Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Pierre Marie Félix Janet was a pioneering French psychologist and psychotherapist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. He is ranked alongside Wilhelm Wundt as one of the founding fathers of psychology. Janet studied under Jean-Martin Charcot at the Psychological Laboratory in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, he first published the results of his research in his philosophy thesis in 1889 and in his medical thesis, L'état mental des hystériques, in 1892. He earned a degree in medicine the following year in 1893. In 1898, Janet was appointed lecturer in psychology at the Sorbonne, in 1902 he attained the chair of experimental and comparative psychology at the Collège de France, a position he held until 1936, he was a member of the Institut de France from 1913, was a central figure in French psychology in the first half of the 20th century. Janet was one of the first people to allege a connection between events in a subject's past life and his or her present-day trauma, coined the words "dissociation" and "subconscious".
His study of the "magnetic passion" or "rapport" between the patient and the hypnotist anticipated accounts of the transference phenomenon. The 20th century saw Janet developing a grand model of the mind in terms of levels of energy and social competence, which he set out in publications including Obsessions and Psychasthenia and From Anguish to Ecstasy, among others. In its concern for the construction of the personality in social terms, this model has been compared to the social behaviorism of George Herbert Mead something which explains Lacan's early praise of "Janet, who demonstrated so admirably the signification of feelings of persecution as phenomenological moments in social behaviour". Janet established a developmental model of the mind in terms of a hierarchy of nine "tendencies" of complex organisational levels, he detailed four "lower tendencies", rising from the "reflexive" to the "elementary intellectual". According to Janet, neurosis could be seen as a failure to integrate, or a regression to earlier tendencies, he defined subconsciousness as "an act which has kept an inferior form amidst acts of a higher level".
In his 1890 essay The Hidden Self, William James wrote of P. Janet's observations of "hysterical somnambulist" patients at Havre Hospital, detailed in Janet's 1889 Doctorate of Science thesis, De l'Automatisme Psychologique. James made note of various aspects of automatism and the apparent multiple personalities of patients variously exhibiting "trances, subconscious states" or alcoholic delirium tremens. James was fascinated by these manifestations and said, "How far the splitting of the mind into separate conciousnesses may obtain in each one of us is a problem. P. Janet holds that it is only possible where there is an abnormal weakness, a defect of unifying or coordinating power." Controversy over whose ideas came first, Janet's or Sigmund Freud's, emerged at the 1913 Congress of Medicine in London. Prior to that date, Freud had acknowledged his debt to Janet in his work with Josef Breuer, writing for example of "the theory of hysterical phenomena first put forward by P. Janet and elaborated by Breuer and myself".
He stated further that "we followed his example when we took the splitting of the mind and dissociation of the personality as the centre of our position", but he was careful to point out where "the difference lies between our view and Janet's". Writing in 1911 of the neurotic's withdrawal from reality, Freud stated: "Nor could a fact like this escape the observation of Pierre Janet. However, in his report on psychoanalysis in 1913, Janet argued that many of the novel terms of psychoanalysis were only old concepts renamed down to the way in which his own "psychological analysis" preceded Freud's "psychoanalysis"; this provoked angry attacks from Freud's followers, thereafter Freud's own attitude towards Janet cooled. In his lectures of 1915-16, Freud said that "for a long time I was prepared to give Janet great credit for throwing light on neurotic symptoms, because he regarded them as expressions of idées inconscientes which dominated the patients". However, after what Freud saw as his backpedalling in 1913, he said, "I think he has unnecessarily forfeited much credit".
