South Bend, Indiana
South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana; the ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy. The area was settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865; the St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, other large corporations; the population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry.
Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, small business, tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, AM General; the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry; the city has been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, his essay in which he came out as the first gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election; the St. Joseph Valley was long occupied by Native Americans. One of the earliest known groups to occupy what would become northern Indiana was the Miami tribe.
The Potawatomi moved into the region, utilizing the rich food and natural resources found along the river. The Potawatomi occupied this region of Indiana until most of them were forcibly removed in the 1840s; the South Bend area was so popular because its portage was the shortest overland route from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee River; this route was used for centuries, first by the Native Americans by French explorers and traders. The French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first white European to set foot in what is now South Bend, used this portage between the St. Joseph River and the Kankakee River in December 1679; the first permanent white settlers of South Bend were fur traders who established trading posts in the area. In 1820, Pierre Frieschutz Navarre arrived, representing the American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor, he settled near. Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the AFC, established a trading post known as the Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company, in whose records the name St. Joseph's, Indiana was used.
By 1829, the town was growing, with Taylor emerging as leaders. They applied for a post office. Taylor was appointed postmaster, the post office was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana; the following year, the name was changed to South Bend to ease confusion, as several other communities were named Southold at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County with 128 residents. Soon after, design began on; the town was formally established in 1835 and grew. In 1856, attorney Andrew Anderson founded May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, he compiled a complete index of South Bend's real estate records. In 1841, Schuyler Colfax was appointed St. Joseph County deputy auditor. Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and turned it into the pro-Whig newspaper, the St. Joseph Valley Register, he was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1850 where he opposed the barring of African American migration to Indiana.
He joined the Republican party, like many Whigs of his day, was elected to Congress in 1855 and became Speaker of the House in 1863 under Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, he was elected Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant. Colfax was buried in the City Cemetery. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered on the industrial complex of factories located on the two races. Several dams were created, factories were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend; this led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the railroad. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up Studebaker wagon shop becoming the world's largest wagon builder and the only one to succeed as an automobile manufacturer; the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company were among other companies that made manufacturing the driving force in the South Bend economy until the mid-20th century. Another important economic act was the dredging of the Kankakee River in 1884 to create farmland.
During this time period there was a great immigration of Europeans, such as Polish, Irish, German and Swedish people to South Bend because the rise of area factories. South Bend benefited f
The Studebaker Electric was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company of South Bend, Indiana, a forerunner of the Studebaker Corporation. The battery-powered cars were sold from 1902 to 1912. Studebaker entered into the automobile manufacturing field in 1898 when Frederick S. Fish, as chairman of the executive committee, persuaded the board to supply $4,000 for the development of an electric vehicle. However, lacking the board’s full support, the project yielded one car; the company did, enter into the field of producing bodies for electric taxis through Albert Augustus Pope’s Electric Vehicle Company. Studebaker formally began production in earnest in 1902, the company chose battery-powered electric vehicles because they were clean recharged, worked well in urban centers without need of refueling depots. Studebaker Electrics were available in a variety of body styles, many of which mimicked the bodies that it had long produced for its lucrative passenger carriage line.
These included the Stanhope and Surrey. A four-passenger model was introduced in 1904. Fish realized early on that Studebaker’s future did not rest in the limited electric car, but in the gasoline-powered automobile. Studebaker's field of expertise was in body product distribution, not engine building; this realization led to the creation of the Studebaker-Garford automobile in 1904. The joint agreement worked well until 1909-1910 when Garford attempted to divert chassis to its own brand of automobile, Studebaker, looking for an affordable car to sell entered into an agreement with the E-M-F Company of Detroit. E-M-F would build the entire car, which would be distributed through Studebaker wagon dealers. Still, Studebaker continued to build electric vehicles until Fish decided to begin the process of seizing control of E-M-F in 1909, which Studebaker completed by 1910. By 1912, it became conventional wisdom that the future lay in gasoline-powered engines rather than heavy, sluggish electrics, the limited production of electric cars stopped.
