The Comedy of Errors
The Comedy of Errors is one of William Shakespeare's early plays. It is his shortest and one of his most farcical comedies, with a major part of the humour coming from slapstick and mistaken identity, in addition to puns and word play; the Comedy of Errors is, along with The Tempest, one of only two Shakespearean plays to observe the Aristotelian principle of unity of time—that is, that the events of a play should occur over 24 hours. It has been adapted for opera, stage and musical theatre numerous times worldwide. In the centuries following its premiere, the play's title has entered the popular English lexicon as an idiom for "an event or series of events made ridiculous by the number of errors that were made throughout". Set in the Greek city of Ephesus, The Comedy of Errors tells the story of two sets of identical twins who were accidentally separated at birth. Antipholus of Syracuse and his servant, Dromio of Syracuse, arrive in Ephesus, which turns out to be the home of their twin brothers, Antipholus of Ephesus and his servant, Dromio of Ephesus.
When the Syracusans encounter the friends and families of their twins, a series of wild mishaps based on mistaken identities lead to wrongful beatings, a near-seduction, the arrest of Antipholus of Ephesus, false accusations of infidelity, theft and demonic possession. Act I Because a law forbids merchants from Syracuse to enter Ephesus, elderly Syracusian trader Egeon faces execution when he is discovered in the city, he can only escape by paying a fine of a thousand marks. He tells his sad story to Duke of Ephesus. In his youth, Egeon had twin sons. On the same day, a poor woman without a job gave birth to twin boys, he purchased these as slaves to his sons. Soon afterward, the family was hit by a tempest. Egeon lashed himself to the main-mast with one son and one slave, his wife took the other two infants, his wife was rescued by Egeon by another. Egeon never again saw the children with her, his son Antipholus, now grown, his son's slave Dromio left Syracuse to find their brothers. When Antipholus did not return, Egeon set out in search of him.
The Duke is moved by this story and grants Egeon one day to pay his fine. That same day, Antipholus arrives in Ephesus, he sends Dromio to deposit some money at an inn. He is confounded when the identical Dromio of Ephesus appears immediately, denying any knowledge of the money and asking him home to dinner, where his wife is waiting. Antipholus, beats Dromio of Ephesus. Act II Dromio of Ephesus returns to his mistress, saying that her "husband" refused to come back to his house, pretended not to know her. Adriana, concerned that her husband's eye is straying, takes this news as confirmation of her suspicions. Antipholus of Syracuse, who complains "I could not speak with Dromio since at first, I sent him from the mart," meets up with Dromio of Syracuse who now denies making a "joke" about Antipholus having a wife. Antipholus begins beating him. Adriana rushes up to Antipholus of Syracuse and begs him not to leave her; the Syracusans cannot but attribute these strange events to witchcraft, remarking that Ephesus is known as a warren for witches.
Antipholus and Dromio go off with this strange woman, the one to eat dinner and the other to keep the gate. Act III Antipholus of Ephesus returns home for dinner and is enraged to find that he is rudely refused entry to his own house by Dromio of Syracuse, keeping the gate, he is ready to break down the door. He decides, instead. Inside the house, Antipholus of Syracuse discovers that he is attracted to his "wife's" sister, Luciana of Smyrna, telling her "train me not, sweet mermaid, with thy note / To drown me in thy sister's flood of tears." She is worried about their moral implications. After she exits, Dromio of Syracuse announces that he has discovered that he has a wife: Nell, a hideous kitchen-maid, he describes her as "spherical, like a globe. Antipholus jokingly asks him to identify the countries, leading to a witty exchange in which parts of her body are identified with nations. Ireland is her buttocks: "I found it out by the bogs", he claims he has discovered America and the Indies "upon her nose all o'er embellished with rubies, sapphires, declining their rich aspect to the hot breath of Spain.
The Syracusans decide to leave as soon as possible, Dromio runs off to make travel plans. Antipholus of Syracuse is confronted by Angelo of Ephesus, a goldsmith, who claims that Antipholus ordered a chain from him. Antipholus is forced to accept the chain, Angelo says that he will return for payment. Act IV Antipholus of Ephesus dispatches Dromio of Ephesus to purchase a rope so that he can beat his wife Adriana for locking him out is accosted by Angelo, who tells him "I thought to have ta'en you at the Porpentine" and asks to be reimbursed for the chain, he denies seeing it and is promptly arrested. As he is being led away, Dromio of Syracuse arrives, whereupon Antipholus dispatches him back to Adriana's house to get money for his bail. After completing this errand, Dromio of Syracuse mistakenly delivers the money to Antipholus of Syracuse; the Courtesan spies Antipholus wearing the gold chain, says he promised it to her in exchange for her ring. The Syracusans flee. Act V The Courtesan resolves to tell Adriana.
Dromio of Ephesus returns to the arrested Antipholus of Ep
William H. Crane
William Henry Crane was an American actor. He was born in Leicester, Massachusetts on April 30, 1845, he made his first appearance at Utica, New York, in Donizetti's The Daughter of the Regiment in 1863. He had a great success as Le Blanc the Notary, in the burlesque Evangeline, he made his first hit in the legitimate drama with Stuart Robson, in The Comedy of Errors and other Shakespearian plays, in The Henrietta by Bronson Howard. This partnership lasted for 12 years, subsequently Crane appeared in various eccentric character parts in such plays as The Senator and David Harum. In 1904 he turned to more serious work and played Isidore Izard in Business is Business, an adaptation from Octave Mirbeau's Les Affaires sont les Affaires. In his 70s, Crane appeared in a number of films, notably in a reprise of his role in David Harum, he appeared in MGM's Three Wise Fools, a film was revived on Turner Classic Movies and is available on home video/DVD. Crane died on March 1928, at the age of 82 in the Hollywood Hotel.
David Harum The Saphead Souls for Sale Three Wise Fools This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Crane, William Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 367. "W. H. Crane" by Joseph Howard, Jr. in Famous American Actors of To-day, edited by Frederic Edward McKay and Charles E. L. Wingate, New York, Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, 1896. Online here. "William H. Crane", Chapter XI in Famous Actors of the Day in America by Lewis C. Strang, Boston, L. C. Page and Company, 1900. Online here. "Crane-Robson" in Some Players: Personal Sketches by Amy Leslie, Herbert S. Stone & Company, Chicago & New York, 1901. Online here. "William H. Crane, A Study", By Edwin F. Edgett in Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, January 1903. Online here.. Obituary in the New York Times, March 8, 1928, page 25, online here. William H. Crane at the Internet Broadway Database William H. Crane on IMDb
She Stoops to Conquer
She Stoops to Conquer is a comedy by the Irish author Oliver Goldsmith, first performed in London in 1773. The play is a favourite for study by English literature and theatre classes in the English-speaking world, it is one of the few plays from the 18th century to have retained its appeal and is performed. The play has been adapted into a film several times, including in 1914 and 1923; the play was titled Mistakes of a Night and the events within the play take place in one long night. In 1778, John O'Keeffe wrote Tony Lumpkin in Town. Wealthy countryman Mr. Hardcastle arranges for his daughter Kate to meet Marlow, the son of a rich Londoner, hoping the pair will marry. Marlow prefers lower-class women, finding them less intimidating than women of high society. On his first acquaintance with Kate, the latter realises she will have to pretend to be'common' to get Marlow to woo her, thus Kate'stoops to conquer', by posing as a maid, hoping to put Marlow at his ease so he falls for her. Marlow sets out for Mr. Hardcastle's manor with a friend, George Hastings, an admirer of Miss Constance Neville, another young lady who lives with the Hardcastles.
During the journey the two men get lost and stop at an alehouse, The Three Jolly Pigeons, for directions.8 Tony Lumpkin, Kate's step-brother and Constance's cousin, comes across the two strangers at the alehouse and realising their identity, plays a practical joke by telling them that they are a long way from their destination and will have to stay overnight at an inn. The "inn" he directs them to is in fact the home of the Hardcastles; when they arrive, the Hardcastles, who have been expecting them, go out of their way to make them welcome. Marlow and Hastings, believing themselves in an inn, behave disdainfully towards their hosts. Hardcastle bears their unwitting insults with forbearance, because of his friendship with Marlow's father. Kate learns of her suitor's shyness from Constance and a servant tells her about Tony's trick, she decides to masquerade as a serving-maid to get to know him. Marlow falls in love with her and plans to elope but because she appears of a lower class, acts in a somewhat bawdy manner around her.
