Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
N. W. A was an American hip hop group from California, they were among the earliest and most significant popularizers and controversial figures of the gangsta rap subgenre, are considered one of the greatest and most influential groups in the history of hip hop music. Active from 1986 to 1991, the rap group endured controversy owing to their music's explicit lyrics, which many viewed as being mysogynist, as well as to its glorification of drugs and crime; the group was subsequently banned from many mainstream American radio stations. In spite of this, the group has sold over 10 million units in the United States alone. Drawing on their own experiences of racism and excessive policing, the group made inherently political music, they were known for their deep hatred of the police system, which sparked much controversy over the years. The original lineup, formed in 1986, consisted of Arabian Prince, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube. DJ Yella and MC Ren joined in 1987, they released their first compilation album as a group in 1987 called N.
W. A. and the Posse which peaked at #39 on Billboard magazine's Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. Arabian Prince left shortly after the release of their debut studio album, Straight Outta Compton, in 1988 and Ice Cube following suit in December 1989. Eazy-E, Ice Cube, MC Ren and Dr. Dre would become platinum-selling solo artists in the 1990s, their debut album marked the beginning of the new gangsta rap era as the production and social commentary in their lyrics were revolutionary within the genre. N. W. A's second studio album, Niggaz4Life, was the first hardcore rap album to debut at number one on the Billboard 200 sales charts. Rolling Stone ranked N. W. A number 83 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In 2016, the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, following three previous nominations. N. W. A was assembled by Compton-based Eazy-E. Eazy-E sought an introduction to Steve Yano. Although rebuffed, Yano was impressed by Eazy-E's persistence and arranged a meeting with Dr. Dre.
N. W. A consisted of Dr. Dre. Together with fellow producer Arabian Prince, Ice Cube was added to the roster after he had started out as a rapper for the group C. I. A. Dre would bring DJ Yella on board as well. Dre and Yella were both members of the World Class Wreckin' Cru as DJs and producers. Ruthless released the single "Panic Zone" in 1987 with Macola Records, included on the compilation album N. W. A. and the Posse. N. W. A was still in its developing stages, is only credited on three of the eleven tracks, notably the uncharacteristic record "Panic Zone", "8-Ball", "Dopeman", which marked the first collaboration of Arabian Prince, DJ Yella, Dr. Dre, Ice Cube. Mexican rapper Krazy-Dee co-wrote "Panic Zone", called "Hispanic Zone", but the title was changed when Dr. Dre advised Krazy-Dee that the word "hispanic" would hinder sales. Included was Eazy-E's solo track "Boyz-n-the-Hood". N. W. A released their debut studio album, Straight Outta Compton, in 1988. With its famous opening salvo of three tracks, the group reflected the rising anger of the urban youth.
The opening song "Straight Outta Compton" introduced the group, "Fuck tha Police" protested police brutality and racial profiling, "Gangsta Gangsta" painted the worldview of the inner-city youth. While the group was credited with pioneering the burgeoning subgenre of gangsta rap, N. W. A referred to their music as "reality rap". Twenty-seven years member and co-producer of the Straight Outta Compton film, Ice Cube, commented "they were talking about what led into the style that we ended up doing, now called hardcore gangster rap." Dr. Dre and DJ Yella, as HighPowered Productions, composed the beats for each song, with Dre making occasional rapping appearances; the D. O. C. Ice Cube, MC Ren wrote most of the group's lyrics, including "Fuck tha Police" the group's most notorious song, which brought them into conflict with various law enforcement agencies. Under pressure from Focus on the Family, Milt Ahlerich, an assistant director of the FBI, sent a letter to Ruthless and its distributing company Priority Records, advising the rappers that "advocating violence and assault is wrong and we in the law enforcement community take exception to such action."
This letter can still be seen at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Ohio. Policemen refused hurting their plans to tour. Nonetheless, the FBI's letter only served to draw more publicity to the group. Straight Outta Compton was one of the first albums to adhere to the new Parental Advisory label scheme still in its early stages: the label at the time consisted of "WARNING: Moderate impact coarse language and/or themes" only. However, the taboo nature of N. W. A's music was the most important factor of its mass appeal. Media coverage compensated for N. W. A's lack of airplay and their album went double platinum. One month after Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E's solo debut Eazy-Duz-It was released; the album was dominated by Eazy's persona but behind the scenes it was a group effort. Music was handled by DJ Yella. O. C; the album was another double platinum success for Ruthless. 1989 saw the re-issue of N. W. A and the Posse and Straight Outta Compton on CD, the release of The D. O. C.'s No One Can Do It Better.