An official announcement from the newly re-incorporated Studebaker Corporation stated: The production of electric automobiles at South Bend has ended... It has been conducted for nine years without much success, the superiority of the gasoline car apparent. Studebaker Studebaker National Museum
Studebaker Golden Hawk
The Studebaker Golden Hawk is a two-door pillarless hardtop coupe type car produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, between 1956 and 1958. The last Studebaker until the Avanti to have styling influenced by industrial designer Raymond Loewy's studio, the Golden Hawk took the basic shape of the 1953–55 Champion/Commander Starliner hardtop coupe but added a large vertical eggcrate grille and raised hoodline in place of the earlier car's swooping, pointed nose. At the rear, a raised, squared-off trunklid replaced the earlier sloped lid, vertical fiberglass tailfins were added to the rear quarters; the Golden Hawk was two inches shorter than the standard Hawk at 53.6 inches. The raised hood and grille were added to allow space for a larger engine, Packard's 352 in³ V8, which delivered 275 bhp; this comparatively large, powerful engine in such a light car gave the Golden Hawk an excellent power-to-weight ratio for the time. The Golden Hawk, like the Chryslers, is a precursor to the muscle cars of the 1960s.
The heavy engine gave the car a reputation for being nose-heavy. Road tests of the time, many of which were conducted by racing drivers mentioned any handling issues in spite of the heavy front end. Speed Age magazine of July 1956 tested the Golden Hawk against the Chrysler 300B, Ford Thunderbird, Chevrolet Corvette, finding that the Golden Hawk could out-perform the others comfortably in both 0-60 mph acceleration and quarter mile times; the fastest 0-60 reported in magazine testing was 7.8 seconds, while top speeds were quoted as 125 mph plus. A wide variety of colors were available. Two-tone schemes involved the front upper body, the roof, a panel on the tail being painted the contrast color, with the rest of the body the base color. 1956 production had the upper body above the belt line, including the trunk, as the contrast color with the tail panel and the body below the belt line trim being the base color. The interior included. An increased options list and reduced standard equipment were used to keep base price down compared to the previous year's Studebaker Speedster, which the Golden Hawk replaced.
Turn signals were an option. The Golden Hawk was matched with three other Hawk models for 1956, was the only Hawk not technically considered a sub-model within one of Studebaker's regular passenger car lines; the Golden Hawk was with some changes. Packard's Utica, engine plant was leased to Curtiss-Wright during 1956, marking the end of genuine Packard production. Packard-badged cars were produced for two more years, but they were rebadged Studebakers; the Packard V8, introduced only two years earlier, was therefore no longer available. It was replaced with the Studebaker 289 in³ V8 with the addition of a McCulloch supercharger, giving the same 275 hp output as the Packard engine; this improved the car's top speed, making these the best-performing Hawks until the Gran Turismo Hawk became available with the Avanti's R2 supercharged engine for the 1963 model year. The Golden Hawks were 203.9 inches long. A padded dash was standard. Styling changed somewhat. A fiberglass overlay on the hood was added, which covered a hole in the hood, needed to clear the supercharger, mounted high on the front of the engine.
The tailfins, now made of metal, swept out from the sides of the car. The fins were outlined in chrome trim and were painted a contrasting color, although some solid-color Golden Hawks were built. Halfway through the 1957 model year, a luxury 400 model was introduced, featuring a leather interior, a upholstered trunk, special trim. Only 41 of these special cars were produced, few of the 41 exist today. One of them, the first production model, is housed at the Studebaker Museum in South Bend. For 1958, the Golden Hawk switched to 14-inch wheels instead of 15-inch wheels, making the car ride a little lower; the 15-inch wheels, were available as an option. Other styling changes included a new, round Hawk medallion mounted in the lower center of the grille, the available contrasting-color paint was now applied to both the roof and tailfins. One unique feature was a vacuum gauge on the instrument panel. Padded dash boards were standard. Several minor engineering changes were made for'58, including revisions to the suspension and driveshaft that allowed designers to create a three-passenger rear seat.
Earlier models had seating for only two passengers in the rear because the high driveshaft "hump" necessitated dividing the seat. In January 2011, Barrett-Jackson auctions sold a 1957 Studebaker Hawk for a final hammer price of $99,000. Like many more expensive cars, Golden Hawk sales were hit by the late-1950s recession, the model was discontinued after only selling 878 examples in 1958; the Silver Hawk remained the only Hawk model. 1956 Studebaker Golden Hawk Owners Register - including technical articles, history articles. I've got the sweetest set of wheels in town.
The Studebaker Avanti is a personal luxury coupe manufactured and marketed by Studebaker Corporation between June 1962 and December 1963. The automaker marketed the Avanti as "America's only four-passenger high-performance personal car."Described as "one of the more significant milestones of the postwar industry", the car offered combined safety and high-speed performance. The Avanti broke 29 records at the Bonneville Salt Flats. Subsequent to Studebaker's discontinuation of the model, a series of five owner arrangements continued manufacture and marketing of the Avanti model; the Avanti was developed at the direction of Sherwood Egbert. "The car's design theme is the result of sketches Egbert "doodled" on a jet-plane flight west from Chicago 37 days after becoming president of Studebaker in February 1961." Designed by Raymond Loewy's team of Tom Kellogg, Bob Andrews, John Ebstein on a 40-day crash program, the Avanti featured a radical fiberglass body mounted on a modified Studebaker Lark Daytona 109-inch convertible chassis and powered by a modified 289 Hawk engine.
In eight days the stylists finished a "clay scale model with two different sides: one a two-place sports car, the other a four-seat GT coupe." Tom Kellogg, a young California stylist hired for this project by Loewy, "felt it should be a four-seat coupe." "Loewy envisioned a low-slung, long-hood-short-deck semi-fastback coupe with a grilleless nose and a wasp-waisted curvature to the rear fenders, suggesting a supersonic aircraft."The Avanti's complex body shape "would have been both challenging and prohibitively expensive to build in steel" with Studebaker electing to mold the exterior panels in glass-reinforced plastic, outsourcing the work to Molded Fiberglass Body in Ashtabula, Ohio — the same company that built the fiberglass panels for the Chevrolet Corvette in 1953. The Avanti featured front disc-brakes that were British Dunlop designed units, made under license by Bendix, "the first American production model to offer them." It was one of the first bottom breather designs where air enters from under the front of the vehicle rather than via a conventional grille, a design feature much more common after the 1980s.
A Paxton supercharger was offered as an option. The Avanti was publicly introduced on April 26, 1962, "simultaneously at the New York International Automobile Show and at the Annual Shareholders' Meeting." Rodger Ward, winner of the 1962 Indianapolis 500, received a Studebaker Avanti as part of his prize package, "thus becoming the first private owner of an Avanti." A Studebaker Lark convertible was the Indianapolis pace car that year and the Avanti was named the honorary pace car. In December 1962 the Los Angeles Times reported: "Launching of operations at Studebaker's own fiber-glass body works to increase production of Avantis." Many production problems concerning the supplier and finish resulted in delays and cancelled orders. Egbert planned to sell 20,000 Avantis in 1962, but could build only 1,200. After the closure of Studebaker's factory on December 20, 1963, Competition Press reported: "Avantis will no longer be manufactured and contrary to the report that there are thousands gathering dust in South Bend warehouses, Studebaker has only five Avantis left.
Dealers have about 2,500, 1600 have been sold since its introduction." This contrasted with Chevrolet which produced 23,631 Corvette sports cars in 1963. According to the book My Father The Car written about Stu Chapman, Studebaker Corporation's Advertising & Public Relations Department head in Canada, Studebaker considered re-introducing the Avanti into Studebaker showrooms in 1965/66 after production resumed in 1965 via Studebaker-Packard dealership owners Newman & Altman; the Avanti name and plant space were sold to two South Bend, Studebaker dealers, Nate Altman and Leo Newman, the first of a succession of entrepreneurs to manufacture small numbers of Avanti replica and new design cars through 2006. The Avanti Owners Association International is an active association with nearly 2,000 members worldwide and meeting yearly in various cities the United States and in Switzerland. Members to the not-for-profit organization receive the full color quarterly "Avanti Magazine" publication, published since the organization's founding in 1965.
Avanti Owners Association International homepage The Studebaker Drivers Club homepage Website for the Loewy estate Official Raymond Loewy website Archived website of the last Avanti Motors Corp. as of December 2006 The Unlikely Studebaker: Raymond Loewy and the Birth of the Avanti Martin, Douglas. Thomas W. Kellogg, 71.
The Studebaker Commander is the model name of several automobiles produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend and Studebaker of Canada Ltd of Walkerville and Hamilton, Ontario. Studebaker began using the Commander name in 1927 and continued to use it until 1964, with the exception of 1936 and 1959-63; the name was applied to various products in the company's line-up from year to year. Until the appearance of the 8-cylinder President in January 1928, all Studebaker cars of the 1920s were sixes. There were three basic models — the Light, the Special and the Big Six, developing 40 bhp, 50 bhp, 60 bhp at 2000 rpm; the first Commander, in 1927, was a continuation of the mid-range Special Six, with a 226 cu in engine. Their inbuilt durability and toughness gained them great renown under worldwide conditions; the 1928 GB Commander was a descendant of the Big Six, being powered with the proven 354 cu in engine, modified to deliver 75 bhp at 2400 rpm. In October 1928, three Commander sixes lined up at the Atlantic City speedway to challenge the 15,000 mi speed record held by the much higher-priced Auburn straight-eight Speedster.
They not only accomplished that but went on to establish new records up to 25,000 miles. The two sports roadsters averaged better than 65 mph and the sedan, which had flipped on the icy boards during one of the night runs and had been hurriedly repaired, averaged 62 mph. After this, the three cars were scrutinised, part by part, it was established that they were stock automobiles, identical in every respect to those available at any Studebaker showroom. In Australia, a crew of three drivers led by Norman "Wizard" Smith tackled overland records using a Commander roadster. On a 3,000-mile run from Fremantle to Sydney, they smashed the previous record by 12 hours 23 minutes despite traversing 450 miles through blinding rain, having to ford a river when a bridge had been washed away; the team rested for a little over three hours before attempting another record on the 600-mile track to Brisbane. These sixes were the last descendants of rugged cars designed for poor roads in the early 20th century—loaded with torque and strong in construction.
They were less well suited to the higher cruising speeds made possible by better roads in years. In 1929, Studebaker added an 8-cylinder Commander to the range. In 1935, the Commander was dropped from Studebaker’s product line, only to be reinstated in 1937 when the name was applied to Studebaker’s least expensive range known as the Studebaker Dictator. Studebaker introduced the Champion in 1939, the Commander line was again repositioned, now as the mid-range vehicle. Following World War II, Studebaker dropped its President models, the Commander again was elevated in the lineup. Studebaker again rolled out an extended wheelbase model of the Commander, the Land Cruiser. Raymond Loewy's distinctive shape for the 1947 Commander and Champion, spectacular on their Starlight coupe, led if it did not create a boom in America's trunk space; the 1950 Champion differed from the Commander, which had a distinctive bumper, carried over from 1949, longer front fenders and large headlight bezels, as well as a distinctive jet-style hood ornament.
In a 1953 road test done by Popular Mechanics, the Commander got a 0-60 mph of 17.9 seconds and was rated as getting 26.1 mpg at 30 mph. In 1955, Studebaker reintroduced the President name for its premium models and'Commander' was applied to the mid-range products; the Commander line was extended with the introduction of a lower-priced Custom sub-series, being a Champion with a V8 engine. Studebaker placed the name on hiatus at the end of the 1958 model year. In 1963, Studebaker again resurrected the Commander name for the 1964 model year, applying it to the next-to-lowest-priced Lark model, the Challenger being below. 1964 Studebaker Commanders most had a dual headlight arrangement which they shared with the Challenger though quad headlamps were optional. The 1965 Commander shared the quad-headlight system of the Cruiser. Commanders reverted to single headlamps in the final model year of 1966. In March 1966, Studebaker shut down production of all vehicles. In 2005, Jeep introduced its new flagship SUV, the Jeep Commander, produced through 2010.