All misunderstandings are resolved by the end, thanks to an appearance by Sir Charles Marlow. The main sub-plot concerns the secret romance between Hastings. Constance needs her jewels, an inheritance, guarded by Tony's mother, Mrs. Hardcastle, who wants Constance to marry her son, to keep the jewels in the family. Tony despises the thought of marrying Constance — he prefers a barmaid at the alehouse — and so agrees to steal the jewels from his mother's safekeeping for Constance, so she can elope to France with Hastings; the play concludes with Kate's plan succeeding and Marlow become engaged. Tony discovers, he refuses to marry Constance, eligible to receive her jewels and become engaged to Hastings, which she does. The original production premiered in London at Covent Garden Theatre on 15 March 1773 with Mary Bulkley as Constantia Hardcastle, was an immediate success. Lionel Brough is supposed to have played Tony Lumpkin 777 times. Lillie Langtry had her first big success in this play in 1881.
One of the most famous modern incarnations of She Stoops to Conquer was Peter Hall's version, staged in 1993 and starring Miriam Margolyes as Mrs. Hardcastle; the most famous TV production is the 1971 version featuring Ralph Richardson, Tom Courtenay, Juliet Mills, Brian Cox, with Trevor Peacock as Tony Lumpkin. Courtenay and Peacock performed in this play at The Garrick Theatre, London, in 1969; the 1971 version was shot on location near Ross-on-Wye, is part of the BBC archive. This play was one of 13 BBC productions that formed the series called Classic Theatre, the Humanities in Drama; the series was funded in the U. S. by the N. E. H. and used as a study aid on video tape by thousands of U. S. students. The type of comedy which She Stoops to Conquer represents has been much disputed but there is consensus amongst audiences and critics that the play is a comedy of manners, it can be seen as one of the following comedy types: When the play was first produced, it was discussed as an example of the revival of laughing comedy over the sentimental comedy seen as dominant on the English stage since the success of The Conscious Lovers, written by Sir Richard Steele in 1722.
In the same year, an essay in a London magazine, entitled "An Essay on the Theatre. Some theatre historians believe that the essay was written by Goldsmith as a puff piece for She Stoops to Conquer as an exemplar of the laughing comedy which Goldsmith had touted. Goldsmith's name was linked with that of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, author of The Rivals and The School for Scandal, as standard-bearers for the resurgent laughing comedy; the play can be seen as a comedy of manners, in which, in a polite society setting, the comedy arises from the gap between the characters' attempts to preserve standards of polite behaviour and their true behaviour. It is seen by some scholars as a romantic comedy, which demonstrates how young people take love, how foolishly it makes them behave. In She Stoops to Conquer, Kate's stooping and Marlow's nervousness are good examples of romantic comedy, Constance Neville's and George Hastings' love and plan to elope are examples of romantic comedy. Alternatively, it can be seen as a satire, where c
Annapolis is the capital of the U. S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles south of Baltimore and about 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census. This city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States; the city and state capitol was the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia.
Over 220 years the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696. A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone; the settlers moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was named "Town at Proctor's," "Town at the Severn," and "Anne Arundel's Towne". In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall as fifth Proprietary Governor.
Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II as King in England. In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland, to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain. Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.17th-century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, a major center of the Atlantic slave trade. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green in 1745. Water trades such as oyster-packing and sailmaking became the city's chief industries.
Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have replaced the seafood industry in the city. Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag; the flag is different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.