His album was a collaboration with Dr. Dre and notably free of "gangsta rap" co
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Cornell Iral Haynes Jr. known professionally as Nelly, is an American rapper, songwriter, entrepreneur and occasional actor from St. Louis, Missouri. Nelly embarked on his music career with Midwest hip hop group St. Lunatics, in 1993 and signed to Universal Records in 1999. Under Universal, Nelly began his solo career in the year 2000, with his debut album Country Grammar, of which the featured title-track and the single "Ride wit Me" were top ten hits; the album went on to peak at number one. Country Grammar is Nelly's best-selling album to date, selling over 8.4 million copies in the United States. His following album Nellyville, produced the number-one hits "Hot in Herre" and "Dilemma". Other singles included "Work It", "Air Force Ones", "Pimp Juice" and "#1". With the same-day dual release of Sweat and the compilation Sweatsuit, Nelly continued to generate many chart-topping hits. Sweat debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 342,000 copies in its first week. On the same week of release, Suit debuted at number one, selling around 396,000 copies in its first week on the same chart.
Nelly's fifth studio album, Brass Knuckles, was released on September 16, 2008, after several delays. It produced the singles "Party People", "Stepped on My J'z" and "Body on Me". In 2010, Nelly released the album 5.0. The lead single, "Just a Dream", was certified triple platinum in the United States, it included the singles "Move That Body" and "Gone". Nelly won Grammy Awards in 2003 and 2004 and had a supporting role in the 2005 remake film The Longest Yard with Adam Sandler and Chris Rock, he has two clothing lines and Apple Bottoms. He has been referred to by Peter Shapiro as "one of the biggest stars of the new millennium", the RIAA ranks Nelly as the fourth best-selling rap artist in American music history, with 21 million albums sold in the United States. On December 11, 2009, Billboard ranked Nelly the number three Top Artist of the Decade. Nelly was born Cornell Iral Haynes, Jr. in Austin, the only son of Cornell Haynes and Rhonda Mack. Haynes' father was serving in the Air Force for much of his childhood.
When he was seven, his parents divorced. Haynes moved with his mother from St. Louis to Missouri as a teenager. While in high school, Nelly formed the St. Lunatics, with his friends Ali, Murphy Lee and Slo'Down, his half brother City Spud; the group enjoyed moderate local popularity with their single "Gimme What Ya Got" in 1997. Despite being popular in Missouri and the surrounding areas, the group struggled to achieve success outside of St. Louis and the group agree to let Nelly go solo, after a major record deal failed to appear. In 1999, Nelly was signed to Universal Music Group by A&R Kevin Law. Law told HitQuarters that few people at the record company liked Nelly when he was first signed, with the feedback he received from his colleagues on the rapper's music being "extraordinarily negative". Nelly was unusual for being a rapper from the Midwest at a time when hip-hop was dominated by the East Coast, West Coast and the South; the label used this to their advantage by branding Nelly as a star of the Midwest, hoping to inspire pride in the people of St Louis and the surrounding regions.
Nelly was signed with St. Lunatics. Nelly signing to the label opened the door for the St. Lunatics to reunite and join the label shortly after. Kevin Law and Country from Fo'Reel Entertainment decided to do a solo record with Nelly first and return to St. Lunatics the following year; the label released his debut album Country Grammar in 2000. The success of its title track as a single led to the album debuting at number three in the Billboard 200 in the U. S. Other singles from the album included "E. I.". The album was certified 9× platinum by the RIAA on April 27, 2004. In 2002, Nelly's second album Nellyville was released, debuting at No. 1 on Billboard's Top 200 Music Albums. Other singles included "Dilemma" featuring Kelly Rowland, with over 7,6 million records sold worldwide, "Work It" featuring Justin Timberlake, "Air Force Ones" featuring Murphy Lee and the St. Lunatics, "Pimp Juice", "#1"; this album was successful and was certified 6x multi-platinum on June 27, 2003. "Hot in Herre" won the Grammy Award for Best Male Rap Solo Performance in 2003.