Maloney, James H.. Studebaker Cars. Crestline Books. ISBN 978-0-87938-884-3. Kimes, Beverly R.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. Langworth, Richard. Studebaker: the Postwar Years. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-87938-058-8. Gunnell, John, ed.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3
The E-M-F Company was an early American automobile manufacturer that produced automobiles from 1909 to 1912. The name E-M-F was gleaned from the initials of the three company founders: Barney Everitt, William Metzger, Walter Flanders. Byron F. "Barney" Everitt was born in 1872 at Ridgetown and learned wagon-building in Chatham, Ontario. In the early 1890s he worked for carriage-maker Hugh Johnson in Detroit. In 1899 he started his own bodybuilding company, with orders from Ransom Olds, Henry Ford. In about 1904 his own first assembled car was the Wayne; the car model bearing his name was the Everitt, 1909-1912. William E. Metzger was born 1868 in Illinois, he was one of the first car salesmen, a buyer and reseller and, in the late 1890s, established the first United States automobile dealership, in Detroit. He was a key figure in the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, promoted early races at Grosse Pointe. In 1902 he became affiliated with the Northern Motor Car Company and the same year helped organize Cadillac before taking orders at the New York Automobile Show in January 1903.
Walter E. Flanders was born March 1871 in Waterbury, Vermont, he was a machinist who started with servicing sewing machines during an apprenticeship at Singer Corporation, followed by an association with Thomas S. Walburn in general machining in Cleveland, Ohio, in the late 1890s. An order came from Henry Ford in Detroit to the company for a thousand crankshafts, Ford was impressed by the response. In the early 1900s Flanders again worked with Walburn, this time for Ford at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant at the corner of Piquette and Beaubien Streets in Detroit. Flanders became manager of manufacturing at the plant, where he worked with the two future vice-presidents in charge of manufacturing, Peter E. Martin, Charles E. Sorensen. Flanders was replaced by those two when he resigned abruptly on 21 April 1908. Flanders' skill was in setting up and effecting timesaving procedures and methods at the plant, where engineers had developed the Model T in late 1907, which began production in 1908, led to invention of the new moving assembly line to meet skyrocketing demand for the Model T in 1910.
In 1909, E-M-F began production of E-M-F cars. E-M-F produced several models of its own design and contracted to sell them through Studebaker wagon dealerships. E-M-F vehicles outsold all but Ford. Late in 1909, E-M-F established a Walkerville, branch plant to produce the E-M-F 30 and Flanders 20. Shortly afterward, E-M-F was bought out by Studebaker, which formed Studebker Canada, rebadged E-M-F's products: the E-M-F as the Studebaker 30, the Flanders as the Studebaker 20 Sales of these rebadged models continued through the end of 1912. Studebaker's president Fred Fish, being unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality and lack of management, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company; the E-M-F name continued into 1912 with the Studebaker name becoming more and more prevalent on the cars. In 1913, the E-M-F name was replaced by Studebaker.
Problems aside, E-M-F vehicles had sold well in the growing marketplace. In 1909 E-M-F placed fourth in total US automobile production, behind that of Ford Motor Company and Maxwell, with Cadillac fifth. In 1910 the firm built 15,020 vehicles and again held on to fourth place behind Ford and Overland. In 1911, the firm placed second in overall assemblies with 26,827 automobiles produced for the year. In his history of E-M-F, Anthony Yanik stated Studebaker built its strong automotive base "on the shoulders of E-M-F", having "purchased the entire company for an outrageous price in 1910". However, the E-M-F production figures had been underpinned by Studebaker's vast resources, sales were dependent on Studebaker's reputation and marketing network. Flanders ran the short-lived Flanders Automobile Company, which produced cars wholly based on previous E-M-F designs; the Flanders company was absorbed into Maxwell Motor Company, reorganized out of the assets of the United States Motor Company in 1913.
On June 20, 2005, the E-M-F Plant on Piquette Avenue caught fire and within a few hours it was gone. The five-alarm fire nearly spread to the famous Ford Piquette Avenue Plant where Henry Ford built the first Model T. Brass Era car Kimes, Beverly R. Editor. Clark, Henry A.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list John M Daly's E-M-F History Page Buildings Of Detroit: The Studebaker Factory before & after the fire of 2005 StudebakerHistory.com - Detroit Plants