United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.
347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.
This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.
The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550
Intramural sports or intramurals are recreational sports organized within a particular institution an educational institution, or a set geographic area. The term, chiefly North American, derives from the Latin words intra muros meaning "within walls", was used to describe sports matches and contests that took place among teams from "within the walls" of an institution or area; the term dates to the 1840s. It is contrasted with extramural, varsity or intercollegiate sports, which are played between teams from different educational institutions; the word intermural, which correctly means "between institutions", is a common error for "intramural". The first intramural sports departments were established at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in 1913. Elmer Mitchell, a graduate student, at the time, was named the first Director of Intramural Sports at the University of Michigan in 1919 and the first recreational sports facility in the country opened at the University of Michigan.
Mitchell is considered the "father of intramural sports" and taught a class in intramural sports taken by William Wasson, founder of the National Intramural Association, the forerunner to the National Intramural and Recreational Sports Association. Mitchell authored Intramural Athletics, Intramural Sports, he co-authored Intramural Sports with Pat Mueller. Today, "intramural" tournaments are still organized within a specific community or municipal area, between teams of equivalent age or athletic ability. For example, intramural sports programs are organized on college campuses to promote competition and fun among the students and teachers sometimes. For most schools and campuses, intramural sports are used to promote wellness and allow students who do not compete on a national level an opportunity to be active. NIRSA: Leaders in Collegiate Recreation known as the National Intramural Recreational Sports Association, a professional organization based in Corvallis, provides a network of more than 4,500 trained professionals and Associate Members in the recreational sports field throughout the United States and other countries.
In most of the world outside North America, sports scholarships and college sports on the North American model do not exist so the distinction between college and intramural sports has no relevance and is not made. The Canadian Intramural Recreation Association organized intramurals within Canada from 1976-2002. CIRA Ontario has been the major intramural organization in the Canadian province of Ontario since 1969. CIRA Ontario is an incorporated, non-profit organization whose mission is to encourage and develop active living, healthy lifestyles and personal growth through intramural and recreation programs within the education and recreation communities, they fulfill their mandate through resources, conferences, newsletters and other means. College club sports in the United States Physical education class Team sport
Higher education in the United States
Higher education in the United States is an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education. Higher education referred to as post-secondary education, third-stage, third-level, or tertiary education occurs most at one of the 4,360 Title IV degree-granting institutions, either colleges or universities in the country; these may be public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, or for-profit colleges. US higher education is loosely regulated by a number of third-party organizations varying in quality. High visibility issues include rising tuition and increasing student loan debt, unfair admissions and academic cheating, greater use of online education, competency-based education, free speech and hate speech, bullying of students in higher education,fraternity hazing, campus sexual assault, cutbacks in state and local spending, the adjunctification of academic labor, student poverty and hunger. According to the National Center for Education Statistics and National Student Clearinghouse, college enrollment has declined since a peak in 2010–11 and is projected to continue declining or be stagnant for the next two decades.
In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the US first globally for overall higher education, but only 15th when GDP was factored into the equation. Accounting for GDP, the top 10 nations for higher education in 2018 were Finland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Portugal, South Africa and New Zealand. Strong research funding helped elite American universities dominate global rankings in the early 21st century, making them attractive to international students and researchers. Other countries, are offering incentives to take away researchers; as a result, the US dominance of international tables has lessened. The system has been blighted by fly-by-night schools, diploma mills, visa mills, predatory for-profit colleges. There have been some attempts to reform the system through federal policy such as gainful employment regulations, but they have been met by resistance. According to Pew Research Center and Gallup poll surveys, public opinion about colleges has been declining to Republicans and the white working class.
The higher education industry has been criticized for being unnecessarily expensive, providing a difficult-to-measure service, seen as vital but in which providers are paid for inputs instead of outputs, and, beset with federal regulations which drive up costs, with payments not coming from users but from third parties. In a 2018 Pew survey, 61 percent of those polled said that US higher education was headed in the wrong direction. A 2019 Gallup survey found that graduates who felt a purpose in life was important, "only 40 percent said they had found a meaningful career after college."For generations, US education was unique its emphasis on liberal arts education in its higher education curriculum, but this emphasis has been waning for more than five decades, there is growing skepticism about its utility. The US is unique in its investment in competitive NCAA sports in American football and basketball, with large sports stadiums and arenas. Beyond its function as an institution of knowledge, US higher education has had several functions.