The charge of plagiarism stung Freud especially. In his autobiographical sketch of 1925, he denied that he had plagiarized Janet, as late as 1937, he refused to meet Janet on the grounds that "when the libel was spread by French writers that I had listened to his lectures and stolen his ideas he could with a word have put an end to such talk" but did not. A balanced judgement might be that Janet's ideas, as published, did indeed form part of Freud's starting point, but that Freud subsequently developed them substantively in his own fashion. Carl Jung studied with Janet in Paris in 1902 and was much influenced by him, for example equating what he called a complex with Janet's idée fixe subconsciente. Jung's view of the mind as "consisting of an indefinite, because unknown, number of complexes or fragmentary personalities" built upon what Janet in Psychological Automatism called "simultaneous psychological existences". Jung wrote of the debt owed to "Janet for a deeper and more exact knowledge of hysterical symptoms", talked of "the achievements of Janet, Flournoy and others" in ex
Emma Eckstein was an Austrian author. She was "one of Sigmund Freud's most important patients and, for a short period of time around 1897, became a psychoanalyst herself", she has been described as "the first woman analyst", who became "both colleague and patient" for Freud. As analyst, while "working in the area of sexual and social hygiene, she explored how'daydreams, those "parasitic plants", invaded the life of young girls'."Ernest Jones placed her with such figures as Lou Andreas-Salomé and Joan Riviere as a "type of woman, of a more intellectual and masculine cast... played a part in his life, accessory to his male friends though of a finer calibre." "Emma Eckstein was born in Vienna on 28 January 1865 to a well-known bourgeois family" with close connections to Freud: "one of her brothers was Gustav Eckstein, a social democrat and associate of Karl Kautsky, the leader of the Socialist party. Another brother, appears in Freud's Civilization and its Discontents as a'friend of mine, whose insatiable craving for knowledge has led him to make the most unusual experiments', including'the practices of Yoga...
He sees in them a physiological basis, as it were, for much of the wisdom of mysticism'. Emma herself was active in the Viennese women's movement, "collaborating with Dokumente der Frauen and Neues Frauenleben."After an operation in 1910, however, "Emma took to her couch, remained a partial invalid until she died on 30 July 1924 of a cerebral haemmorrhage." When she was 27, she went to Freud, seeking treatment for vague symptoms including stomach ailments and slight depression related to menstruation. Freud believed that she masturbated to excess. Her'treatment lasted something in the region of three years – one of the most protracted and detailed of Freud's early cases'. In her analysis, Emma Eckstein "supplied Freud with the material that would allow him to theorize hysteric symptomology...taught Freud about'the no-man's land between fantasy and memory, resonating with sadistic acts and fantasies of a former historical epoch'." Her "eager collaboration in her analysis gave Freud much precious material...contributed substantial changes and fundamental new elements to his theories: the wish theory of psychosis and dream.
In particular, Freud's theory of deferred action owed much to "Emma Eckstein's twinned scenes in shops...'Now this case is typical of repression in hysteria. We invariably find that a memory has been repressed which has only become a trauma through deferred action'." Freud was at the time under the influence of his friend and collaborator Wilhelm Fliess, an ear and throat specialist. Fliess, whom Freud had called "the Kepler of biology", had developed theories today considered pseudoscientific, including the belief that sexual problems were linked to the nose by a supposed nasogenital connection. Fliess had been treating "nasal reflex neurosis" by cauterizing the inside of the nose under local anesthesia. Fliess conjectured that if temporary cauterization was useful, surgery would yield more permanent results, he began operating on the noses of patients he diagnosed with the disorder, including Eckstein and Freud. His surgery proved disastrous, resulting in profuse, recurrent nasal bleeding – Fliess had left a half-metre of gauze in Eckstein’s nasal cavity, the subsequent removal of which left her permanently disfigured.
Though aware of Fliess’s culpability – Freud fled from the remedial surgery in horror – he could only bring himself to delicately intimate in his correspondence to Fliess the nature of his disastrous role and in subsequent letters maintained a tactful silence on the matter or else returned to the face-saving topic of Eckstein’s hysteria. Freud reasserted his full confidence in Fliess's competence, making Eckstein responsible for the whole catastrophe by concluding that her post-operative hemorrhages were "wish-bleedings", caused by her hysterical longing for the affection of others. Guilt over the episode has been identified as contributing to the dream of Irma's injection in The Interpretation of Dreams:'Max Schur grasped right away the significance of the episode to the "Irma" dream...in his paper on the specimen dream'. Eckstein is associated with Freud's seduction theory. In 1897, Freud cites her analytic findings to Fliess as support for his'so-called seduction theory, the claim that all neuroses are the consequences of an adult's a father's, sexual abuse of a child'.
