Old World monkey
The Old World monkeys is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized. Old World monkey genera include baboons and macaques'. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, colobus, vervet, mangabey, mandrill, surili and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more related to apes than to New World monkeys, they diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago, before South America and Africa separated about 50 million years ago. The smallest Old World monkey is the talapoin, with a head and body 34–37 cm in length, weighing between 0.7 and 1.3 kilograms. The largest is the male mandrill, at around 70 cm in length, weighing up to 50 kilograms. Old World monkeys have a variety of facial features: some with some flat nosed. Most have tails. Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting numerous environments: tropical rain forests, savannas and mountainous terrain.
They inhabited much of Europe in the past. It is unknown whether they were brought by humans; some Old World monkeys are arboreal, such as the colobus monkeys. Most are at least omnivorous, but all prefer plant matter, which forms the bulk of their diet. Most are opportunistic eating fruit, but consuming any food items available, such as flowers, leaves and rhizomes, snails, small mammals, as well as garbage and handouts from humans. See List of Old World monkey species Two subfamilies are recognized, the Cercopithecinae, which are African, but include the diverse genus of macaques, which are Asian and North African, the Colobinae, which includes most of the Asian genera, but the African colobus monkeys; the Linnaean classification beginning with the superfamily is as follows: Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys Subfamily Cercopithecinae Tribe Cercopithecini Genus Allenopithecus Allen's swamp monkey, Allenopithecus nigroviridis Genus Miopithecus – talapoins Angolan talapoin, Miopithecus talapoin Gabon talapoin, Miopithecus ogouensis Genus Erythrocebus Patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas Blue Nile patas monkey, Erythrocebus poliophaeus Genus Chlorocebus Green monkey, Chlorocebus sabaeus Grivet, Chlorocebus aethiops Bale Mountains vervet, Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Tantalus monkey, Chlorocebus tantalus Vervet monkey, Chlorocebus pygerythrus Malbrouck, Chlorocebus cynosuros Genus Cercopithecus – guenons Dryas monkey or Salongo monkey, Cercopithecus dryas Diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana Roloway monkey, Cercopithecus roloway Greater spot-nosed monkey, Cercopithecus nictitans Blue monkey, Cercopithecus mitis Silver monkey, Cercopithecus doggetti Golden monkey, Cercopithecus kandti Sykes's monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis Mona monkey, Cercopithecus mona Campbell's mona monkey, Cercopithecus campbelli Lowe's mona monkey, Cercopithecus lowei Crested mona monkey, Cercopithecus pogonias Wolf's mona monkey, Cercopithecus wolfi Dent's mona monkey, Cercopithecus denti Lesser spot-nosed monkey, Cercopithecus petaurista White-throated guenon, Cercopithecus erythrogaster Sclater's guenon, Cercopithecus sclateri Red-eared guenon, Cercopithecus erythrotis Moustached guenon, Cercopithecus cephus Red-tailed monkey, Cercopithecus ascanius L'Hoest's monkey, Cercopithecus lhoesti Preuss's monkey, Cercopithecus preussi Sun-tailed monkey, Cercopithecus solatus Hamlyn's monkey, Cercopithecus hamlyni Lesula, Cercopithecus lomamiensis De Brazza's monkey, Cercopithecus neglectus Tribe Papionini Genus Macaca – macaques Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus Lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus Southern pig-tailed macaque or beruk, Macaca nemestrina Northern pig-tailed macaque, Macaca leonina Pagai island macaque or bokkoi, Macaca pagensis Siberut macaque, Macaca siberu Moor macaque, Macaca maura Booted macaque, Macaca ochreata Tonkean macaque, Macaca tonkeana Heck's macaque, Macaca hecki Gorontalo macaque, Macaca nigrescens Celebes crested macaque or black "ape", Macaca nigra Crab-eating macaque or long-tailed macaque or kera, Macaca fascicularis Stump-tailed macaque or bear macaque, Macaca arctoides Rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta Formosan rock macaque, Macaca cyclopis Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata Toque macaque, Macaca sinica Bonnet macaque, Macaca radiata Assam macaque, Macaca assamensis Tibetan macaque or Milne-Edwards' macaque, Macaca thibetana Arunachal macaque or munzala, Macaca munzala White-cheeked macaque, Macaca leucogenys Genus Lophocebus – crested mangabeys Grey-cheeked mangabey, Lophocebus albigena Black crested mangabey, Lophocebus aterrimus Opdenbosch's mangabey, Lophocebus opdenboschi Uganda mangabey, Lophocebus ugandae Johnston's mangabey, Lophocebus johnstoni Osman Hill's mangabey, Lophocebus osmani Genus Rungwecebus Kipunji, Rungwecebus kipunji Genus Papio – baboons Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas Guinea baboon, Papio papio Olive baboon, Papio anubis Yellow baboon, Papio cynocephalus Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus Genus Theropithecus Gelada, Theropithecus gelada Genus Cercocebus – white-eyelid mangabeys Sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys Collared mangabey, Cercocebus torquatus Agile mangabey, Cercocebus agilis Golden-bellied mangabey, Cercocebus chrysogaster Tana River mangabey, Cercocebus galeritus Sanje mangabey, Cercocebus sanjei Genus Mandrillus Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx Drill, Mandrillus leucophaeus Subfamily Colobinae African group Genus Colobus – black-and-whi
Cambodia the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest; the sovereign state of Cambodia has a population of over 16 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practised by 95 percent of the population; the country's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chams and 30 hill tribes. The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh, the political and cultural centre of Cambodia; the kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with a monarch Norodom Sihamoni, chosen by the Royal Throne Council as head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister Hun Sen, the longest serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia, ruling Cambodia since 1985. In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring Khmer princes of Chenla under the name "Kambuja"; this marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire, which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth.
The Indianised kingdom facilitated the spread of first Hinduism and Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia and undertook many religious infrastructural projects throughout the region, including the construction of more than 1,000 temples and monuments in Angkor alone. Angkor Wat is designated as a World Heritage Site. After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened Cambodia was ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863, Cambodia became a protectorate of France, which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand. Cambodia gained independence in 1953; the Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973. Following the Cambodian coup of 1970 which installed the right-wing pro-US Khmer Republic, the deposed king gave his support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge; the Khmer Rouge emerged as a major power, taking Phnom Penh in 1975 and carrying out the Cambodian genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted by Vietnam and the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea, supported by the Soviet Union in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia was governed by a United Nations mission. The UN withdrew after holding elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast ballots; the 1997 factional fighting resulted in the ousting of the government by Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power as of 2018. Cambodia is a member of the United Nations since 1955, ASEAN, the East Asia Summit, the WTO, the Non-Aligned Movement and La Francophonie. According to several foreign organisations, the country has widespread poverty, pervasive corruption, lack of political freedoms, low human development and a high rate of hunger. Cambodia has been described by Human Rights Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "vaguely communist free-market state with a authoritarian coalition ruling over a superficial democracy". While per capita income remains low compared to most neighboring countries, Cambodia has one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, with growth averaging 7.6 percent over the last decade.
Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector, with strong growth in textiles, construction and tourism leading to increased foreign investment and international trade. The US World Justice Project's 2015 Rule of Law Index ranked Cambodia 76 out of 102 countries, similar to other countries in the region; the "Kingdom of Cambodia" is the official English name of the country. The English "Cambodia" is an anglicisation of the French "Cambodge", which in turn is the French transliteration of the Khmer កម្ពុជា kampuciə. Kampuchea is the shortened alternative to the country's official name in Khmer ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə; the Khmer endonym Kampuchea derives from the Sanskrit name कम्बोजदेश kambojadeśa, composed of देश deśa and कम्बोज kamboja, which alludes to the foundation myths of the first ancient Khmer kingdom. The term Cambodia was in use in Europe as early as 1524, since Antonio Pigafetta cites it in his work Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo as Camogia.
Colloquially, Cambodians refer to their country as either ស្រុកខ្មែរ srok khmae, meaning "Khmer's Land", or the more formal ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា prɑteih kampuciə "Country of Kampuchea". The name "Cambodia" is used most in the Western world while "Kampuchea" is more used in the East. There exists sparse evidence for a Pleistocene human occupation of present-day Cambodia, which includes quartz and quartzite pebble tools found in terraces along the Mekong River, in Stung Treng and Kratié provinces, in Kampot Province, although their dating is unreliable; some slight archaeological evidence shows communities of hunter-gatherers inhabited the region during Holocene: the most ancient archaeological discovery site in Cambodia is considered to be the cave of L'aang Spean, in Battambang Province, which belongs to the Hoabinhian period. Excavations in its lower
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Haplorhini is a suborder of primates containing the tarsiers and the simians, as sister of the Strepsirrhini. The name is sometimes spelled Haplorrhini; the simians include catarrhines, the platyrrhines. The extinct omomyids, which are considered to be the most basal haplorhines, are believed to be more related to the tarsiers than to other haplorhines; the exact relationship is not yet established – Williams and Kirk prefer the view that tarsiers and simians share a common ancestor, that common ancestor shares a common ancestor with the omomyids, citing evidence from analysis by Bajpal et al. in 2008. Haplorhines share a number of derived features that distinguish them from the strepsirrhine "wet-nosed" primates, the other suborder of primates from which they diverged some 63 million years ago; the haplorhines, including tarsiers, have all lost the function of the terminal enzyme that manufactures Vitamin C, while the strepsirrhines, like most other orders of mammals, have retained this enzyme.
Genetically, five short interspersed nuclear elements are common to all haplorhines whilst absent in strepsirrhines. The haplorhine upper lip, which has replaced the ancestral rhinarium found in strepsirrhines, is not directly connected to their nose or gum, allowing a large range of facial expressions, their brain-to-body mass ratio is greater than the strepsirrhines, their primary sense is vision. Haplorhines have a postorbital plate, unlike the postorbital bar found in strepsirrhines. Most species are diurnal. All anthropoids have a single-chambered uterus. Most species have single births, although twins and triplets are common for marmosets and tamarins. Despite similar gestation periods, haplorhine newborns are much larger than strepsirrhine newborns, but have a longer dependence period on their mother; this difference in size and dependence is credited to the increased complexity of their behavior and natural history. The taxonomic name Haplorhini rhinos, it refers to the lack of a rhinarium or "wet nose", found in many mammals, including strepsirrhine primates.
Haplorhini and its sister clade, diverged about 65 million years ago. 5 million years only a short time afterward from an evolutionary perspective, the infraorder Tarsiiformes, whose only remaining family is that of the tarsier, branched off from the other haplorhines. The fossil Archicebus may be similar to the most recent common ancestor at this time; the other major clade within Haplorhini, the simians, is divided into two parvorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. The New World monkeys split from catarrhines about 40 mya, while the apes diverged from Old World monkeys about 25 mya; the available fossil evidence indicates that both the hominoid and cercopithecoid clades originated in Africa. The following is the listing of the living haplorhine families, their placement in the Order Primates: ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs, galagos etc. Suborder Haplorhini: tarsiers + monkeys, including apes Infraorder Tarsiiformes Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers Infraorder Simiiformes: monkeys, apes Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys Family Callitrichidae: marmosets, tamarins Family Cebidae: capuchins, squirrel monkeys Family Aotidae: night or owl monkeys Family Pitheciidae: titis, uakaris Family Atelidae: howler and woolly monkeys Parvorder Catarrhini Old World anthropoids Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Superfamily Hominoidea: apes Family Hylobatidae: lesser apes Family Hominidae: great apes and humans The exact placement of early haplorhine families is uncertain owing to limited evidence.
The following sets out a possible order put together by Williams and Kirk in 2010, based on cladograms put together by Seiffert et al, Marivaux and Bajpai et al, should not be seen as definitive. They do not include Propliopithecoidea. Included are Archicebidae, the discovery of, announced by Ni et al in 2013.. ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs, lorises and their ancestors stem Haplorhini †Omomyiformes Omomyids and their ancestors crown Haplorhini Tarsiiformes Tarsiers and their ancestors †Archicebidae Tarsiidae †Altiatlasius †Eosimiidae early anthropoids †Amphipithecidae †Parapithecoidea †Proteopithecoidea †Oligopithecidae Catarrhini Old World anthropoids Platyrrhini New World monkeysSigé et al describe Altiatlasius as an Omomyiform, but state that it could be an early anthropoid, with the latter view being supported by Godinot and Bajpai et al. Kay et al point out that a case can be made for Amphipithecidae being placed either as adapiformes or as early anthropoids, noting in particular that they had a long evolution separate from other groups, that key parts of their anatomy are missing from the fossil record.
They conclude that either possibility is e
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l