In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, still in force. On April 24, 1861, the midshipmen of the Naval Academy relocated their base in Annapolis and were temporarily housed in Newport, Rhode Island until October 1865. In 1861, the first of three camps that were built for holding paroled soldiers was created on the campus of St. John's College; the second location of Camp Parole would
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cohasset is a town in Norfolk County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 7,542, in 2017 the estimated population was 8,516. Cohasset was first seen by Europeans in 1614, when Captain John Smith explored the coast of New England; the area was first settled in 1670 and became a town separate from Hingham in 1770. What is today the town of Cohasset was known as Hingham's Second Parish; the town's name came from the Algonquian word "Conahasset", meaning "long rocky place". Much of the land was granted to the "Conahasset Partners". At a special town meeting of January 1670, the shares in the new town were apportioned and divided among the new proprietors, many of whom were large Hingham landowners; the largest number of shares—35—went to Hingham Town Clerk Daniel Cushing, with the second largest to Reverend Peter Hobart, Hingham's minister. Others receiving large grants were: Capt. Joshua Hobart, Peter Hobart's brother. John Smith; the layout of the town was distinctive. Many lots were laid out in long narrow strips, facilitating more lots with road frontage, avoiding back lots.
Cohasset was part of Suffolk County, when the southern part of the county was set off as Norfolk County in 1793, it included the towns of Cohasset and Hull. In 1803 Hull and Hingham opted out of Norfolk County and became part of Plymouth County, leaving Cohasset as an exclave of Norfolk County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.4 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles are land and 21.7 square miles, or 68.86%, are water. It is bordered on the west by Hingham, on the northwest by Hull, on the north and northeast by Massachusetts Bay and on the east and south by Scituate. Cohasset is 12 miles east of Braintree and 20 miles by road southeast of Boston. Cohasset is located on the "corner" of the South Shore, where greater Boston Harbor ends and Massachusetts Bay begins; the shore is rocky, with many small rocks lying offshore. Cohasset Cove and The Gulf provide a long portion of the border with Scituate, while Straits Pond divides Cohasset from neighboring Hull.
Near the center of the coast lies Little Harbor, a large inlet divided from the ocean by Beach Island. Several other brooks and rivers run through the town. A large portion of the southwestern part of town is occupied by Wompatuck State Park, the Whitney & Thayer Woods Reservation. There is a bird sanctuary, as well as a large park near Little Harbor. There are three beaches along the bay, the Cohasset Yacht Club, Cohasset Sailing Club and a public boat launch in Cohasset Harbor; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cohasset has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. January is the coldest month of the year with an average low temperature of 20 °F and average high of 37 °F. July is the warmest month of the year with an average low temperature of 62 °F and average high of 81 °F. Average monthly precipitation falls between 3.47" and 4.80" depending on the time of year.
Additionally, Cohasset averages 14.2" of snow in 48.3" for the year. The all-time record low and high temperatures are 100 °F, respectively. On the national level, Cohasset is a part of Massachusetts's 8th congressional district, is represented by Stephen Lynch; the senior Senator, is Elizabeth Warren. The member of the United States Senate is Edward Markey. On the state level, Cohasset is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by Joan Meschino as a part of the Third Plymouth district, which includes Hingham and Scituate; the town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate by Patrick O'Connor as a part of the Plymouth and Norfolk district, which includes the towns of Duxbury, Hull, Norwell and Weymouth. The town is patrolled on a secondary basis by the First Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police. Cohasset is governed on the local level by the open town meeting form of government, is led by a town manager and a five-member board of selectmen; the current Town Manager is Christopher Senior.
Selectmen are elected officials and serve three-year terms led by a chairman in a rotating one-year term. The current Board of Selectmen consists of Kevin McCarthy, Paul Schubert, Vice-Chair, Diane Kennedy, Steve Gaumer, Jack Keniley; the town operates its own police and fire departments, both of which are headquartered near the town center. Emergency services are provided by the town, with patients taken to the South Shore Hospital in Weymouth; the town's post office is nearby, just off of the town common. The town's Paul Pratt Memorial Library is located just west of the town center, in what was once a school adjacent to the original library. Cohasset Schools are headed by the Cohasset School Committee. Members of the Cohasset School Committee are Jeanne Astino, Katie Dugan, Ellen Maher, Barbara Stefan and Amanda Zani; as of the census of 2010, there were 7,542 people, 2,722 households, 2,024 families residing in the town. The population density was 770.4 people per square mile. There were 2,980 housing units, of which or 8.7 %, were vacant.
The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.2% some other race, 1.1% from two or m