In 2003 Nelly released Da Derrty Versions: The Reinvention. It featured; the music video of a Tip Drill Remix became a source of controversy due to perceptions of misogynistic depictions of women. The controversy forced Nelly to cancel an appearance at a bone marrow drive at Spelman College, an black college in Atlanta, Georgia. Similar claims of misogyny surrounded Nelly's single "Pimp Juice". RIAA have certified the album Platinum. For the Bad Boys II soundtrack album, Nelly contributed the single "Shake Ya Tailfeather" featuring Diddy and Murphy Lee. Another number-one hit, "Shake Ya Tailfeather" won the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group. On September 14, 2004, Nelly released two albums and Suit. Suit, an R&B-oriented album, debuted at number one on the Billboard albums chart, Sweat, a rap-oriented album, debuted at number two. From Suit, the slow ballad "Over
Kent is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the largest city in Portage County. It is located along the Cuyahoga River in Northeast Ohio on the western edge of the county; the population was 28,904 in the 2010 Census and was estimated at 29,915 in 2017. The city is counted as part of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area and the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area. Part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, Kent was settled in 1805 and was known for many years as Franklin Mills. Settlers were attracted to the area due to its location along the Cuyahoga River as a place for water-powered mills. Development came in the 1830s and 1840s as a result of the settlement's position along the route of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal. Leading up to the American Civil War, Franklin Mills was noted for its activity in the Underground Railroad. With the decline of the canal and the emergence of the railroad, the town became the home of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad maintenance shops through the influence of Marvin Kent.
In 1864 the town was renamed Kent in honor in gratitude for Marvin Kent's efforts. It became a city after the 1920 Census. Today Kent is a college town best known as the home of the main campus of Kent State University, founded in 1910, as the site of the 1970 Kent State shootings. A manufacturing center, education is the city's largest economic sector with Kent State University the city's, one of the region's, largest employers; the Kent City School District and the Kent Free Library provide additional education opportunities and resources. Many of Kent's demographic elements are influenced by the presence of the university the median age, median income, those living below the poverty level; the city is governed by a council-manager system with a city manager, a nine-member city council, a mayor. Kent has nearly 20 parks and preserves and hosts a number of annual festivals including ones related to Earth Day, folk music, the U. S. Independence Day. In addition to the Kent State athletic teams, the city hosts a number of amateur and local sporting events at various times during the year.
Kent is part of the Cleveland-Akron media market and is the city of license for three local radio stations and three television stations and includes the regional affiliates for National Public Radio and the Public Broadcasting Service. Local transportation infrastructure includes hike-and-bike trails; as the home of the Davey Tree Expert Company, Kent is known as "The Tree City" while residents are referred to as "Kentites". The city has produced a number of notable individuals in politics and the entertainment industry; the region was inhabited by various tribes of American Indians, including the early Mound Builders. Around 1780, Captain Samuel Brady achieved notoriety for his activities in the area, including his famous leap of 21 feet over the Cuyahoga River to avoid capture by an unknown band of American Indians; the site, known as Brady's Leap, is now a city park. Settlement by Europeans began in early 19th century; as part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, the area was divided into survey townships in 1798 and all of what is now Kent was part of Town 3 Range 9, which would be known as Franklin Township.
Aaron Olmsted, a wealthy Connecticut merchant, had purchased the 16,000-acre township and named it for his son Aaron Franklin Olmsted. Franklin Township was surveyed in 1803 and settled in November 1805 when John Haymaker and his family moved west from Warren to the banks of the Cuyahoga River, they were joined by John's brother George and their father Jacob Haymaker and their families early the next year, built a gristmill in 1807. Initial growth in the area was slow, but two small villages would develop due to the potential for power generated by the Cuyahoga River that could be used in gristmills and manufacturing; the first village, known as Franklin Mills, or locally as the "Lower Village", developed around the original Haymaker property. In 1818, Joshua Woodard arrived in the area and began constructing buildings just north of the village forming the "Upper Village" that would come to be known as Carthage. In the 1820s, Franklin Mills was included in the route of the Ohio Canal; when construction began on the canal in the mid-1830s, land speculation was rampant in many areas of northeast Ohio along the canal, including Franklin Mills.
As a result, an industrial and business region was established along the east side of the river in what is now downtown Kent. Factories and mills were either planned or constructed along the Cuyahoga River, some of which either were never built or failed, due to effects of the Panic of 1837. A lock and attached arch dam, was completed in 1836; the canal opened in 1840, but would only operate into the 1860s. By the 1870s the canal was shut down. In the era leading up to the American Civil War, Franklin Mills was an active stop on the Underground Railroad, giving fugitive slaves shelter on their escape to Canada. There were three notable stops in Franklin Mills, one of which still stands as of 2010. During this period, from 1835 to 1839, noted American abolitionist John Brown moved to the village, operating a tannery along the Cuyahoga River with Zenas Kent. In 1863 the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad was constructed through Franklin Mills, due to the efforts of local businessman Marvin Kent, son of Zenas Kent.
