International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is the government body responsible for protected areas of Tasmania on public land, such as national parks, historic sites and regional reserves. It has had responsibility for managing wildlife, including game; the National Parks and Wildlife Service was set up on 1 November 1971 after controversy surrounding the proposal to flood Lake Pedder and the unsuccessful attempts to prevent the project going ahead. A Select Committee formed from the interested parties recommended the establishment of a professional park service to properly manage the natural environment in Tasmania; the service had a staff of 59. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 had made provisions for the conservation of fauna and flora and the establishment and management of national parks. Mount William, Maria Island and Narawntapu National Parks were set up and Macquarie Island designated as a nature reserve; the creation of an Archaeology Section within the service followed the 1975 Aboriginal Relics Act.
In the following year Precipitous Bluff was incorporated into the Southwest National Park. Controversy in 1979 over the proposed Lower Gordon hydro-electric power scheme, which would have meant flooding the Franklin River led to the creation of the Franklin-Lower Gordon Wild Rivers National Park in 1981. In 1987 the service was merged with the Department of Lands to form the Department of Lands and Wildlife and relocated to new premises. In 1989 the Department of Lands and Wildlife became the Department of Environment and Planning and Department of Parks and Heritage, managing Crown land as well as the reserves, with duties to conserve wildlife and historic heritage sites; the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens and the Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority became part of the Department. In the same year the Douglas-Apsley National Park, important for its dry sclerophyll forests, was established in the east of the state; the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area was expanded to include the Central Plateau Conservation Area.
With other additions the World Heritage Area increased to 13,800 square kilometres. In 1990, Tasmania's first marine reserves were established at Maria Island, Governor Island and Ninepins Point. On 3 February 1993, the Department once again merged, this time with the Department of Environment and Land Management, with The Parks and Wildlife Service functioning as a separate division within the department. In 1993 the introduction of park fees allowed the service to fund projects aimed at visitors including visitor centres and official trails; some land managed by the service was transferred to Aboriginal Land Council of Tasmania and an Aboriginal Heritage Unit was created to provide training for Aboriginal community members, to allow them to advise on Aboriginal heritage management. In 1996 the Mole Creek Karst National Park was created and South Bruny National Park followed in October 1997. Under the Regional Forestry Agreement an extra 3,960 square kilometres of public land were added to Tasmania's reserves, expanding the amount of public land in reserves by 17%.
The RFA expanded Mount William National Park, Freycinet National Park and created Tasman and Savage River National Parks. Offsetting these gains were 700 square kilometres of reserves which were made available for forestry development. A further departmental merger occurred after the 1998 elections with an amalgamation into the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and the Government Analytical and Forensic Laboratories creating the Department of Primary Industries and Environment; the Parks and Wildlife Service was split into two separate divisions: the Resource Management and Conservation Division had responsibility for the natural and cultural resources and the Parks and Wildlife Service covered Tasmania's parks and World Heritage Areas. The Parks and Wildlife Service was separated from the Department of Primary Industries and Environment following the 2002 State elections, becoming part of the Department of Tourism, Parks and the Arts, while the Resource Management and Conservation Division remained part of the DPIWE.
