Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Mats Ulrik Malm, is a Swedish literary writer and translator. On 18 October 2018, Malm was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. Mats Malm is a university professor of literary science at the University of Gothenburg, he has a PhD in Gothicism. As translator, he has published Icelandic fairy tales, he is working on digitizing Swedish literature as director of the Swedish Literature Bank. Since 2012, Malm has been a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and Antiquities. On 18 October 2018, Malm was elected member of the Swedish Academy, where he succeeded Klas Östergren in Chair No. 11. Minervas äpple: om diktsyn, tolkning och bildspråk inom nordisk göticism Textens auktoritet: de första svenska romanernas villkor Det liderliga språket: poetisk ambivalens i svensk "barock" Poesins röster: avlyssningar av äldre litteratur The soul of poetry redefined: vacillations of mimesis from Aristotle to romanticism Gautreks saga Gísla saga Carl Jonas Love Almqvist: Om François Rabelais' liv och skrifter Snorri Sturluson: Snorres Edda Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu Hrafnkels saga
Peter Mikael Englund is a Swedish author and historian. Englund writes non-fiction books and essays about history, about the Swedish Empire, but about other historical events, he writes in a accessible style, providing narrative details omitted in typical books about history. His books have gained popularity and are translated into several languages, such as German and Czech, he was the permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy from 1 June 2009 to 31 May 2015, when he was succeeded by Sara Danius. In January 2019 Englund announced that he, fellow academy member Espmark, would return as active members of the Swedish academy, where they had been inactive since April 2018. Englund was born in Boden and studied a preparatory course for the caring professions for two years and humanistic subjects for another two years in secondary school, he was conscripted and served 15 months in the Swedish Army at the Norrbotten Regiment located in Boden. He was politically active in his youth and supported the FNL. Englund studied archaeology and theoretical philosophy at Uppsala University, completing a bachelor's degree in 1983, after which he began doctoral studies in History.
He was awarded his Ph. D. in 1989 for his dissertation Det hotade huset, an investigation of the worldview of the 17th-century Swedish nobility. During his period as a doctoral student, he had worked for some time for the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service, the year before receiving his doctorate he had published the bestselling Poltava, a detailed description of the Battle of Poltava, where the troops of Swedish king Charles XII were defeated by the Russian army of Tsar Peter I in 1709. Englund has received the August Prize and the Selma Lagerlöf Prize for Literature, he was elected a member of the Swedish Academy in 2002. On 1 June 2009 he succeeded Horace Engdahl as the permanent secretary of the Academy. In 2009, to distance himself from Engdahl, the previous Nobel secretary, Englund, "criticized the jury panel as being too "Eurocentric,'" and "told the Associated Press that it was easier for Europeans to relate to European literature.". In December 2014 he announced his retirement from the post of secretary of the Swedish Academy and was succeeded by Sara Danius May 31, 2015.
On 1 June 2015, Sara Danius succeeded Peter Englund as permanent secretary. On 6 April 2018, Englund announced. On the same day, Klas Östergren and Kjell Espmark declared that they would become inactive members of the Academy. I On 10 January 2019 Englund announced, through his blog, that he and fellow Academy member Kjell Espmark would be returning as active members of the Academy. Holowczyn: Battle of the Moscow Road Peter the Great Poltava Det hotade huset Förflutenhetens landskap, collection of essays Ofredsår, Sweden during Thirty Years' War with Erik Dahlberg at the centre of the book Brev från nollpunkten, collection of essays about modern history Den oövervinnerlige, on Sweden's period as a Great Power. Sequel to Ofredsår Erik Lönnroth: inträdestal i Svenska akademien Tystnadens historia och andra essäer Jag skall dundra Tystnadens historia, collection of essays Spegelscener: minnesfragment från fyra krig Silvermasken, a short biography of Queen Kristina of Sweden Stridens skönhet och sorg, a biography-based book about 19 people who lived during World War I Det stora svalget: en finlandssvensk i första världskriget 1914 Stridens skönhet och sorg: Första världskrigets inledande år i 68 korta kapitel 1915 Stridens skönhet och sorg: Första världskrigets andra år i 108 korta kapitel 1916 Stridens skönhet och sorg Biography Englund's website
The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. It has 18 members; the academy makes the annual decision on who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 by King Gustav III. Modelled after the Académie française, it has 18 members; the academy's motto is "Talent and Taste". The academy's primary purpose is to further the "purity and sublimity of the Swedish language". To that end the academy publishes two dictionaries; the first is a one-volume glossary called Svenska Akademiens ordlista. The second is a multi-volume dictionary, edited on principles similar to those of the Oxford English Dictionary, entitled Svenska Akademiens Ordbok; the SAOL has reached its 14th edition while the first volume of the SAOB was published in 1898 and, as of 2017, work has progressed to words beginning with the letter "V". The building now known as the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building was built for the bourgeoisie.
The bottom floor was used as a trading exchange, the upper floor was used for balls, New Year's Eve parties, etc. When the academy was founded, the ballroom was the biggest room in Stockholm that could be heated and thus used in the winter, so the King asked if he could borrow it; the academy has had its annual meeting there every year since, attended by members of the Swedish royal family. However, it was not until 1914 that the academy gained permanent use of the upper floor as their own, it is here that the academy meets and, amongst other business, announces the names of Nobel Prize laureates. This task arguably makes the academy one of the world's most influential literary bodies. Dag Hammarskjöld's former farm at Backåkra, close to Ystad in southern Sweden, was bought in 1957 as a summer residence by Hammarskjöld Secretary-General of the United Nations; the south wing of the farm is reserved as a summer retreat for the 18 members of the Swedish Academy, of which Hammarskjöld was a member.
Prior to 2018 it was not possible for members of the academy to resign. This happened twice to Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, excluded in 1794, re-elected in 1805 and excluded again in 1811. In 1989, Werner Aspenström, Kerstin Ekman and Lars Gyllensten chose to stop participating in the meetings of the academy, over its refusal to express support for Salman Rushdie when Ayatollah Khomeini condemned him to death for The Satanic Verses, in 2005, Knut Ahnlund made the same decision, as a protest against the choice of Elfride Jelinek as Nobel laureate for 2004. On 25 November 2017, Lotta Lotass said in an interview that she had not participated in the meetings of the academy for more than two years and did not consider herself a member any more. In April 2018, three members of the academy board resigned in response to a sexual-misconduct investigation involving author Jean-Claude Arnault, husband of board member Katarina Frostenson. Arnault was accused by at least 18 women of sexual harassment; the three members resigned in protest over the lack of what they felt appropriate action against Arnault.
Two former permanent secretaries, Sture Allén and Horace Engdahl, called the current leader, Sara Danius, a weak leader. On 10 April, Danius resigned from her position with the academy, bringing the number of empty seats to four. Frostenson voluntarily agreed to withdraw from participating in the academy, bringing the total of withdrawals to five; because two other seats were still vacant after the Rushdie affair, this left only 11 active members. The scandal was seen as damaging to the credibility of the Nobel prize in Literature and the authority of the academy. "With this scandal you cannot say that this group of people has any kind of solid judgment," noted Swedish journalist Björn Wiman. On 27 April 2018, the Swedish Economic Crime Authority opened a preliminary investigation regarding financial crime linked to an association run by Arnault and Frostenson, which had received funding from the academy. On 2 May 2018, the Swedish King amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign.
The new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. Following the new rules, the first members to formally be granted permission to leave the academy and vacate their chairs were Kerstin Ekman, Klas Östergren, Sara Stridsberg and Lotta Lotass. On 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that following the preceding internal struggles the Nobel laureate for literature selected in 2018 will be postponed until 2019, when two laureates will be selected. Since 1901, the Swedish Academy has annually decided who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel; the Swedish Academy annually awards nearly 50 different prizes and scholarships, most of them for domestic Swedish authors. Common to all is that they are awarded without application; the Dobloug Prize, the largest of these at $40,000, is a literature prize awarded for Swedish and Norwegian fiction. Swedish: Stora Priset the Big Prize, was instituted by King Gustav III.
The prize, which consists of a single gold medal, is the most prestigious award that can be awarded by the Swedish Academy. It has been awarded to, among others, Selma Lagerlöf, Herbert Tingsten, Astrid Lindgren, Evert Taube and Tove Jansson; the academy awards around 50 p
Nils Göran David Malmqvist is a Swedish linguist, literary historian and translator. Göran Malmqvist was born on 6 June 1924 in Sweden. Following introductory studies of Chinese under Sinologist Bernhard Karlgren at Stockholm University, Malmqvist studied in China in 1948 - 1950, he returned to Stockholm, taking a Licentiate of Arts degree in 1951. His international research career started shortly thereafter with a lectureship in Chinese at the University of London in 1953 - 1955, he was appointed Swedish cultural attaché in Peking and worked in China in 1956–1958. After his years in China he moved to Australia in 1958, where he worked for seven years at the Australian National University in Canberra. After some important essays on Chinese language history he was appointed Professor of Chinese at the university in 1961. During his professorship at the Australian National University, Malmqvist published academic articles on both old Chinese and modern Chinese; the articles concerned e.g. phonological issues and literary dialects during the Han dynasty, the syntax of bound forms in Sïchuanese and western Mandarin phonology.
In 1965, Malmqvist was called to Stockholm as Professor of Sinology Modern Chinese, at the newly established Section of Chinese in the Department of Oriental Languages at Stockholm University. Back in Stockholm, his career as a translator began, with a series of interpretations of Tang Dynasty lyrics in the anthology Det förtätade ögonblicket. Malmqvist has since translated 42 volumes of Chinese literature from different epochs. From that point on, Malmqvist was to appear as an all-round expert on China, he combines broad surveys of Chinese history, religion and geography with multifarious work as a translator. In this capacity he moves between different historical periods, different Chinese varieties, different literary genres. In 1971, Malmqvist published several textbooks including Nykinesisk grammatik and Nykinesisk fonetik, a number of translations, chiefly in the academic journal Orientaliska studier, the large section on Chinese literature 500–1779 in the joint Nordic Litteraturens världshistoria.
This was followed in 1973 with the section on The literature of China 1780–1890 and Chinese literature 1890–1965. The same year he published the translation of Lao. In 1974 Malmqvist published the popular volume Kinesiska är inte svårt. During the 1970s, he was working on the translation of the over thousand page picaresque novel Shui Hu zhuan; the Swedish title is Berättelser från träskmarkerna and the work appeared in four volumes between 1976 and 1979. The story, first written down in the 14th century, is oral in character and gives a rich picture of the end of the Song dynasty, during the first few decades of the 12th century. Malmqvist’s achievement includes a further, monumental translation of a similar kind, the five volumes of Färden till västern. Written down in the 16th century, the story of how in the 17th century the pilgrim Tripitaka brings the holy writings of Buddhism from India to China. During the 1970s and 1980s Malmqvist’s research turned chiefly to classical Chinese philology and semantics.
Göran Malmqvist was elected to the Swedish Academy on 11 April 1985 and admitted on 20 December 1985. Malmqvist succeeded the literary historian Henry Olsson to Chair number 5. From the time after his election to the Swedish Academy, the over five-hundred page biography on his teacher Bernhard Karlgren is of particular note: Bernhard Karlgren – ett forskarporträtt in 1995. Malmqvist here follows Karlgren's path through the pioneering era of Sinology from his early dialectological fieldwork in China in 1910–1912, which aimed at reconstructing the sound pattern of ancient Chinese. Following the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Chinese author Mo Yan in 2012 Malmqvist was criticized for a possible conflict of interest, as he had close personal and economic relations to Mo Yan. Malmqvist had translated several of Mo Yan's works into Swedish and published some through his own publishing house. Mo Yan had written a laudatory preface to one of Malmqvist's own books, been a close friend of Malmqvist's wife for 15 years.
The Nobel committee denied that this constituted a conflict of interest, said that it would have been absurd for Malmqvist to recuse. Det förtätade ögonblicket: T’ang-lyrik Problems and methods in Chinese linguistics Han phonology and textual criticism Gunnar Martins samling av kinesisk och japansk litteratur 111 nykinesiska satsmönster Nykinesisk grammatik Kinesiska är inte svårt Nykinesisk fonetik Nykinesiska satsmönster Vägar till Kina: Göran Malmqvist 60 år Henry Olsson: Inträdestal i Svenska akademien Bernhard Karlgren: Ett forskarporträtt Nio röster från Taiwan: Modern kinesisk poesi Haiku för ros och oros skull Strövtåg i svunna tider Guldfisken som älskar att sjunga Mozart Stol nr 5 - Göran Malmqvist, Official biography by Jan Arnald, Swedish Academy: Stockholm, 2005. Göran Malmqvist, A selective guide to Chinese literature, 1900-1949. 4 vol. Leiden, 1988-1990. Göran Malmqvist, Modern Chinese literature and its social context, Nobel Symposium, 32. Stockholm, 1977. Göran Malmqvist and Methods in Chinese Linguistics, The Australian National University: Canberra, 1962. is a compact introduction to Chinese linguistics.
Göran Malmqvist, Bernhard Karlgren: E
Per Erik Wästberg is a Swedish writer and a member of the Swedish Academy since 1997. Wästberg was born in Stockholm, son of Erik Wästberg and his wife Greta née Hirsch, holds a degree in literature from Uppsala University, he was editor-in-chief of Sweden's largest daily newspaper, Dagens Nyheter 1976–1982, has been a contributor since 1953. He is an older brother of Olle Wästberg. Wästberg, who, as a luminary of Amnesty International and a former president of International PEN – as well as being a member of the Nobel Prize for Literature committee – possesses his own impeccable do-gooding credentials, has rescued a beguiling soul from oblivion while subtly reminding readers; the novel of Anders Sparrman wrote by Per Wästberg shows that the subject of this poetic biographical novel, was a Swedish natural scientist, the first zoologist to study, for example, the African rhino. By the time he died, in 1820, no one had traveled further south, but as Per Wästberg reveals in a touching postscript, Sparrman’s life, despite laudable scientific discovery and ground breaking cartography, remained obscure.
Wästberg has campaigned extensively for human rights. He was President of the PEN International from 1979 until 1986 and founder of the Swedish section of Amnesty International. In connection with this, he was involved in the anti-colonial movement, he was active in the struggle against Apartheid in South Africa, where he became a close friend of Nadine Gordimer. He was expelled by the government in Rhodesia in 1959, after publication of his anti-Apartheid book På svarta listan in 1960, he was banned from entering both Rhodesia and South Africa, he returned to South Africa after the release from jail of Nelson Mandela. Pojke med såpbubblor Ett gammalt skuggspel Halva kungariket Arvtagaren Vattenslottet Luftburen Jordmånen Eldens skugga Bergets källa Ljusets hjärta Vindens låga Tio atmosfärer Enkel resa En avlägsen likhet Frusna tillgångar Förtöjningar Tre rader Raderingar Fortifikationer Tillbaka i tid Förbjudet område På svarta listan Afrika berättar Afrika-ett uppdrag I Sydafrika – resan till friheten Modern afrikansk litteratur Afrikansk poesi Resor, porträtt, politiska analyser från en långvarig vistelse i Sydafrika Ernst och Mimmi, biografi genom brev Alice och Hjördis Två systrar En dag på världsmarknaden Berättarens ögonblick Obestämda artiklar Bestämda artiklar Frukost med Gerard Lovtal Ung mans dagbok Ung författares dagbok Duvdrottningen Edith Whartons hemliga trädgård Övergångsställen Ute i livet: en memoar Gustaf Adolf Lysholm: diktare, drömmare, servitör – en biografi Per Wästbergs Stockholm Lovord Erik och Margot: en kärlekshistoria Mellanblad The case against Portugal – Angola and Mozambique Assignments in Africa Curriculum Vitae from the Nobel Prize Committee Interview and profile first published in Prospect magazine PEN International