Marvin Kent had started his own railroad company, the Franklin and Warren Railroad, in 1851 after Franklin Mills home to several
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music, lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns and Southern gospel music, prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles, it has representation on several music charts including Billboard's Christian Albums, Christian Songs, Hot Christian AC, Christian CHR, Soft AC/Inspirational, Christian Digital Songs as well as the UK's Official Christian & Gospel Albums Chart. Top-selling CCM artists will appear on the Billboard 200. In the iTunes Store, the genre is represented as part of the Christian and gospel genre while the Google Play Music system labels it as Christian/Gospel; the growing popularity in the styles of Rock'n'Roll music in the 1950s was dismissed by the church because it was believed to encourage sinfulness.
Yet as evangelical churches adapted to appeal to more people, the musical styles used in worship changed as well by adopting the sounds of this popular style. The genre became known as contemporary Christian music as a result of the Jesus movement revival in the latter 1960s and early 1970s, was called Jesus music. "About that time, many young people from the sixties' counterculture professed to believe in Jesus. Convinced of the bareness of a lifestyle based on drugs, free sex, radical politics,'hippies' became'Jesus people'". However, there were people who felt that Jesus was another "trip", it was during the 1970s Jesus movement that Christian music started to become an industry within itself. "Jesus Music" started by playing instruments and singing songs about love and peace, which translated into love of God. Paul Wohlegemuth, who wrote the book Rethinking Church Music, said " 1970s will see a marked acceptance of rock-influenced music in all levels of church music; the rock style will become more familiar to all people, its rhythmic excesses will become refined, its earlier secular associations will be less remembered."Larry Norman is remembered as the "father of Christian rock", because of his early contributions to the developing new genre that mixed rock rhythms with the Christian messages.
Though his style was not well received by many in the Christian community of the time, he continued throughout his career to create controversial hard-rock songs such as "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". He is remembered as the artist "who first combined rock'n' roll with Christian lyrics" in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Though there were Christian albums in the 1960s that contained contemporary-sounding songs, there were two albums recorded in 1969 that are considered to be the first complete albums of "Jesus rock": Upon This Rock by Larry Norman released on Capitol Records, Mylon – We Believe by Mylon LeFevre, released by Cotillion, LeFevre's attempt at blending gospel music with southern rock. Unlike traditional or southern gospel music, this new Jesus music was birthed out of rock and folk music. Pioneers of this movement included Keith Green, 2nd Chapter of Acts, Barry McGuire, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, Benny Hester, The Imperials, among others; the small Jesus music culture had expanded into a multimillion-dollar industry by the 1980s.
Many CCM artists such as Benny Hester, Amy Grant, DC Talk, Michael W. Smith and Jars of Clay found crossover success with Top 40 mainstream radio play; the genre became prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s. Beginning in July 1978, CCM Magazine began covering "Contemporary Christian Music" artists and a wide range of spiritual themes until it launched online publications in 2009, it has certain themes and messages behind the songs and their lyrics including Praise and worship, faith and prayer. These songs focus on themes of devotion, redemption and renewal. Many people listen to contemporary Christian music for comfort through tough times; the lyrics and messages conveyed in CCM songs are aimed to worship Jesus. One of the earliest goals of CCM was to spread the news of Jesus to non-Christians. In addition, contemporary Christian music strengthens the faith of believers. Contemporary Christian music has influences from folk, gospel and rock music. Genres of music such as soft rock, folk rock, hip-hop, etc. have played a large influence on CCM.
Charismatic churches have had a large influence on contemporary Christian music and are one of the largest producers of CCM. Hillsong Church is one of the many prominent CCM artists. Contemporary Christian music has expanded into many subgenres. Christian punk, Christian hardcore, Christian metal, Christian hip hop, although not considered CCM, can come under the genre's umbrella. Contemporary worship music is incorporated in modern CCM. Contemporary worship is both performed during church services; some prominent artists who assisted CCM to become popular include Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, Phil Keaggy and John Elefante. Several mainstream artists, such as The Byrds, Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Elvis Presley, Lifehouse and U2, have dealt with Christian themes in their music, yet are not part of the CCM industry. Other artists representing the genre include MercyMe, Casting Crowns, Jeremy Camp, Third Day, Matthew West, tobyMac, Chris Tomlin, Brandon Heath, Aaron Shust, Lauren Daigle. Jars of Clay, dc Talk, Steven Curtis Chapman and Newsboys have belonged to this genre.
WFAN-FM known as "Sports Radio 66 and 101.9 FM" or "The Fan", is a commercial FM sports radio station licensed to New York City. The station is owned and operated by Entercom, is simulcast with WFAN. WFAN-FM's studios are located in the combined Entercom facility in the Hudson Square neighborhood of Manhattan and its transmitter is located at the Empire State Building; the station traces its origin to an experimental Apex band radio station, W2XWF on 42.18 MHz, authorized in 1940 and licensed to radio engineer William G. H. Finch. In 1941 the station was authorized to convert to a commercial FM station, W55NY transmitting on 45.5 MHz. In 1943 the call letters were changed to WFGG, which were changed to WGHF in 1945. One of the uses of the station was to test Finch's broadcast facsimile system. By 1946, the station was broadcasting on 99.7 MHz, moving to 101.9 in 1947. In late 1948, it became the New York City affiliate of the farm-oriented Rural Radio Network based in Ithaca, New York, which owned a group of upstate stations that would associate with WQXR.
In 1955, its then-owner, changed the call letters to WBFM, reflecting its parent owner. The station aired a mostly-instrumental beautiful music radio format; the station was purchased by the New York Daily News in late 1963. WBFM adopted the WPIX-FM call letters on October 11, 1964, as the station was now co-owned with television station WPIX. Broadcasting from the "Pix Penthouse" on the 28th floor of the Daily News Building, WPIX-FM ushered in what was to become one of the most popular formats in FM radio, Easy Listening, signaling the end of the dominance of instrumental beautiful music, jazz and block programming on the FM band. WPIX-FM would be noted for not being able to settle on a format for any real length of time, was derisively nicknamed "the format of the month station" by many in the New York City radio industry; the station went through 11 different formats during its post-easy listening period: 1971-1975. While still focused on current music, it mixed in rock and roll oldies from about 1964 to what was recent.
1975: Top 40/Disco. The New York Times reported, "Characterized by a strong bass, a simple melody, terse repetitive lyrics...'Disco,' as this music is called...is becoming popular on AM and FM radio stations. WPIX-FM switched several hours of its nightly programming over to'disco'" and leaned disco the rest of the day; the nightly show "Disco 102" was first hosted by "Doctor" Jerry Carroll by Howard Hoffman when Carroll moved to afternoons. By the summer of 1976 the station was back to a gold leaning Top 40 format, popular on FM stations at the time. Mark Simone launches "The Simone Phone," a pioneering FM comedy talk show featuring then-producer/writer Tom Leykis, that contained popular features such as "Dial-A-Date," which were borrowed by other radio shows. 1977-1978: Top 40/Rock. 1978-1980: Punk/New Wave/Rock. At a time when other rock stations in New York were sticking with traditional AOR formats, Adult Top 40 and oldies, WPIX staked out a groundbreaking format focused on new wave and punk but included older rock and roll as well, hence its advertising slogan: "From Elvis to Elvis" It helped break in New York and nationally early records by Costello, The Police, Nick Lowe, The Clash, The Cars, Devo, The Kings, Iggy Pop, Lou Reed, The Buzzcocks, Cheap Trick, Talking Heads, David Johansen, Tom Verlaine and Richard Lloyd, among others.
The station was featured in lyrics from the Squeeze song,'I Think I'm Go Go'. March 1, 1980–July 6, 1981: Rock-based Top 40. A station spokesperson said WPIX-FM was "modifying the format to improve the product to make it more mass acceptable." July 6, 1981- January 15, 1982: Album-oriented rock. January 15–February 28, 1982: CHR. A transitional format to Adult Contemporary. March 1982-1985: adult contemporary. Beginning in January 1983, WPIX-FM positioned itself as "nothing but love songs" in 1983. A series of TV commercials featuring claymation cherubs, starring artists such as the Pointer Sisters, Bette Midler, Sheena Easton and Carly Simon were credited with bringing new listeners to the station. 1985: Hot adult contemporary, a mix of love songs and eclectic music as "the ballads and beat of New York." In 1985, the station began running a nighttime show called "The PIX Penthouse," which played R&B and soul songs. It had been used through the 1960s as the station's tagline for its easy listening format.
August 16, 1986-March, 1987: adult contemporary/standards/eclectic rock "The Bright and Lively Sound of New York." March 1987: Hot Adult Contemporary during the day and urban adult contemporary evenings. September 1987-August 10, 1988: Hot Adult Contemporary during the day and overnights using "Easy Rock" as a slogan. Smooth jazz in the evenings. Notable air personalities during the WPIX-FM period included Mark Simone, Dennis Quinn, Jim Kerr, Alan Colmes, Meg Griffin, Les Marshak, Gus Gossert, Jane Hamburger, Dan Neer, Alfredo Santos, Rick Allison, Bill Vitka, Ted David and Jerry Carroll, who would gain fame as commercial spokesperson for the Crazy Eddie electronics retail chain. Another WPIX-FM personality, Ken Harper, host of the all-night "Manhattan After Hours," from 1964 to 1968, went on to produce "The Wiz" on Broadway; the station gave up qu