Marcus Ford has identified four phases in the development of US higher education based on the primary function that characterized that phase: preserving Christian civilization. It has served as a source for professional credentials, as a vehicle for social mobility, as a social sorter. In The Higher Education Bubble, Glenn Harlan Reynolds states that college functions as a'status marker', "signaling membership in the educated class, a place to meet spouses of similar status". US Educational statistics are provided by the National Center for Education Statistics, part of the Department of Education; the number of Title IV-eligible, degree-granting institutions in the US peaked at a total of 4,726 in 2012: 3,026 4-year institutions and 1,700 2-year institutions. Fall enrollment at postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV peaked at just over 21.5 million students in 2010 and had fallen to about 20 million by fall 2016. A US Department of Education longitudinal survey of 15,000 high school students in 2002 and 2012, found that 84% of the 27-year-old students had some college education, but only 34% achieved a bachelor's degree or higher.
Falling birth rates result in fewer people are graduating from high school. The number of high school graduates grew 30% from 1995 to 2013 peaked at 3.5 million and projections show it holding at that level in the next decade. According to the National Student Clearinghouse, higher education enrollment in 2016 was down about 2.4 million from the peak year of 2010-11. The US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, has reported a loss of more than 800,000 students from 2010 to 2014. Enrollment numbers continued to decline in 2017 and 2018; the number of Title-IV-eligible institutions has declined by 17.8% since 2012–13. In 2018, the National Center for Education Statistics projected stagnant enrollment patte
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
University of New Hampshire
The University of New Hampshire is a public research university in the University System of New Hampshire, in the United States. The university's Durham campus, comprising six colleges, is located in the Seacoast region of the state. A seventh college, the University of New Hampshire at Manchester, occupies the university's campus in Manchester, the state's largest city; the University of New Hampshire School of Law, known as the Franklin Pierce Law Center until 2010, is located in Concord, the state's capital. The University of New Hampshire was founded and incorporated in 1866, as a land grant college in Hanover in connection with Dartmouth College. In 1893, UNH moved to Durham. Between its Durham and Concord campuses, UNH is the largest university in the state, with over 15,000 students. UNH is one of only a few universities, designated a land-, sea-, space-grant institution; the university's current President is James W. Dean Jr. the 20th President of the University, who took over from Mark Huddleston on June 30, 2018.
Their mascot is a wildcat and the university's colors are white and blue. The Morrill Act of 1862 granted federal lands to New Hampshire for the establishment of an agricultural-mechanical college. In 1866, the university was first incorporated as the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in Hanover, New Hampshire, in association with Dartmouth College; the institution was associated with Dartmouth College and was directed by Dartmouth's president. Durham resident Benjamin Thompson left his farm and assets to the state for the establishment of an agricultural college. On January 30, 1890, Benjamin Thompson died and his will became public. On March 5, 1891 Gov. Hiram Americus Tuttle signed an act accepting the conditions of Thompson's will. On April 10, 1891, Gov. Tuttle signed a bill authorizing the college's move to Durham, New Hampshire. In 1892, the Board of Trustees hired Charles Eliot to draw a site plan for the first five campus buildings: Thompson, Conant and Hewitt Shops and the Dairy Barn.
Eliot worked for three months to create a plan prior to the move to Durham. The Class of 1892, excited about the pending move to Durham, held commencement exercises in an unfinished barn on the Durham campus. On April 18, 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to "authorize the faculty to make all the arrangements for the packing and removal of college property at Hanover to Durham." The Class of 1893, followed the previous class and held commencement exercises in unfinished Thompson Hall, the Romanesque Revival campus centerpiece designed by the prominent Concord architectural firm of Dow & Randlett. In fall 1893, classes began in Durham with 51 freshmen and 13 upperclassmen, three times the projected enrollment. Graduate study was established in fall 1893 for the first time; the number of students and the lack of state funds for dormitories caused a housing crunch and forced students to find housing in town. The lack of housing caused difficulty for attracting women to the university. In 1908, construction on Smith Hall, the first women's dorm, was completed using private and state funds.
Prior to the construction of Fairchild Hall in 1915 for male students, 50 freshmen lived in the basement of DeMerritt Hall. With the continuing housing shortage for men, the administration encouraged the growth of the UNH Greek system. From the late 1910s through the 1930s, the fraternity system expanded and provided room and board for male students. In 1923, Gov. Fred Herbert Brown signed a bill changing the name of the college to University of New Hampshire. In the spring of 2015, the university was given $4 million from the estate of Robert Morin, a librarian at the university for 50 years. Having lived a frugal and secluded life, he allowed for his life's savings to be given to the university without restraint. In 2016, the news that the university was spending $1 million on a new video screen for the football stadium provoked criticism, on and off-campus, with critics noting that the difference between that amount and the $100,000 the university transferred to the library was jarring. A story on Deadspin connected the money for the video screen to the amount of money spent on football and other sports at UNH, arguing that UNH had turned a small hobby of Morin's, watching football during the last months of his life, into an excuse to spend a quarter of his gift on a video screen.
The University of New Hampshire is the flagship of the University System of New Hampshire. UNH is composed of graduate schools, offering 2,000 courses in over 100 majors; the eight colleges of UNH are: College of Engineering and Physical Sciences College of Liberal Arts College of Life Sciences and Agriculture Thompson School of Applied Science College of Health and Human Services University of New Hampshire at Manchester UNH Graduate School Peter T. Paul College of Business and Economics the Whittemore School of Business and Economics University of New Hampshire School of Law Carsey School of Public Policy School of Marine Science and Ocean EngineeringThe university is a member of the New England Board of Higher Education's New England Regional Student Program where New England public universities and colleges offer a number of undergraduate curricula with special considerations to students from other New England states. If an out-of-state student's home state school does not offer a certain degree program offered by UNH, that student can receive the in-state tuition rate, plus 75 percent if enrolled in the program.
The Thompson School of Applied Science, first established in 1895 and now a division of COLSA, confers an associate degree in applied science i
Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by fulfilling certain academic requirements such as a matriculation examination. In Australia, the term "Matriculation" is used; the state of New South Wales offered the School Certificate up until it was replaced by the RoSA in 2011. In the late 60s and early 70s all states replaced matriculation with either a certificate such as the Higher School Certificate, in Victoria and NSW, or a University entrance exam such as the Tertiary Entrance Exam in Western Australia; these have all been renamed as a State-based certificate, such as the Victorian Certificate of Education or the Western Australian Certificate of Education. In Bangladesh, the "Matriculation" is the Secondary School Examination taken at year 10, the Intermediate Exams is the Higher Secondary Examination taken at year 12. Bangladesh, like the rest of, still uses terms such as Matriculation Exams and Intermediate Exams taken from the days of the British Raj although in England itself these terms were replaced by'O' or Ordinary Level Examinations and'A' or Advanced Level Examinations respectively.
In Brazilian Portuguese, the word "matrícula" refers to the act of enrolling in an educational course, whether it be elementary, high school, college or post-graduate education. In Canada, the term is used by some older universities to refer to orientation events, however some universities, including University of King's College, still hold formal Matriculation ceremonies. Trinity College at the University of Toronto holds formal matriculation ceremonies, during which time incoming students are required to sign a matriculation register, making the practice the closest in format to that conducted by Oxford and Cambridge colleges of any university in North America; the ceremony at King's is quite similar to the matriculation ceremonies held in universities such as Oxford or Cambridge. In Ontario during the era with grade 13, satisfactory completion of grade 12 was considered junior matriculation and satisfactory completion of grade 13 was senior matriculation. In Nova Scotia, at the present time, Junior matriculation is grade 11 and senior matriculation is completion of grade 12.
At Charles University in Prague, the oldest and most prestigious university in the Czech Republic, matriculation is held at the Great Hall. The ceremony is attended by students commencing their studies, it is intended as a demonstration of the adoption of student's duties and obtaining of student's rights. The ceremony itself involves students taking the Matriculation Oath of the University and symbolically touching the Faculty mace and shaking the Dean's hand. Other Czech universities hold ceremonies similar to the one just described. In Denmark, the University of Copenhagen holds a matriculation ceremony each year; the ceremony is held in the Hall of Ceremony in the main building of the University. The ceremony begins with a procession with the rector and the deans in academic dress and other regalia; the ceremony continues with the rector listing the different faculties, after which the different student, shouts when their respective faculty is mentioned. The rector delivers a speech, after which the rector and the deans leave the ceremony again in procession, after which a party is held on university grounds, to mark the admission of the new students.
In Finland, Matriculation is the examination taken at the end of Secondary education to qualify for entry into University. The test constitutes the high school's final exam, in other words it is a high school graduation exam. Since 1919, the test has been arranged by the Matriculation Examination Board. Before that, the administration of the test was the responsibility of the University of Helsinki; the German term Immatrikulation describes the administrative process of enrolling at university as a student. This can happen for winter semester and, depending on the degree program for summer semester, it does not involve a ceremony. A prerequisite for matriculation is the Abitur, the standard matriculation examination in Germany, for regular universities and Fachhochschulreife for Fachhochschulen. Both Abitur and Fachhochschulreife are school leaving certificates which students receive after passing their final examinations at some types of German secondary schools. In Hong Kong, the term is used interchangeably with the completion of sixth-form.
After sitting for the Certificate of Education examinations, eligible students receive two years of sixth-form education, upon completion, they sit for the A-level examinations. Most secondary schools offer the sixth-form programme, there are a few sixth-form colleges. Students obtaining good grades in the A-level examinations will be admitted to a university; the education reforms of Hong Kong in the 2000s have replaced the fourth- and fifth-form education, which prepared students for the HKCEE, the sixth-form education with a three-year senior secondary education, which leads to the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination. The last sixth-form students graduated and took the A-level examinations in 2012. In India, it is a term used to refer to the final year of 10th class, which ends at tenth Board, the qualification received by passing the national board exams or the state board exams called "matriculation exams". India still uses terms such as Matriculation Exams and Intermediate