Slayer". Samuel survived the battle, but died two months from a heart attack brought on by the sight of his blind soldiers. Although the engagement did not end the First Bulgarian Empire, the Battle of Kleidion reduced its ability to resist Byzantine advances and can be considered the pivotal encounter of the war with Byzantium.
The heirs of Samuel could not subsequently hold off the Byzantine advance, in 1018 the Bulgarian Empire was destroyed by Basil II. The origins of the conflict date back to the 7th century, when the Bulgars under Khan Asparukh established a state along the Danube in one of the provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire; as a result, the Bulgarian state was forced to fight a series of wars with Byzantium in order to secure its continued existence. In 968, Bulgaria was invaded from the north by the Kievan Prince Sviatoslav. By that time, the Bulgarian Empire, which had once threatened the existence of Byzantium under the reign of Simeon, had lost much of its power. During the conflict, the Kievan raids were defeated by the Byzantines, who were at war with the Bulgarians, a continuous conflict since the fall of the Bulgarian capital Preslav in 971; this war had resulted in the Bulgarian Emperor Boris II being forced to renounce his Imperial title in Constantinople, eastern Bulgaria came under Byzantine rule.
The Byzantines assumed that this act would signify the end of independent Bulgaria, but the western Bulgarian lands remained autonomous and under the Comitopuli brothers David, Moses and Samuel, resistance against the Byzantines emerged. When the Byzantine emperor Basil II ascended the throne in 976, he made the destruction of independent Bulgaria his first ambition. Opposing him were the Western Bulgarians, now led by Samuel of Bulgaria. Basil II's first campaign was disastrous, the emperor escaping with his life when the Bulgarians annihilated the Byzantine army in the Gates of Trajan Pass in 986. Over the next fifteen years, while Basil was preoccupied with revolts against his rule and the Fatimid threat in the East, Samuel retook most of the conquered Bulgarian lands and carried the war into enemy territory in a series of campaigns. However, his invasion of southern Greece, that reached as far as Corinth, resulted in a major defeat in the Battle of Spercheios in 996; the next phase of the war began in 1000, when Basil, having secured his own position, launched a series of offensives against Bulgaria.
He secured Moesia, in 1003, his forces took Vidin. The next year, Basil inflicted a heavy defeat on Samuel in the Battle of Skopie. By 1005, Basil had regained parts of southern Macedonia. Over these and the next few years, a regular pattern emerged: the Byzantines would campaign in Bulgaria, laying siege to forts and pillaging the countryside, while the numerically inferior Bulgarians, unable to offer direct opposition, launched diversionary raids in Macedonia and Greece. Despite some successes, these did not achieve any permanent results, nor did they force Basil to abandon his campaigns in Bulgaria. A counter-attack in 1009 failed at the Battle of Kreta, although the Byzantines themselves did not achieve any decisive success, their methodical war of attrition deprived the Bulgarians of their strongholds and weakened their forces. In the words of Byzantine historian John Skylitzes: "The Emperor Basil II continued to invade Bulgaria each year and destroy and devastate everything on his way.
Samuel could not stop him in the open field or engage the Emperor in a decisive battle, suffered many defeats and began to lose his strength." The culmination of the war came in 1014, when Samuel, at the head of his army, resolved to stop the Byzantine army before it could enter the Bulgarian heartland. Samuel knew that the Byzantine army would have to invade the country through a series of mountain passes, so took precautions to bar them; the Bulgarians built ditches along the frontier and fortified many of the valleys and passes with walls and towers the pass of Kleidion on the Struma River which Basil would need to pass through to reach the heart of Bulgaria. Samuel fortified the northern slopes of the Belasitsa mountain to the south and east of Strumitsa Castle; the wide valley of the Strumitsa River was a convenient place for attack and it had been used by Byzantine forces for this purpose in previous years. The Bulgarians disposed a strong guard to keep the pass safe. In addition, the Bulgarian ruler chose Strumitsa for his defensive base — it was located on the road from Thessaloniki leading to Thrace to the east and Ohrid to the west.
