The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest general medical journals. Called the British Medical Journal, the title was shortened to BMJ in 1988, changed to The BMJ in 2014; the journal is published by the global knowledge provider BMJ, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association. The editor in chief of The BMJ is Fiona Godlee, appointed in February 2005; the journal began publishing on 3 October 1840 as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal and attracted the attention of physicians around the world through its publication of high-impact original research articles and unique case reports. The BMJ's first editors were P. Hennis Green, lecturer on the diseases of children at the Hunterian School of Medicine, its founder and Robert Streeten of Worcester, a member of the PMSA council; the first issue of the British Medical Journal was 16 pages long and contained three simple woodcut illustrations. The longest items were the editors' introductory editorial and a report of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association's Eastern Branch.
Other pages included a condensed version of Henry Warburton's medical reform bill, book reviews, clinical papers, case notes. There were 2 1⁄2 columns of advertisements. Inclusive of stamp duty it cost 7d, a price which remained until 1844. In their main article and Streeten noted that they had "received as many advertisements for our first number, as the most popular Medical Journal, after seventeen years of existence."In their introductory editorial and statements and Streeten defined "the main objects of promotion of which the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal is established". Summarised, there were two clear main objectives: the advancement of the profession in the provinces and the dissemination of medical knowledge. Green and Streeten expressed interest in promoting public well-being as well as maintaining'medical practitioners, as a class in that rank of society which, by their intellectual acquirements, by their general moral character, by the importance of the duties entrusted to them, they are justly entitled to hold'.
The BMJ published the first centrally randomised controlled trial. The journal carried the seminal papers on the causal effects of smoking on health and lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking. For a long time, the journal's sole competitor was The Lancet based in the UK, but with increasing globalisation, The BMJ has faced tough competition from other medical journals The New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association; the BMJ is an advocate of evidence-based medicine. It publishes research as well as clinical reviews, recent medical advances, editorial perspectives, among others. A special "Christmas Edition" is published annually on the Friday before Christmas; this edition is known for research articles which apply a serious academic approach to investigating less serious medical questions. The results are humorous and reported by the mainstream media; the BMJ has an open peer review system. About half the original articles are rejected after review in-house.
Manuscripts chosen for peer review are first reviewed by external experts, who comment on the importance and suitability for publication, before the final decision on a manuscript is made by the editorial committee. The acceptance rate is less than 7% for original research articles; the BMJ is included in the major indexes PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, the Science Citation Index. The journal has long criticised the misuse of the impact factor to award grants and recruit researchers by academic institutions; the five journals that as of 2008 have cited The BMJ most are The BMJ, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Lancet, BMC Public Health, BMC Health Services Research. As of 2008, the five journals that have been cited most by articles published in The BMJ are The BMJ, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In the 2018 Journal Citation Reports, The BMJ's impact factor was 23.295 in 2017, ranking it fourth among general medical journals.
According to the Web of Science, the following articles have been cited the most often: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. "Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey". BMJ. 320: 1240–3. Doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240. PMC 27365. PMID 10797032. "Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, stroke in high risk patients". BMJ. 324: 71–86. January 2002. Doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7329.71. PMC 64503. PMID 11786451. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, Hadden D, Turner RC, Holman RR. "Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: prospective observational study". BMJ. 321: 405–12. Doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405. PMC 27454. PMID 10938048; as of 2014, the most viewed article on The BMJ website is: Schultz WW, van Andel P, Sabelis I, Mooyaart E. "Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal".
BMJ. 319: 1596–600. Doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7225.1596. PMC 28302. PMID 10600954. In 1974, Dr. Elaine Murphy submitted a brief case report under her husband's name John which suggested a condition known as Cello Scrotum, a fictional condition which affected male ce
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g. medical peer review. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty tenure. Henry Oldenburg was a British philosopher, seen as the'father' of modern scientific peer review. WA prototype is a professional peer-review process recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting, engineering and forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy; this may take a variety of forms, including mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, the significance of an idea may never be appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.
The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion; each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation; the meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web; the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review.
In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320, Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004. Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review. Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards. Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity as a database search term. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more expand their customer base in journals where authors pay a fee before public