Freud wrote that'Eckstein deliberately treated her patient in such a manner as not to give her the slightest hint of what would emerge from the unconscious and in the process obtained from her...the identical scenes with the father'. Jeffrey Masson in his assault on Freud's abandonment of the seduction theory makes much of Eckstein's role, linking Freud's "abandonment" of her position with respect to the Fliess surgery to his "abandonment" of her evidence for the paternal etiology of neurosis: for'the idea – which Masson concedes is crazy – that...all neurotic patients had been sexually abused'. Yet while few would dissent that in regard to the failed surgery'Freud's evasiveness is blatant.... Freud was eager to protect Fliess from the obvious charge of careless fatal malpractice', there is at the same time much to suggest that'as far as the seduction theory is concerned, Eckstein is a red herring...no more relevant than Freud's other patients. The fact that Masson lavishes so much attention on her... Emma Eckstein is f
Josef Breuer was a distinguished physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, whose work in the 1880s with his patient Bertha Pappenheim, known as Anna O. developed the talking cure and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud. Born in Vienna, his father, Leopold Breuer, taught religion in Vienna's Jewish community. Breuer's mother died when he was quite young, he was raised by his maternal grandmother and educated by his father until the age of eight, he graduated from the Akademisches Gymnasium of Vienna in 1858 and studied at the university for one year before enrolling in the medical school of the University of Vienna. He passed his medical exams in 1867 and went to work as assistant to the internist Johann Oppolzer at the university. Breuer, working under Ewald Hering at the military medical school in Vienna, was the first to demonstrate the role of the vagus nerve in the reflex nature of respiration; this was a departure from previous physiological understanding, changed the way scientists viewed the relationship of the lungs to the nervous system.
The mechanism is now known as the Hering–Breuer reflex. Independent of each other in 1873, Breuer and the physicist and mathematician Ernst Mach discovered how the sense of balance functions: that it is managed by information the brain receives from the movement of a fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear; that the sense of balance depends on the three semicircular canals was discovered in 1870 by the physiologist Friedrich Goltz, but Goltz did not discover how the balance-sensing apparatus functions. Breuer is best known for his work in the 1880s with Anna O. a woman suffering from "paralysis of her limbs, anaesthesias, as well as disturbances of vision and speech." Breuer observed that her symptoms disappeared after she described them to him. Anna O. humorously called this procedure chimney sweeping. She coined the more serious appellation for this form of therapy, talking cure. Breuer referred to it as the “cathartic method”. Breuer was a mentor to the young Sigmund Freud, had helped set him up in medical practice.
Ernest Jones recalled, "Freud was interested in hearing of the case of Anna O, which... made a deep impression on him". Breuer, first made use of this procedure... Never before had anyone removed a hysterical symptom by such a method."Freud and Breuer documented their discussions of Anna O. and other case studies in their 1895 book, Studies in Hysteria. These discussions of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. became "a formative basis of psychoanalytic practice the importance of fantasies and the concept and method of catharsis which were Breuer's major contributions." Louis Breger has observed that in the Studies, "Freud is looking for a grand theory that will make him famous and, because of this, he is always fastening on what he thinks will be a single cause of hysteria, such as sexual conflict... Breuer, on the other hand, writes about the many factors that produce symptoms, including traumas of a variety of kinds, he gives others, such as Pierre Janet and argues for “eclecticism”. From a Freudian standpoint, "while Breuer, with his intelligent and amorous patient Anna O. had unwittingly laid the groundwork for psychoanalysis, it was Freud who drew the consequences from Breuer's case."
However, Breger notes that Breuer, while he valued Freud’s contributions, didn’t agree that sexual issues were the only cause of neurotic symptoms. Freud turned on Breuer, no longer giving him credit and helping spread a rumour that Breuer had not been able to handle erotic attention from Anna O. and had abandoned her case, though research indicates this never happened and Breuer remained involved with her case for several years while she remained unwell. In 1894 Breuer was elected a Corresponding Member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences. Breuer married Mathilde Altmann in 1868, they had five children, his daughter Dora committed suicide rather than be deported by the Nazis. Another one of his daughters, Margarete Schiff, perished in Theresienstadt on September 9, 1942. Breuer's granddaughter, Hanna Schiff, died. Zwei Fälle von Hydrophobie. In: Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 18. Sp. 178 f. 210-213. Das Verhalten der Eigenwärme in Krankheiten. In: Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 18. Sp. 982-985, 998-1002.
Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch. In: Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien, math.-naturw. Kl. 58/2, S. 909-937. Bemerkungen zu Senator's „Beiträge zur Lehre von der Eigenwärme und dem Fieber“. In: Arch. path. Anat. Berlin 46, S. 391 f. Über Bogengänge des Labyrinths. In: Allg. Wien. med. Ztg. 18, S. 598, 606. Über die Function der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinthes. In: Med. Jb. Wien 1874. S. 72-124. Zur Lehre vom statischen Sinne. Vorläufige Mittheilung. In: Anz. Ges. Ärzte, Wien 1873. Nr. 9, S. 31-33. Beiträge zur Lehre vom statischen Sinne. Zweite Mittheilung. In: Med. Jb. Wien 1875. S. 87-156. Neue
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement is a 1914 work by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud's work is intended as a polemic against the competing theories in psychotherapy which opposed his psychoanalysis, for example Alfred Adler's individual psychology and Carl Jung's analytical psychology. Adler and Jung had been followers of Freud but objected to his emphasis on sexual matters, his main criticism of them is their insistence on still calling themselves psychoanalysts. Works related to The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement at Wikisource
Fanny Moser (baroness)
Fanny Moser was a Swiss noblewoman who at one point was known as the richest woman in Eastern Europe. She was one of the five women evaluated in Freud's Studies on Hysteria, which led to his psychoanalytic theories, her father, Baron Heinrich von Sulzer-Wart had inherited his title from her grandfather, Johann Heinrich von Sulzer-Wart, awarded a peerage for service to Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. On 28 December 1870, she married Swiss watchmaker and industrialist Heinrich Moser, who had made a fortune by developing high-quality watches to sell on the Russian market. H. Moser & Co. expanded to include a factory in Switzerland and Heinrich founded a railway company in Schaffhausen, furthering his wealth. The marriage caused scandal because Fanny was 23 and Heinrich 65, though both were from the upper echelons of society; the five older children from her husband's first marriage were grown, as their father had waited twenty years before his remarriage, but they rejected Moser. She had two children with Heinrich: Fanny, born 27 May 1872 and the author Mentona, born 19 October 1874, just four days before her father's death.
The older children accused Moser of killing her husband and despite no evidence of foul play determined by two autopsies, suspicion continued. Moser had a mental breakdown and began seeing therapists in 1889, she acquired a castle, Schloss Au where she entertained lavishly, but was known for her eccentricities, continuing treatment for a decade. Late in life, she became infatuated with a much younger man, lost part of her fortune and cut off relationships with her daughters; when she died, she left millions to her daughters, though she had been convinced she was living in poverty. Moser was buried at the cemetery of Kilchberg, Zürich
Thoughts for the Times on War and Death
Thoughts for the Time of War and Death is a set of twin essays written by Sigmund Freud in 1915, six months after the outbreak of World War I. The essays express discontent and disillusionment with human nature and human society in the aftermath of the hostilities; the first essay addressed the widespread disillusionment brought on by the collapse of the Pax Britannica of the preceding century — what Freud called "the common civilization of peacetime". The second essay addressed what Freud called the peacetime'protection racket' whereby the inevitability of death was expunged from civilized mentality. Building on the second essay of Totem and Taboo, Freud argued that such an attitude left civilians in particular unprepared for the stark horror of industrial-scale death in the Great War. Freud's account of the centrality of loss in culture has been seen as seminal for his work and its Discontents. Goodbye to All That Razinsky, Liran. "How to Look Death in the Eyes: Freud and Bataille". SubStance.
38: 63–88. Doi:10.1353/sub.0.0046. Robert Wohl, The Generation of 1914 Works related to Reflections on War and Death at Wikisource A copy of the text Library of Congress exhibit of the original Manuscript