In 2002 three islands, Deal and Dover were declared as part of the Kent Group National Park and marine protected areas were created there and at Port Davey-Bathurst Harbour. In April 2006 the Department incorporated the Environment Division from Department of Primary Industries and Environment; this led to a renaming of the Department to the Department of Tourism and the Environment. In 2007 the Tasmanian Coast Conservation Fund was established. Tour company operator Robert Pennicott founder of Bruny Island Cruises and Tasman Island Cruises came together with environmental group WILDCARE to establish the fund. While operating separately to the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, the fund is used to provide funding to the Parks and Wildlife Service to assist environmental protection and conservation projects in Tasmania's National Parks. Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council "A History of the Parks and Wildlife Service". Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service. 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2006
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Mount William National Park
Mount William is a national park in Tasmania, 234 km northeast of Hobart. Established in 1973 as an 8,640 hectares large national park, it has been expanded multiple times, reaching 13,806 ha in 1980 and 18,439 ha in 1999; the park provides protected habitat to eastern grey kangarooes, Bennetts wallabies, Tasmanian pademelons, brush-tailed possums and Tasmanian devils. Protected areas of Tasmania
Maria Island National Park
Maria Island National Park occupies the whole of Maria Island off the east coast of Tasmania, Australia, 69 km northeast of Hobart or about 90 kilometres by road to Triabunna followed by a ferry ride. The island has had a mixed history, including two convict eras, two industrial eras, a farming era and becoming the national park that it is today. Maria Island is a mecca for visitors, providing an array of interests for the daytripper or overnight visitor to the island. Lieutenant Governor Arthur established a penal settlement at Darlington in 1825 for convicts whose crimes were not of'so flagrant a nature' that they should be sent to the notorious Macquarie Harbour settlement on Tasmania's west coast. A small party of soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Peter Murdoch, fifty male prisoners, arrived at the island aboard the ship Prince Leopold in March 1825. Housing was log and bark huts or tents. After the arrival of a new Commandant, Major Thomas Lord, in August, more permanent buildings were erected using bricks made on the island and sandstone excavated from the sea cliffs.
The commissariat store and the penitentiary can still be seen today and are the only surviving buildings from this era. Industries such as cloth and shoe-making, timber cutting, pottery were fostered. Frequent escape attempts, complaints about relaxed discipline and the opening of Port Arthur in 1830 led to the decision to abandon the settlement in 1832; the second convict era commenced in 1842. Under the probation system of the 1840s, convicts were withdrawn from private service and grouped together in government stations. Probation stations were established at Point Lesueur. Agricultural work was a key activity for convicts as there were in excess of 400 acres of crops to maintain. Officials and 600 male convicts in Darlington were housed in old and altered structures re-used from the first convict era, new buildings were erected. Overcrowding and ill-adapted buildings were constant problems. Maria Island's potential for wine and silk production, fruit-growing and tourist developments attracted an Italian entrepreneur, Diego Bernacchi.
In 1884 Bernacchi secured a long term lease of the island from the Tasmanian Government and the'Maria Island Company' was formed. Bernacchi renamed Darlington "San Diego", the little town soon had in excess of 250 residents of a variety of different nationalities. Bernacchi established; the opening of the Grand Hotel in 1888, complete with dining and accommodation rooms, saw the promotion of the island as a pleasure resort and sanatorium. Constructed during this era were the Coffee Palace, a row of workers' cottages known as the'Twelve Apostles' and six terraced cottages, built using bricks from the demolished convict separate apartment cells; some of the old convict buildings were re-modelled to house workers and shops. Bernacchi's family resided in the old religious instructor's house for a time. Sadly, the 208-cell apartment block from the second convict era was demolished and the bricks used to build other buildings and roads. Only two photographs exist today of this building. Although Bernacchi was enthusiastic, the Maria Island Company went into liquidation in 1892.
Bernacchi formed a new company for that purpose. It was short-lived, in 1896 Bernacchi and his family left for Melbourne, subsequently London. Afterwards, tourists continued to frequent the island where Rosa Adkins ran a boarding house in the former Coffee Palace. Diego Bernacchi returned to Maria Island, determined to exploit the limestone deposits for cement and expand on his initial plans; the National Portland Cement Company Ltd was formed in 1920. The annual report for 1923 revealed that a new 620-foot pier had been cojnstructed and that buildings were being erected, including a 200 ft high chimney stack of reinforced concrete. A railway line conveyed limestone to the works. Machinery worth over £ 125,000 had been imported from London; the works were opened in February 1924. Community life prospered for the 500 or so residents. Social and sports clubs sprang up, dances were held and the old chapel was used as a cinema. A school was erected for the employees' children; the schoolmaster's house of this period is now the Ranger's Office.
Production problems were experienced at the works from an early stage, together with the effects of the Great Depression, caused the cessation of business in 1930. After the conclusion of the second industrial era, Maria Island became a quiet home to a few farming families. In particular, the Adkins, Howell, Robey and Haigh families spent many years on the island; the Adkins family in particular have a longer association with the island than any other name, with four generations of them calling the island home - commencing in the 1880s and continuing until the 1960s. A number of these families' names are cemented into the island's history by having buildings, farms or sites that still have their name; these include the Adkins' house, French's Farm, Robey's Farm, Hunt's Cottage, Howell's Farm and Haigh's Farm. Farming ended when the Tasmanian Government began purchasing properties from their owners in preparation for declaring the island a national park. In 1972 Maria Island was declared a national park.
From the early 1970s various species of fauna were released onto the island, including mammals and birds such as emus and Cape Barren geese. The island's first ranger was Rex Gaten
Mole Creek Karst National Park
Mole Creek Karst is a national park situated in the North of Tasmania, Australia, 168 km northwest of Hobart. It is located on the slopes of the Great Western Tiers to the east of the town of Mole Creek, it is the only national park in Tasmania created to protect karst landforms. It is part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Site; the National park comprises twelve separate blocks of land, some of which are surrounded by cleared, private land, many of which whose karst features and cave entrances are located outside the bounds of the park. The Mole Creek Karst National Park is characterised by its numerous and spectacular cave networks, which attract many tourists each year. Two of these particular caves. Many of the caves within the National Park remain underdeveloped and are not promoted, although they are visited by the occasional recreational caver. Many other caves are located on private land, therefore pose an issue in regards to management and conservation; the national park was declared in 1996 to provide protection for an extensive system of over 300 known caves and sinkholes, including Marakoopa and King Solomons Cave.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature classifies the Mole Creek Karst National Park as a Category II protected area, for the purpose of both recreation and ecosystem protection. The Mole Creek Karst National Park features a wide range of flora and fauna, of varying conservation status; these species are contained both in the caves, in the surrounding forests within the National Park. Many of the species present in the caves, are endemic to the area, therefore are important in regards to conservation and protection. There are many animal species present in the Mole Creek Karst National Park that are both unique to the Karst system, listed as protected cave species; the glow worms Arachnocampus tasmaniensis inhabit many of the caves present in the Mole Creek Karst National Park, provide one of the main tourist attractions to the area. The Marakoopa Cave houses one of the most spectacular glow-worm displays in the entire system, is a major tourist attraction on the guided cave tours.
The karst system is home to many other protected cave species, such as crickets Micropathus cavernicola, Parvotettix geode. Three species present in the system, listed on the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995, are endemic to the area and confined to the cave systems. Tasmanotrechus cockerilli, a beetle present in the cave systems is a rare and cave modified beetle, having evolved to live in a dark cave environment, its eyes have become vestigial. T. cockerilli belongs to the Tribe Trechinae and is listed as vulnerable on the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. Pseudotyrannochthonius typhlus, is known as the Mole Creek Cave Pseudoscorpion, is an rare animal that makes its home in caves within the Mole Creek karst system, it is known from only about a dozen specimens, is rarely sighted. It is listed as rare on the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. Hickmanoxyomma gibbergunyar known as the Mole Creek Cave Harvestman is a troglobite species, present in many of the cave systems in the Mole Creek area, is endemic to the Mole Creek Karst.
This species is listed as rare by the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. There’s a variety of bacteria and fungi associated with the caves which are believed to be involved in crystalline and amorphous speleothem germination and growth; the following is a list of some of the species within the Mole Creek Karst National Park. The following species are considered endangered and rare by the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. Accipiter novaehollandiae Endangered Parameles gunnii gunnii Vulnerable Aquila audax fleayi Endangered Pseudotyrannochthonius typhlus Rare Astacopsis gouldi Vulnerable Tasmanotrechus cockerilli Rare Hickmanoxyomma gibbergunyar RareThe Giant Freshwater Crayfish species Astacopsis gouldi is considered vulnerable by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. There is a diverse range of flora in the park, suited to many different habitats due to the wide variance of different habitats and conditions present in the park. Forested areas of the park are dominated by “brown-top stringybark, white-top stringybark, swamp gum, black gum E. white gum, black peppermint and silver wattle ”, while the underbrush of the forests is shrubby.
Some of the park has been affected by its surrounding rural environment, as blocks of flora have been modified by fire regimes and grazing on private land. Due to this some of the more burnt areas are open and dominated by ferns. There are many sinkholes present in areas of the park, many of these are associated with Sphagnum peatlands that are found scattered amongst eucalyptus forests
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur