The Studebaker Champion is an automobile, produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958. It was a full-size car in its first three generations and a mid-size car in its fourth and fifth generation models; the success of the Champion in 1939 was imperative to Studebaker's survival following weak sales during the 1938 model year. Unlike most other cars, the Champion was designed from a "clean sheet", had no restrictions caused by utilizing older parts or requiring the subsequent use of its components in heavier vehicles. Market research guided the selection of features, but a key principle adhered to was the engineering watchword "weight is the enemy." For its size, it was one of the lightest cars of its era. Its compact straight-6 engine outlasted the model itself and was produced to the end of the 1964 model year, with a change to an OHV design in 1961; the Champion was one of Studebaker's best-selling models because of its low price, durable engine, styling.
The car's ponton styling was authored by industrial designer Raymond Loewy, under contract with Studebaker for the design of their automobiles. Champions won. During World War II, Champions were coveted for their high mileage at a time when gas was rationed in the United States. From 1943–1945, the Champion engine was used as the powerplant for the Studebaker M29 Weasel personnel and cargo carrier, which used four sets of the Champion's leaf springs arranged transversely for its bogie suspension; the Champion was phased out in 1958 in preparation for the introduction of the 1959 Studebaker Lark. Prior to this, Studebaker had been placed under receivership, the company was attempting to return to a profitable position; the Champion was introduced in 1939. Deluxe models came with dual wipers; the 164.3 cu in I6 engine produced 78 horsepower. In 1940, Studebaker claimed 27.25 mpg‑US. In 1941, the bodies were given a more streamlined look. In 1946, Studebaker built a limited number of cars based on their 1942 body shell in preparation for its new body and design roll out in 1947.
All Studebakers built in 1946 were designated Skyway Champion models. Only the Champion series was produced. In 1947, Studebaker redesigned the Champion and the Commander, making them the first new cars after World War II; the styling included a new rear window, flat front fenders, as well as convenience features like back light illumination for gauges and automatic courtesy lights. The Champion made up 65.08% of the total sales for the automaker in 1947. The 169.9 cu in I6 engine produced 80 hp in 1947. In 1950, output was increased to 85 hp. New styling was introduced, as well as an automatic transmission. One of the new styling features on the cars was the wraparound, "greenhouse" rear window, on 2-door cars from 1947–1951, at first just an option, in 1950 it was given its own trim line, the Starlight coupe; the "spinner" grill was introduced in 1950, similar to that of a Ford Deluxe, but was dropped again for the 1952 model year. In 1953, Studebaker was redesigned by Robert Bourke, from Raymond Loewy's design studio..
The 2-door coupe with a central pillar was called the Starlight while the more expensive hardtop coupe was called the Starliner. With regard to the 2-door coupe it is important to note that there were 2 versions of it. There was the shortened 4 door sedan version; the back side windows in the shortened 4-door sedans are noticeably bigger than the windows in the Loewy Coupe. The Loewy Coupe is more collectable than the shortened 4-door sedans. Although similar, the body pieces on the 2 cars are not interchangeable; the front end of the new Champion was lower than contemporaries. No convertible was offered in 1953. In 1954, a new 2-door station wagon called. Power of the L-head inline-six remained unchanged at 85 hp, although in 1955 this was replaced by a larger version with 101 hp. For 1955 the Starlight/Starliner labels were dropped and a wraparound windshield was introduced; the 1956 Champion sedans received different bodywork, with pronounced "eyebrows" over the headlights and large tailfins. The coupes received the new Hawk-style bodywork with a centrally placed square grille reminiscent of a period Mercedes-Benz.
In 1957, the Champion Scotsman, a stripped down Champion, was introduced in an attempt to compete with the “Big Three” and Nash in the low-price field. Shortly after its introduction, the model was renamed Studebaker Scotsman. Two engines were available, a 185 cu in 101 hp "Sweepstakes" L-head I6, or a 289 cu in 210 hp "Sweepstakes" OHV V8. Maloney, James H.. Studebaker Cars. Crestline Books. ISBN 0-87938-884-6. Langworth, Richard. Studebaker, the Postwar Years. Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-87938-058-6. Gunnell, John, ed.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3. Reminiscence from the 1985 Interview with Audrey Moore Hodges
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into another form of energy, dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot. Pneumatic and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston. One design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid. In hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, the dissipated energy can be stored and used later. In general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality and vehicle handling.
While shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations. Shock absorbers use gasses to absorb excess energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the manufacturer based on the weight of the vehicle and unloaded; some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use. Along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance. Spring-based shock absorbers use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as springs only store and do not dissipate or absorb energy. Vehicles employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars. In this combination, "shock absorber" refers to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used in 2 wheelers and leaf spring are made up of composite material in 4 wheelers.
In common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. One of the features of these springs was that the friction between the leaves offered a degree of damping, in a 1912 review of vehicle suspension, the lack of this characteristic in helical springs was the reason it was "impossible" to use them as main springs; however the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs, whether wet or dry. It operated in both directions. Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, similar designs added rotary friction dampers, which damped both ways - but they were adjustable; these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the large variation in sprung weight between loaded and loaded for the rear springs; when loaded the springs could bottom out, apart from fitting rubber'bump stops', there were attempts to use heavy main springs with auxiliary springs to smooth the ride when loaded, which were called'shock absorbers'.
Realising that the spring and vehicle combination bounced with a characteristic frequency, these auxiliary springs were designed with a different period, but were not a solution to the problem that the spring rebound after striking a bump could throw you out of your seat. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound. Although C. L. Horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only, it does not seem to have gone into production right away, whereas mechanical dampers such as the Gabriel Snubber started being fitted in the late 1900s. These used a belt coiled inside a device such that it wound in under the action of a coiled spring, but met friction when drawn out. Gabriel Snubbers were fitted to an 11.9HP Arrol-Johnston car which broke the 6 hour Class B record at Brooklands in late 1912, the Automotor journal noted that this snubber might have a great future for racing due to its light weight and easy fitment. One of the earliest hydraulic dampers to go into production was the Telesco Shock Absorber, exhibited at the 1912 Olympia Motor Show and marketed by Polyrhoe Carburettors Ltd.
This contained a spring inside the telescopic unit like the pure spring type'shock absorbers' mentioned above, but oil and an internal valve so that the oil damped in the rebound direction. The Telesco unit was fitted at the rear end of the leaf spring, in place of the rear spring to chassis mount, so that it formed part of the springing system, albeit a hydraulically damped part; this layout was selected as it was easy to apply to existing vehicles, but it meant the hydraulic damping was not applied to the action of the main leaf spring, but only to the action of the auxiliary spring in the unit itself. The first production hydraulic dampers to act on the main leaf spring movement were those based on an original concept by Maurice Houdaille patented in 1908 and 1909; these used a lever arm. The main advantage over the friction disk dampers was that it would resist sudden movement but allow slow movement, whereas the rotary friction dampers tended to stick and offer the same resistance regardless of speed of movement.
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The Boyce MotoMeter was patented in 1912, was used in automobiles to read the temperature of the radiator. From through the late 1920s, the Boyce MotoMeter Company in Long Island City, New York, founded in 1912 by the German immigrant Hermann Schlaich, manufactured a variety of different models which varied in size and design; the non-pressurized Thermosiphon cooling systems that were used until the 1920s led to a low boiling point. The Boyce MotoMeter was a simple device. Although it not always warned about engine overheating in time to prevent damage, it offered for the first time information about the engine temperature from the driver's seat. Motometers were at first aftermarket devices. Vehicle builders began to offer them as standard or optional equipment, dealerships began to offer them, sometimes as give-away or incentive items; the MotoMeter Company soon delivered these with metal dials inside that showed the make's or dealer's logo and script printed on it. The standard motometer came in three sizes for small cars, medium cars, large cars and trucks.
There were slight changes to each of the original models and new designs and accessories like hood ornaments, illuminating devices or locks were added to the line of meters while some others were discontinued. Toppers are small metal castings, they were used in a similar way as modern decals showing the vehicle owner's heritage, preferences, or support his business, his preferred sports, or a political statement. Toppers were offered by other novelty producing companies, Ronson among them. Boyce fought infringements. By 1927 the company was offering a wide variety, but the motometer became soon obsolete when dash-mounted temperature gauges appeared around 1930. Boyce had such a device patented as early as 1917. There were many manufacturers of engine thermometers. American Motor Safety Corp. Kalamazoo, Michigan. "Bemometer" G. H. Morden Co. London, "The Morden Indicator" Auto Radiator Meter Co. Seattle, Washington. Berkeley, California. B. Jarvis Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan Radiametre Maxant, Paris Wilmot-Breeden, Ltd.
United Kingdom Official Website of IVEKA Automotive Technologies Schauz GmbH, the owner of the MotoMeter trademark. Boyce MotoMeter at MotoMeter Collector. Boyce MotoMeter at Mascot-Mania.com:. Boyce MotoMeter at cartype.com. Prewarbuick.com: Reaching the Boiling Point - A History of Boyce Moto Meters by Victor Koma. Motometer: Jubiläumsbroschüre, German. Boyce MotoMeter at redbubble.com. A Boyce MotoMeter on a 3rd series Packard Six
The Studebaker Avanti is a personal luxury coupe manufactured and marketed by Studebaker Corporation between June 1962 and December 1963. The automaker marketed the Avanti as "America's only four-passenger high-performance personal car."Described as "one of the more significant milestones of the postwar industry", the car offered combined safety and high-speed performance. The Avanti broke 29 records at the Bonneville Salt Flats. Subsequent to Studebaker's discontinuation of the model, a series of five owner arrangements continued manufacture and marketing of the Avanti model; the Avanti was developed at the direction of Sherwood Egbert. "The car's design theme is the result of sketches Egbert "doodled" on a jet-plane flight west from Chicago 37 days after becoming president of Studebaker in February 1961." Designed by Raymond Loewy's team of Tom Kellogg, Bob Andrews, John Ebstein on a 40-day crash program, the Avanti featured a radical fiberglass body mounted on a modified Studebaker Lark Daytona 109-inch convertible chassis and powered by a modified 289 Hawk engine.
In eight days the stylists finished a "clay scale model with two different sides: one a two-place sports car, the other a four-seat GT coupe." Tom Kellogg, a young California stylist hired for this project by Loewy, "felt it should be a four-seat coupe." "Loewy envisioned a low-slung, long-hood-short-deck semi-fastback coupe with a grilleless nose and a wasp-waisted curvature to the rear fenders, suggesting a supersonic aircraft."The Avanti's complex body shape "would have been both challenging and prohibitively expensive to build in steel" with Studebaker electing to mold the exterior panels in glass-reinforced plastic, outsourcing the work to Molded Fiberglass Body in Ashtabula, Ohio — the same company that built the fiberglass panels for the Chevrolet Corvette in 1953. The Avanti featured front disc-brakes that were British Dunlop designed units, made under license by Bendix, "the first American production model to offer them." It was one of the first bottom breather designs where air enters from under the front of the vehicle rather than via a conventional grille, a design feature much more common after the 1980s.
A Paxton supercharger was offered as an option. The Avanti was publicly introduced on April 26, 1962, "simultaneously at the New York International Automobile Show and at the Annual Shareholders' Meeting." Rodger Ward, winner of the 1962 Indianapolis 500, received a Studebaker Avanti as part of his prize package, "thus becoming the first private owner of an Avanti." A Studebaker Lark convertible was the Indianapolis pace car that year and the Avanti was named the honorary pace car. In December 1962 the Los Angeles Times reported: "Launching of operations at Studebaker's own fiber-glass body works to increase production of Avantis." Many production problems concerning the supplier and finish resulted in delays and cancelled orders. Egbert planned to sell 20,000 Avantis in 1962, but could build only 1,200. After the closure of Studebaker's factory on December 20, 1963, Competition Press reported: "Avantis will no longer be manufactured and contrary to the report that there are thousands gathering dust in South Bend warehouses, Studebaker has only five Avantis left.
Dealers have about 2,500, 1600 have been sold since its introduction." This contrasted with Chevrolet which produced 23,631 Corvette sports cars in 1963. According to the book My Father The Car written about Stu Chapman, Studebaker Corporation's Advertising & Public Relations Department head in Canada, Studebaker considered re-introducing the Avanti into Studebaker showrooms in 1965/66 after production resumed in 1965 via Studebaker-Packard dealership owners Newman & Altman; the Avanti name and plant space were sold to two South Bend, Studebaker dealers, Nate Altman and Leo Newman, the first of a succession of entrepreneurs to manufacture small numbers of Avanti replica and new design cars through 2006. The Avanti Owners Association International is an active association with nearly 2,000 members worldwide and meeting yearly in various cities the United States and in Switzerland. Members to the not-for-profit organization receive the full color quarterly "Avanti Magazine" publication, published since the organization's founding in 1965.
Avanti Owners Association International homepage The Studebaker Drivers Club homepage Website for the Loewy estate Official Raymond Loewy website Archived website of the last Avanti Motors Corp. as of December 2006 The Unlikely Studebaker: Raymond Loewy and the Birth of the Avanti Martin, Douglas. Thomas W. Kellogg, 71.
Recirculating ball known as recirculating ball and nut or worm and sector, is a steering mechanism found in older automobiles, off-road vehicles, some trucks. Most newer cars use the more economical rack and pinion steering instead, but some upmarket manufacturers held on to the design until well into the 1990s for the durability and strength inherent in the design. A few, including Chrysler, General Motors and Lada, still use this technology in certain models including the Jeep Wrangler and the Lada Niva; the recirculating ball steering mechanism contains a worm gear inside a block with a threaded hole in it. The steering wheel connects to a shaft. Instead of twisting further into the block, the worm gear is fixed so that when it rotates, it moves the block, which transmits the motion through the gear to the Pitman arm, causing the roadwheels to turn; the worm gear is similar in design to a ball screw. The balls serve to reduce friction and wear in the gear, reduce slop. Slop, when the gears come out of contact with each other, would be felt when changing the direction of the steering wheel, causing the wheel to feel loose.
Power steering in a recirculating-ball system works to that in a rack-and-pinion system. Assistance is provided by supplying higher-pressure fluid to one side of the block. Burman and Sons Ltd - defunct manufacturer of recirculating ball steering gear
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri