The Little Carpathians are a low, about 100 km long, mountain range, part of the Carpathian Mountains. The mountains are situated in Western Slovakia, covering the area from Bratislava to Nové Mesto nad Váhom, northeastern Austria, where a small part called Hundsheimer Berge is located south of the Devín Gate; the Little Carpathians are bordered by Záhorie Lowland in the west and the Danubian Lowland in the east. In 1976, the Little Carpathians were declared a protected area under the name Little Carpathians Protected Landscape Area, covering 646.1 km2. The area is rich in flora and fauna diversity and contains numerous castles, most notably the Bratislava Castle, caves. Driny is the only cave open to the public; the three highest mountains are Záruby at 768 m, Vysoká at 754 m, Vápenná at 752 m. Geomorphologically, the Little Carpathians belong into the Alps-Himalaya System, the Carpathian Mountains sub-system, its province Western Carpathians, its subprovince the Inner Western Carpathians; the Little Carpathians are further divided into four parts: Devín Carpathians, Pezinok Carpathians, Brezová Carpathians and Čachtice Carpathians.
The mountains are densely forested, the southeastern part contains extensive vineyards. Several castles or castle ruins are situated in the Little Carpathians, for example Devín, Čachtice, Červený Kameň, Smolenice castles. Geologically, the mountain range is part of the Tatra-Fatra Belt of core mountains. There are several active faults. Of them the most notable is the Dobra Voda fault; this particular fault is monitored because of its proximity to the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice. The Little Carpathians are seismically one of the most active regions in Slovakia and epicentres of earthquakes with approximate magnitude of 2.5 on Richter magnitude scale are located here. There are a total of eight karst areas in the Little Carpathians: the Devín Carpathians, Cajlan, Kuchyňa-orešany, Plavecký, Dobrovodský, Čachtice karsts; the most important karst forms include caves Deravá, Tmavá skala, Čachtická, caves along the Borinský potok. Driny, a limestone cave, is the only cave open to public. Major streams include Suchý jarok.
While being a low mountain range, the Little Carpathians were always considered a mountain barrier attaining a height of 500 meters, as they were surrounded by various lowlands. In the past, various types of ore were mined in the Little Carpathians used for the production of gold, antimony and pyrite. During the Second World War, the Little Carpathians were the birthplace of the partisan group Janko Kráľ. Insurgency in the mountains lasted until the occupation by the Soviet Red Army in 1945; the Little Carpathians are a popular tourist destination in Western Slovakia. The mountains are used for hiking, tramping, backpacking and motorcycle tourism, cross-country skiing,and other winter sports; the mountain range contains a dense network of trails, the recreational infrastructure is well developed in the south. The Little Carpathians are a popular destination for the inhabitants of Bratislava and other larger cities in the region. Since the Middle Ages, the area has been known for wine-making traditions.
Well known centers of local wine-making include Svätý Jur and Pezinok. The main tourist centers include Pezinská Baba and Zochova chata. Geomorphological division of Slovakia Tourism in Slovakia Little Carpathians at Spectacular Slovakia Little Carpathians Wine Route
Jablonové, Malacky District
Jablonové is a village in Malacky District in the Bratislava Region of western Slovakia close to the town of Malacky, north-west of Slovakia's capital Bratislava. The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bratislava, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1652-1896 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Media related to Jablonové, Malacky District at Wikimedia Commons Official page https://web.archive.org/web/20071027094149/http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html Surnames of living people in Jablonoveregion:SK_type:city_source:nlwiki |display=title}}
Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovakia
The Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovakia is a Lutheran church body in Slovakia. The church was established in 1922. After dissolution of Austro-Hungarian empire; the church opposed the Nazis in World War II. After the Communist coup d'état of 1948, the Lutheran Church lost control over its schools and social services, many church periodicals ceased to be published. More than one hundred clergy were persecuted; until 1989 the Church lived under the strict control of the regime and in 1993 the Synod adopted a new constitution. The ECAV is the second largest church in Slovakia, it considers the Gospel as contained in the Bible to be the source of faith in the triune God and the rule for life. Jesus is regarded as the head of the Church and it functions on the basis of the equality of God’s children; the Augsburg Confession is recognized as a correct explanation of central issues of faith. At present there are 326 congregations grouped into 14 conferences, two districts: the East and the West Districts.
There are about 355 active clergy. The Church administers ecclesiastical buildings. ECAV is a member of the Lutheran World Federation, the Conference of European Churches, the World Council of Churches. Most members of the Slovak ethnic community in Vojvodina are adherents of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession, under jurisdiction of Bishop of Novi Sad. Official website Official website
The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and speak the Slovak language. In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora; the name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs. The original stem has been preserved in all Slovak words except the masculine noun; the first written mention of adjective slovenský is in 1294. The original name of Slovaks Slovenin/Slovene was still recorded in Pressburg Latin-Czech Dictionary, but it changed to Slovák under the influence of Czech and Polish language; the first written mention of new form in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov. The mentions in Czech sources are older; the change is not related to the ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages.
The word Slovak was used later as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language together with other forms. In Hungarian "Slovak" is Tót, an exonym, it was used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but came to refer to Slovaks. Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, Tótkomlós still bear the name. Tóth is a common Hungarian surname; the Slovaks have historically been variously referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende, or Wenden. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements; the early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level. Original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. Weakening of tribal consciousness was accelerated by Avars, who did not respect tribal differences in the controlled territory and motivated remaining Slavs to join together and to collaborate on their defense.
In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union: Samo's empire. Regardless of Samo's empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities; the final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise. The first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia if it was inhabited by related Slavs; the Principality of Nitra become a part of a common state of Moravians and Slovaks. The short existence of Great Moravia prevented it from suppressing differences which resulted from its creation from two separate entities, therefore a common "Slovak-Moravian" ethnic identity failed to develop; the early political integration in the territory of present-day Slovakia was however reflected in linguistic integration. While dialects of early Slovak ancestors were divided into West Slavic and non-West Slavic, between the 8th and 9th centuries both dialects merged, thus laying the foundations of a Slovak language.
The 10th century is a milestone in the Slovak ethnogenesis. The fall of Great Moravia and further political changes supported their formation into a separate nation. At the same time, with the extinction of the Proto-Slavic language, between the 10th and 13th centuries Slovak evolved into an independent language; the early existence of the Kingdom of Hungary positively influenced the development of common consciousness and companionship among Slavs in the Northern Hungary, not only within boundaries of present-day Slovakia. The clear difference between Slovaks and Hungarians made adoption of specific name unnecessary and Slovaks preserved their original name, used in communication with other Slavic peoples. In political terms, the medieval Slovaks were a part of the multi-ethnic political nation Natio Hungarica, together with Hungarians, Germans and other ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary. Since a medieval political nation did not consist of ordinary people but nobility, membership of the privileged class was necessary for all these peoples.
Like other nations, the Slovaks began to transform into a modern nation from the 18th century under the idea of national romanticism. The modern Slovak nation is the result of radical processes of modernization within the Habsburg Empire which culminated in the middle of the 19th century; the transformation process was slowed down by conflict with Hungarian nationalism and the ethnogenesis of the Slovaks become a political question regarding their deprivation and preservation of their language and national rights. In 1722, Mich
Vehicle registration plates of Slovakia
Vehicles registered in Slovakia are assigned to one of the districts and since 1997, the licence plate coding consists of seven characters and takes the form XX-NNNLL, where XX is a two letter code corresponding to the district, NNN is three digit number and LL are two letters. There are three design varieties. Between 1 April 1997 and 30 April 2004, the plates contained the Coat of Arms of Slovakia in the top left corner and the country code SK in the bottom left; the two district identifiers were separated from the serials by a dash. On 1 May 2004, Slovakia joined the European Union. In order to harmonise the visual look of the plates with the rest of the EU, the Slovak Coat of Arms was replaced by the so-called euroband, a vertical blue bar with representing the Flag of the EU; the country code SK was inserted into the euroband. The number 0 and letter O have been differentiated as well, the number has a stroke through it The latest type has been used since 1 June 2006; the Slovak Coat of Arms has returned to the plates replacing the dash while keeping the EU part intact.
Regular plates are the most used of all the types. They contain seven characters starting with the district code followed by a series of 3 numbers and 2 letters; the number series used are between 001 and 999. The letter series are between AA-XZ and ZA-ZZ. 24 letters are used. Progression: 001AA-002AA...999AA 001AB-999AB. 999AZ is followed by 001BA through 999BB etc. Only Bratislava has reached 999ZZ as of February 2011. Where limited space warrants it, two-line plates can be used on a vehicle. A block of combinations is set aside from the regular plate range as required. Trailer plates follow the format of the regular plates XX-NNNLL except in this case the first serial letter is always Y; the registrations would thus start 001YA, continuing through 999YA and 001YB to 999YZ. Any build of trailer whether a mobile cargo trailer can use these plates; as of February 2011, Bratislava is nearing the end of its YZ series. Two-line plates exist with a block of combinations set aside for them in each district.
Motorcycle plates use the same series as the regular plates. For example, DS-125AC can be both a motorcycle plate; the only difference is their size. Motorcycles use two different sizes. Personalized plates are optional in Slovakia for an extra fee; the format must include the two letter district code and 5 other characters in either XX-LLLLL, XX-LLLLN or LLLNN format. Unlike in any other type of plates, the use of Q and W is possible. Plates are not allowed to display any religious or offensive message. Smaller plates are available for motorcycles. Dealer plates follow the format XX-LLNNN or XX-L NNN and the first letter of the serial are always "M". So the registrations would start with M 001 and ends M 999. Two letters will be issued, starting from MA001 continuing through MA999 MB001 and so on until MZ999. Letters and numbers on this plate will be colored red. Temporary plates follow the same format as mentioned above but the first serial letter will be "V". So registrations start with V 001 and ends with V 999.
Two letters will be issued, starts from VA001 and ends with VZ999, continuing it with VB and so on until VZ999. These plates had yellow background; these plates had red stripe indicating expiration of these plates. Diplomatic plates had the format EE-NNNNN; these plates had yellow fonts. Official plates had the format XX-L NNN or XX-NNN L, the serial letters will be always "X". Military plates had the format NN-NNNNN. Import plates. In 69 cases, the district is named after and the code derived from its principal city, included in the district. Two cities, Bratislava and Košice, consist of 4 districts respectively; this fact is not reflected on the plates, only one code is used. Additionally, Košice-okolie comprises an area around Košice while having its seat in the city proper; each district is assigned at least one code. Eight cities that are seats of the region are assigned more. Since 18 August 2010, Bratislava has been registering plates with its second code, BL. Bratislava is the only okres to do so and will remain in this position for years as Košice, the runner-up, has only reached the LU series as of August 2018.
The older system XX NN-NN or XXY NN-NN - was issued until 30 March 1997. All such registrations expired on 1 January 2005, vehicles that had not registered under the new system are not allowed on public roads. Media related to License plates of Slovakia at Wikimedia Commons
Studienka is a town and municipality in western Slovakia in Malacky District in the Bratislava region. Recent discoveries indicate that the first settlements date back to the so-called La Tène culture, where the present territory was inhabited by Celtic tribes, they settled here as they were able to extract metals from the ores located in the northeast of today's village. Evidence of Celtic settlement was first discovered in 1980 - 1983 by a Slovak archaeologist Dr. Lev Zachar, a member of the Archaeological Institute of the Slovak National Museum, in cooperation with the locals. During this period, 18 locations were discovered, hiding various iron and bronze clips, iron spikes and parts of ceramics, which are now part of the exhibition in the Slovak National Museum; the first written mention until was thought to be the last part of the three-volume work of Cities and Communities of Slovakia from 1592, where the municipality is registered under its German name Hausbrun. It was believed that the town was founded by German-speaking settlers from Austria in the 15th century.
Today, experts turn to the 1392 documents of Sigismund of Luxembourg, in which the Polish Duke Stibor of Stiboricz was given the Royal Wywar Castle, together with all the properties belonging to this castle. Studienka, listed in this charter as the village of Iwanusfalua, belonged to this catchment area as the southernmost village of Holice district. In the 15th century, after the defeat of Kingdom of Hungary to the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the area became part of the Habsburg monarchy; this marked the beginning of a new era for the area, as it received a influx of German-speaking population from Austria, resulting in its growth. There are no reliable written references to the reason for the arrival of the German-speaking population, but two versions have been preserved by oral submission. According to one version, the Austrian lumberjacks were supposed to build their houses near a fountain, hence it was called in German Haus bei Brunn Hausbrunn and Slovak Hasprunka; the second version talks about a shepherd from Hausbrunn, looking for pastures for his flock of sheep.
After other shepherds settled in the village, the place was Slovakized Hasprunka, named after the place of origin of the first shepherd. In 1948, the place was renamed Studienka due to national political reasons, following the Slovak word studna. On July 28, 1914, general mobilization was declared and all eligible men were sent the eastern front; this resulted in only women and the elderly remaining in the village. A general chronicle of these years indicates a period of hunger and misery, in 1915 church bells were taken for the military purposes; the end of the war and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 resulted in the outbreak of chaos in the village and subsequently looting of wealthy Jewish population. The total number of victims of the war period is unknown, but 37 men were not returned from the front; the names of the fallen soldiers are engraved on the memorial to the victims of the First World War from 1919, which stands in the park at St Stephen's Church. By the late 19th and early 20th century, the Jewish community had a strong presence in town.
Its members owned shops, a bakery and a meat shop. Many of them were important members of the general municipality. During this period a Synagogue, a Jewish School and a Jewish Cemetery were established; the unfavourable situation before the Second World War forced most of the Jewish population to leave the town. Others who stayed behind were deported to the concentration camps - the last Jewish citizen left the village in 1939; the Jewish Synagogue, is now used as a Municipal office, the remains of the Jewish cemetery in the town quarter of Na Jame is preserved. Rabbi Max Reiser was born in 1839 in Studienka, he was the head Rabbi of Neuern from 1876 until his death on January 5, 1913. Zachar, Lev. Keltské sídlisko pri obci Studienka, okr. Senica. Slovensko v dobe laténskej. Bratislava. Zachar, Lev. Keltské umenie na Slovensku. Slovensko v dobe laténskej. Bratislava. Media related to Studienka at Wikimedia Commons Official webpage
Sološnica. Sološnica lies at the foot of the northwestern side of the Malé Karpaty Mountains at an altitude of 291 m above sea level. Southeast of the village is the majestic peak, Vápenná, rising 748 m up from the lowlands. Beautiful surroundings draw tourists, who admire the cliffs Little and Great Vápennej as well as the Roštún State Reservation, located in the cadastral area of Sološnica and Plavecké Podhradie. Within this range are the Great Vápennej and Čertova Valley, it was proclaimed in 1953 to encompass 109 ha. A new decree in 1988 amended the boundaries. Today it covers 333.31 ha. It was established to protect the karst phenomena, preserve the forests of the Little Carpathians, protect endangered species; the first time Sološnica was mentioned was in 1367. The beginning of its existence is connected with an internal colonization at the beginning of the 14th century. Sološnica had several different names throughout the centuries, some of which are Zeleskut, Zyleskut, Solossnicza or Széleskút from the Hungarian language, where széles stands for broad and kút means well.
The German name Breitenbrunn corresponds with the similar translation of the parts of this compound word referring to its name. The Hungarian form of the name had the most important impact on forming the Slovak version; the word soľ referring to the salt connected to the suffix -nica created the complete Slovak version of the name for the village. There is a particular area within the village called Slanisko, the word stem of which word is "salt or salty". Sološnica belonged to the earls from Svätý Jur and Pezinok, earldom of Serédy inhabiting Plavecký Castle, earldom of Balass and on to the earldom of Plavec. From the 17th century on, Plavecký Castle and the nearby villages had been registered in the ownership of the Pálfys. According to the charter named "Colonia sub montem Rachsturm" from 1478, there was a settlement called "Hólint" located under the hill called "Rošturm" within the area of Sološnica; this settlement was occupied by forest workers of German origin called "holchokari. There were about 20 houses made of wood.
The settlement went through a little bit of decadence and decline after 1781 when the Patent of Toleration was declared. This document did not allow establishment of an evangelic chapel that would be used for praying and worship in places where there were not at least a hundred evangelic families. Therefore, the majority of the population of this settlement moved either to Sološnica or to Pezinok. There are many of their descendants living in Sološnica today. In 1828 there were 205 houses and the population of Sološnica was 1484; these people were engaged in agriculture, weaving and calcinations which continued until 1950. The production and manufacture of wooden tools was very popular among people back and thus has continued into the present. Sološnica has gone through and witnessed several disasters. In 1857 a huge and disastrous fire broke out. In about half an hour, most of the houses caught fire because their roofs were made from straw. 12 people died as a result of this terrible fire. There were the church left afterwards.
In 1861 during the celebrations devoted to the Holy Ghost there was a strong storm with heavy rain which resulted in the level of the Sološnica Stream rising and flooding a substantial part of the village. Lots of inhabitants of Sološnica had a hard time and suffered a lot during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866; the Prussian troops were marching from Moravia towards Trnava and there were numerous fights going on. A great number of the dead were not buried which resulted in cholera being spread all around Záhorie. About 149 people died in Sološnica as a result of being infected with cholera from August 29 to November 14, 1866. In the spring of 1909, there was a severe landslide in the land area called "Na Jamách" and "Nížiny". Another landslide occurred in 1936. World War I brought along plenty of hardship and famine, as well as poverty for the local people. Around 180 men were drafted from Sološnica and they fought on the Serbian front; some of them were reported missing and 43 men died while fighting on the front.
In order to commemorate this significant event, a memorial was built in 1931 by the village with the help of the money collected among its inhabitants. There are two important historic landmarks located in the village: All Saints ChurchDates back to the 14th century when it is considered to have originated; the new church was built on the foundations of the old one in 1699. It was dedicated to All Saints' Day, it was built in the baroque style. The church has been undergone various changes until now; the painting comes from the years between 1880-1890. The sawmill left after Mr. Alexander Nottný from 1880In 1720 there was a mill in the village, in the 18th century there was a papermill used, in the 19th century a distillery was built and the manorial grange was established. Červený Kameň Castle Media related to Sološnica at Wikimedia Commons Solosnica.sk Home Page Slovakia Urban and Municipal Statistics History of Solosnica