The rugged terrain to the south was dotted with earthworks and walls guarded by strong Bulgarian units. Samuel's decision to face Basil II and the bulk of his army at Kleidion was not only prompted by the constant defeats and invasions which had devastated the country, but by concerns over
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Amphipolis is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece. The seat of the municipality is Rodolivos, it was an ancient Greek polis, a Roman city, whose large remains can still be seen. Amphipolis, an Athenian colony, was the seat of the battle between the Spartans and Athenians in 422 BC, the place where Alexander the Great prepared for campaigns leading to his invasion of Asia. Alexander's three finest admirals, Nearchus and Laomedon, resided in Amphipolis, the place where, after Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their small son Alexander IV were exiled and murdered. Excavations in and around the city have revealed ancient walls and tombs; the finds are displayed at the archaeological museum of Amphipolis. At the nearby vast Kasta burial mound, an ancient Macedonian tomb has been revealed; the Lion of Amphipolis monument nearby is a popular destination for visitors. It was located within the region of Edonis. Throughout the 5th century BC, Athens sought to consolidate its control over Thrace, strategically important because of its primary materials, the sea routes vital for Athens' supply of grain from Scythia.
After a first unsuccessful attempt at colonisation in 497 BC by the Milesian Tyrant Histiaeus, the Athenians founded a first colony at Ennea-Hodoi in 465 BC, but these first ten thousand colonists were massacred by the Thracians. A second attempt took place in 437 BC on the same site under the guidance of Hagnon, son of Nicias, successful; the city and its first walls date from this time. The new settlement took the name of Amphipolis, a name, the subject of much debate about its etymology. Thucydides claims the name comes from the fact that the Strymon River flows "around the city" on two sides. However, a more probable explanation is the one given by Julius Pollux: that the name indicates the vicinity of an isthmus. Amphipolis became the main power base of the Athenians in Thrace and a target of choice for their Spartan adversaries; the Athenian population remained much in the minority in the city. For this reason Amphipolis remained an independent city and an ally of the Athenians, rather than a colony or member of the Athens-led Delian League.
However, in 424 BC the Spartan general Brasidas took control of the city. A rescue expedition led by the Athenian general, historian, Thucydides had to settle for securing Eion and could not retake Amphipolis, a failure for which Thucydides was sentenced to exile. A new Athenian force under the command of Cleon failed once more in 422 BC during the Battle of Amphipolis at which both Cleon and Brasidas lost their lives. Brasidas survived long enough to hear of the defeat of the Athenians and was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp. From on he was regarded as the founder of the city and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices; the city itself kept its independence until the reign of king Philip II despite several Athenian attacks, notably because of the government of Callistratus of Aphidnae. In 357 BC, Philip succeeded where the Athenians had failed and conquered the city, thereby removing the obstacle which Amphipolis presented to Macedonian control over Thrace. According to the historian Theopompus, this conquest came to be the object of a secret accord between Athens and Philip II, who would return the city in exchange for the fortified town of Pydna, but the Macedonian king betrayed the accord, refusing to cede Amphipolis and laying siege to Pydna as well.
The city was not incorporated into the Macedonian kingdom, for some time preserved its institutions and a certain degree of autonomy. The border of Macedonia was not moved further east. Nomenclature, the calendar and the currency were all replaced by Macedonian equivalents. In the reign of Alexander the Great, Amphipolis was an important naval base, the birthplace of three of the most famous Macedonian admirals: Nearchus and Laomedon, whose burial place is most marked by the famous lion of Amphipolis; the importance of the city in this period is shown by Alexander the Great's decision that it was one of the six cities at which large luxurious temples costing 1,500 talents were built. Alexander prepared for campaigns here against Thrace in 335 BC and his army and fleet assembled near the port before the invasion of Asia; the port was used as naval base during his campaigns in Asia. After Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their young son Alexander IV were exiled by Cassander and murdered here.
Throughout Macedonian sovereignty Amphipolis was a strong fortress of great strategic and economic importance, as shown by inscriptions. Amphipolis became one of the main stops on the Macedonian royal road, on the Via Egnatia, the principal Roman road which crossed the southern Balkans. Apart from the ramparts of the lower town, the gymnasium and a set of well-preserved frescoes from a wealthy villa are the only artifacts from this peri
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m