South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Post office box
A post office box is a uniquely addressable lockable box located on the premises of a post office station. In some regions in Africa, there is no door to door delivery of mail. Renting a PO box has traditionally been the only way to receive mail in such countries. However, some countries, like Egypt, have introduced mail home delivery. Post office boxes are rented from the post office either by individuals or by businesses on a basis ranging from monthly to annual, the cost of rent varies depending on the box size. Central business district PO boxes are more expensive than rural PO boxes. In the United States, the rental rate used to be uniform across the country. Now, however, a postal facility can be in any of seven fee groups by location. In the United Kingdom, Royal Mail PO boxes are little more than pigeon-holes in the secure section of a sorting office and are accessible only by staff. In such cases, the renter of the PO box will be issued with a card showing the PO box number and delivery office name and must produce this to the desk staff when collecting mail.
For an additional fee, the Royal Mail will deliver received items to the renter's geographical address. Some private companies offer similar services of renting a mailbox in a public location; the difference is that mail sent there is addressed to a street address, instead of just addressed to "PO Box CSX". The quantity of post office boxes in a station varies widely. Stations of small areas are equipped with fewer than 100 boxes, while stations in a central business district area may offer a combined quantity of over 200,000 post office boxes. Post office boxes are mounted in a wall of the post office, either an external wall or a wall in a lobby, so that staff on the inside may deposit mail in a box, while a key holder in the lobby or on the outside of the building may open his or her box to retrieve the mail. In many post offices in the U. S. the PO box lobby is separate from the window-service lobby, so that the former may be kept open for longer hours or around the clock, while the latter is locked after business hours.
In the U. S. since the 1980s, in cities and large urban areas, post offices have tended to close box lobbies overnight because of the tendency of homeless people to use them for sleeping quarters. As a result, some box lobbies are accessible after hours by customers who are provided a code to a door keypad. In addition, some post offices are located in rented facilities such as shopping malls; as a result, PO boxes can only be accessed. If a parcel does not fit in a PO box, the postmaster will leave a note advising that customer to pick up that parcel from the counter. In some post offices, a key will be left in the PO box that corresponds to a larger, locked box where the patron may pick up his or her package if a signature is not required. Most in this case, once the key is used to open the larger, locked box, the key cannot be removed again by the patron, but the door cannot be secured either. Notes will be left in the PO box in respect of cash on delivery and registered mail that has to be signed for.
In 2011, the United States Postal Service began a pilot program called "gopost" which installed larger boxes to handle package pickup from an unstaffed station. A given box can be used by multiple customers thanks to the integration of a computer which accepts a delivery code; the system uses U. S. Patent 6,690,997, issued February 10, 2004 to Michael A. Rivalto. Deutsche Post started a similar concept called a Packstation in 2001; the operated Amazon Locker, started in 2011, is a similar one-time-use pickup facility for parcels sent to and from the company. Until 2012, package delivery to USPS post office boxes was not available from private carriers like UPS, FedEx and others. In early 2012, the Postal Service introduced a P. O. Box Street Address service that allows box-holders to combine the street address of the post office where their box is located with their post office box number into a street address format. A mailing industry publication called the new service "a great service for people who have a PO Box and don't want their packages delivered to their home."
Users receiving large quantities of mail can use "locked bags", which are numbered like PO boxes. In the United States, this service is called caller service, the assigned number is called a caller number, although mail is addressed to "PO Box." Each country has its own regulations as to how one can retrieve mail at a PO Box. Some countries, such as the United States or the United Kingdom, may require one or more forms of identification. Not all countries offer locked PO Boxes. In the United States, two forms of identification are required. Many countries offer some type of PO Boxes for different uses. There are an increasing number of private companies that provide similar PO Box services to the official postal service under the guise of mail forwarding. In Namibia, PO boxes are the only form of mail delivery to private individuals. Small settlements feature a block of PO boxes for rent. In Windhoek and the only large town, blocks of PO boxes are scattered all over the city and not located at post of
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Governments in Westminster democracies are responsible to parliament rather than to the monarch, or, in a colonial context, to the imperial government, in a republican context, to the president, either in full or in part. If the parliament is bicameral the government is responsible first to the parliament's lower house, more representative than the upper house, as it has more members and they are always directly elected. Responsible government of parliamentary accountability manifests itself in several ways. Ministers account for the performance of their departments; this requirement to make announcements and to answer questions in Parliament means that ministers must have the privileges of the "floor", which are only granted to those who are members of either house of Parliament. Secondly, most although ministers are appointed by the authority of the head of state and can theoretically be dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, they concurrently retain their office subject to their holding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament.
When the lower house has passed a motion of no confidence in the government, the government must resign or submit itself to the electorate in a new general election. Lastly, the head of state is in turn required to effectuate their executive power only through these responsible ministers, they must never attempt to set up a "shadow" government of executives or advisors and attempt to use them as instruments of government, or to rely upon their "unofficial" advice. They are bound to take no decision or action, put into effect under the colour of their executive power without that action being as a result of the counsel and advisement of their responsible ministers, their ministers are required to counsel them and to form and have recommendations for them to choose from, which are the ministers' formal, recommendations as to what course of action should be taken. An exception to this is Israel. In the Canadian system, responsible government was developed between 1846 and 1850, with the executive Council formulating policy with the assistance of the legislative branch, the legislature voting approval or disapproval, the appointed governor enacting those policies that it had approved.
It was a transition from the older system whereby the governor took advice from an executive Council, used the legislature chiefly to raise money. After the formation of elected legislative assemblies starting with Nova Scotia in 1758, governors and their executive councils did not require the consent of elected legislators in order to carry out all their roles, it was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people. Responsible government was a major element of the gradual development of Canada towards independence; the concept of responsible government is associated in Canada more with self-government than with parliamentary accountability. It did not regain responsible government until it became a province of Canada in 1948. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, based on the perceived shortcomings of virtual representation, the British government became more sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of European-descended colonists.
Elected assemblies were introduced to both Upper Canada and Lower Canada with the Constitutional Act of 1791. Many reformers thought that these assemblies should have some control over the executive power, leading to political unrest between the governors and assemblies in both Upper and Lower Canada; the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Sir Francis Bond Head wrote in one dispatch to London that if responsible government were implemented "Democracy, in the worst possible Form, will prevail in our Colonies." After the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, the 1837–1838 Upper Canada Rebellion led by William Lyon Mackenzie, Lord Durham was appointed governor general of British North America and had the task of examining the issues and determining how to defuse tensions. In his report, one of his recommendations was that colonies which were developed enough should be granted "responsible government"; this term meant the policy that British-appointed governors should bow to the will of elected colonial assemblies.
The first instance of responsible government in the British Empire outside of the United Kingdom itself was achieved by the colony of Nova Scotia in January–February 1848 through the efforts of Joseph Howe. The plaque in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada reads: First Responsible Government in the British Empire; the first Executive Council chosen from the party having a majority in the representative branch of a colonial legislature was formed in Nova Scotia on 2 February 1848. Following a vote of want of confidence in the preceding Council, James Boyle Uniacke, who had moved the resolution, became Attorney General and leader of the Government. Joseph Howe, the long-time campaigner for this "Peaceable Revolution"
White South Africans
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial or ethnic groups of Europe. In linguistic and historical terms, they are divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue, such as Portuguese or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa. White South Africans differ from other White African groups, because they have a sense of separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language and faith; the history of European settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company under Jan van Riebeeck. Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.
The colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by Great Britain around 1806. At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin. However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, looking to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier. About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland; the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, by 1865 had reached 181,592 people. Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of Eastern Europeans of various nationalities a large Jewish community from the Baltic region Lithuania; the first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.
The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, the Netherlands and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century. South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990; the number of white South Africans resident in their home country began declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration. Today, white South Africans are considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role across the political spectrum; the current number of white South Africans is not known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first multiracial elections in 1994.
Just under a million white South Africans are living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain. Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one; the Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is a white person, not accepted as a coloured person. Many criteria, both physical and social were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured; this was extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991. In Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black South Africans. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowerers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders.
However, private enterprises adheres to this legislation voluntarily. Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws — over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival. This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country. Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against White South African and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for "ethno-European farmers," as stated in their report is four times that of the general South African population. There are 40,000 white farmers in South Africa. Since 1994, close to three thousand farmers have been murdered in thousands of farm attacks, with many being brutally tortured and/or rape
Cathcart, Eastern Cape
Cathcart is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, named after Sir George Cathcart, governor of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1852–1853. The town is situated on the N6, 48 kilometres north of Stutterheim en route to Queenstown. A small military post, established during the Eighth Frontier War, it was established as a village in 1858 when German colonists arrived in the region. Work on its railway connection to East London on the coast was begun by the Cape government of John Molteno in 1876 and the line was opened on 3 November 1879. St. Alban's Anglican Church, built in 1886 is a well known landmark in Cathcart and has an unusual and distinctive Western façade. There are primary schools in Cathcart. Cathcart High School is located North of the town near the N6 route to Queenstown. Allister Sparks Media related to Cathcart at Wikimedia Commons
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London, it was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing home of the 1820 Settlers; the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people. The Eastern Cape as a South African Province came into existence in 1994 and incorporated areas from the former Xhosa homelands of the Transkei and Ciskei, together with what was part of the Cape Province; this resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to provincial boundaries; the province is made of Mpondo tribe, which primitively descended from Xhosa clan. Some of the Mpondo tribe went to this province. Mpondo people are more related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language.
There are other tribes that erroneously referred to as Xhosa people such as: AmaMpondo, AbaThembu, AmaMpondomise, AmaHlubi, AmaBhaca, AmaXesibe, AmaBomvana and other tribes. The first premier was Raymond Mhlaba and the current premier is Phumulo Masualle, both of the African National Congress This region is the birthplace of many prominent South African politicians, such as Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, Fort Calata, James Calata, Charles Coghlan, Matthew Goniwe, Chris Hani, Bantu Holomisa, Govan Mbeki, his two sons Moeletsi Mbeki and Thabo Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Vuyisile Mini, Wilton Mkwayi, Oscar Mpetha, Griffiths Mxenge, Robert Resha, Walter Rubusana, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe, David Stuurman, Oliver Tambo; the Eastern Cape gets progressively wetter from west to east. The west is semiarid Karoo, except in the far south, temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region; the coast is rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to mountainous between Graaff-Reinet and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge, Stormberge and Drakensberg.
The highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001 m. The east from East London and Queenstown towards the KwaZulu-Natal border – a region known as Transkei – is lush grassland on rolling hills, punctuated by deep gorges with intermittent forest. Eastern Cape has a coast on its east which lines southward, creating shores leading to the south Indian Ocean. In the northeast, it borders the following districts of Lesotho: Mohale's Hoek District – west of Quthing Quthing District – between Mohale and Qacha's Nek Qacha's Nek District – east of QuthingDomestically, it borders the following provinces: Western Cape – west Northern Cape – northwest Free State – north KwaZulu-Natal – far northeast Climate is varied; the west is dry with sparse rain with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma to Grahamstown receives more precipitation, relatively evenly distributed and temperatures are mild. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall.
The interior can become cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes. Port Elizabeth: Jan Max: 25 °C, Min: 18 °C; the western interior is arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered and green. The Eastern Cape offers a wide array of attractions, including 800 km of untouched and pristine coastline along with some splendid beaches, "big-five" viewing in a malaria-free environment; the Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants, 400 Cape buffalo and 21 black rhino of the scarce Kenyan sub-species; the province is the location of South Africa's only Snow skiing resort, situated near the hamlet of Rhodes in the Southern Drakensberg on the slopes of Ben Macdhui, the highest mountain peak in the Eastern Cape. The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africa's largest and most colourful cultural event, offering a choice of the best of both indigenous and imported talent.
Every year for 11 days the town's population doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma National Park is an 80 km long coastal strip between Nature's Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an untouched natural landscape. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge and Bloukrans Bridge Bungy, the world's third highest bungee jump, Jeffreys Bay is an area with some of the country's wildest coastline, backed by some of Africa's most spectacular sub-tropical rainforest. Famous for its "supertubes" South Africa's longest and most good wave, it's charged with a surf vibe as relaxed as it is friendly, this tends to soften the effect of the wealthy set who have made this part of the coast their own. Aliwal North, lying on an agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the country's most popular inland resorts and is known for its hot springs; the rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast is a place of spectacular scenery, a graveyard for many vessels.
Whittlesea, Eastern Cape, situated in the Amatola
The Cape of Good Hope known as the Cape Colony, was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Dutch colony of the same name, the Kaap de Goede Hoop, established in 1652 by the Dutch East India Company; the Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. The Dutch lost the colony to Great Britain following the 1795 Battle of Muizenberg, but had it returned following the 1802 Peace of Amiens, it was re-occupied by the UK following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The Cape of Good Hope remained in the British Empire, becoming self-governing in 1872, uniting with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa in 1910, it was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope. South Africa became a sovereign state in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. In 1961 it obtained its own monetary unit called the Rand. Following the 1994 creation of the present-day South African provinces, the Cape Province was partitioned into the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Western Cape, with smaller parts in North West province.
The Cape of Good Hope was coextensive with the Cape Province, stretching from the Atlantic coast inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish River. In the north, the Orange River known as the Gariep River, served as the boundary for some time, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was added to it. From 1878, the colony included the enclave of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, both in what is now Namibia. An expedition of the Dutch East India Company led by Jan van Riebeeck established a trading post and naval victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Van Riebeeck's objective was to secure a harbour of refuge for Dutch ships during the long voyages between Europe and Asia. Within about three decades, the Cape had become home to a large community of "vrijlieden" known as "vrijburgers", former VOC employees who settled in Dutch colonies overseas after completing their service contracts.
Vrijburgers were married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years farming the land within the fledgling colony's borders. Reflecting the multi-national nature of the early trading companies, the Dutch granted vrijburger status to a number of former Scandinavian and German employees as well. In 1688 they sponsored the immigration of nearly two hundred French Huguenot refugees who had fled to the Netherlands upon the Edict of Fontainebleau. There was a degree of cultural assimilation due to intermarriage, the universal adoption of the Dutch language. Many of the colonists who settled directly on the frontier became independent and localised in their loyalties. Known as Boers, they migrated westwards beyond the Cape Colony's initial borders and had soon penetrated a thousand kilometres inland; some Boers adopted a nomadic lifestyle permanently and were denoted as trekboers. The Dutch colonial period was marred by a number of bitter conflicts between the colonists and the Khoisan, followed by the Xhosa, both of which they perceived as unwanted competitors for prime farmland.
Dutch traders imported thousands of slaves to the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East Indies and other parts of Africa. By the end of the eighteenth century the Cape's population swelled to about 26,000 people of European descent and 30,000 slaves. In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India Company; this prompted Great Britain to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order to stop any potential French attempt to reach India. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory; the Dutch East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic in 1798, ceased to exist in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape of Good Hope over to the Batavian Republic in 1803, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens.
In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The temporary peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic; the British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, to control the Far East trade routes. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London; the British started to settle the eastern border of the colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. They began to introduce the first rudimentary rights for the Cape's black African population and, in 1834, abolished slavery; the resentment that the Dutch farmers felt against this social change, as well as the imposition of English language and culture, caused them to trek inland en masse. This was known as the Great Trek, the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
British immigration con