Kleine Zeitung is an Austrian newspaper based in Graz and Klagenfurt. As the largest regional newspaper in Austria, covering the federal states Styria and Carinthia with East Tyrol, the paper has around 800,000 readers. Kleine Zeitung was founded in 1904 by the Katholischer Preßverein; the first issue was published on Tuesday, 22 November 1904. The paper is based in Graz as well as in Klagenfurt. From its inception, it was designed as a paper to be read by the masses, covering general and regional news topics at a reasonable cost; the paper is owned by the Styria Media Group, which owns the daily newspaper Die Presse. Kleine Zeitung is published in the half Berlin format. Kleine Zeitung has a center-right political leaning. Fritz Csoklich served as the editor-in-chief of the paper for thirty years until 1994. Kleine Zeitung is the recipient of the 2005 European Newspaper Award in the category of regional newspaper; the circulation of Kleine Zeitung was 293,000 copies in 2001. It was the second best selling newspaper in Austria with a circulation of 295,000 copies in 2002.
In 2003 it was again the second best selling newspaper in the country with a circulation of 298,000 copies. The paper had a circulation of 292,000 copies in 2004. During the third quarter of 2005 its circulation was 264,253 copies. In 2007 the circulation of Kleine Zeitung was 306,000 copies; the paper had a circulation of 308,819 copies in 2008 and was the third most read paper in the country. Its circulation was 311,245 copies in 2009 and 313,094 copies in 2010; the paper had a circulation of 280,983 copies in 2011. Its average circulation was 347,000 copies in 2013. Kleine Zeitung
Styria is a state, or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km2, it borders Slovenia and the Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg and Carinthia. The capital city is Graz which had 276,526 inhabitants at the beginning of 2015; the March of Styria derived its name from the original seat of its ruling Otakar dynasty: Steyr, in today's Upper Austria. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark"; the ancient link between Steyr and Styria is apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white Panther on a green background. The term "Upper Styria" used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state; the term "West Styria" is used for the districts to the west of Graz. The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively; the southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Yugoslavia and Slovenia since 1918, were referred to as "Lower Styria".
During early Roman times, Styria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, the Lombards. Slavs, who first were under the domination of the Avars, settled in the valleys of this country. At the same time Bavarian people began to expand their area to the south and east and absorbed the Slavic population. In 1180 Styria became a Duchy of its own. Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria. Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Austria between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section, a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited by ethnic Slovenians, and, annexed to Yugoslavia, in Slovenia; as elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria.
This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years. In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then. Styria is home to more than 150 clean technology companies, of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field; the revenue of Styrian cleantech companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals to 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product, is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe; the companies have an average growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone; the state is divided into one of them a statutory city. Graz Bruck-Mürzzuschlag Deutschlandsberg Graz-Umgebung Hartberg-Fürstenfeld Leibnitz Leoben Liezen Murau Murtal Südoststeiermark Voitsberg Weiz The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party since 1945.
Graz however is a stronghold of the far left Communist Party. The governor has been an ÖVP member. In the 2005 elections for state parliament the Social Democrats under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years; the two right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria and the Alliance for the Future of Austria, failed to win seats. In subsequent elections in 2010 and 2015, the Social Democrats, the Austrian People's Party, the Communist Party each lost between one fourth and one third of their shares of the vote relative to 2005; the Freedom Party grew from 4.6 percent to 26.8 percent. The current government of Styria is a coalition of Social Democrats and People's Party, with each party holding 4 seats of the 8 seats available.
The governor, Hermann Schützenhöfer, is a representative of the People's Party. His deputy, Michael Schickhofer, is a Social Democrat. Palman and mercenary commander of the Serbian Empire Johann Joseph Fux and music theorist, wrote Gradus ad Parnassum – a composition manual used by Beethoven and Mozart Archduke John of Austria Jo
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media, broadcast news, more the Internet; some of the first news circulations occurred in Renaissance Europe. These handwritten newsletters contained news about wars, economic conditions, social customs and were circulated among merchants; the first printed news appeared by the late 1400s in German pamphlets that contained content, highly sensationalized. The first newspaper written in English was The Weekly Newes, published in London in 1621. Several papers followed in 50's. In 1690, the first American newspaper was published in Boston by Richard Pierce and Benjamin Harris in Boston. However, it did not have permission from the government to be published and was suppressed. In 1729, Benjamin Franklin began writing a new form of newspaper, more satirical and more involved in civic affairs than seen. In 1735, John Peter Zenger was accused of seditious libel by the governor of New York, William Cosby.
Zenger was found not guilty in part to his attorney Andrew Hamilton, who wrote a paper in which he argued that newspapers should be free to criticize the government as long as it was true. With the ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791, freedom of the press would be guaranteed by the First Amendment. In the 1830s, newspapers turned toward reportage; this began with the New York Sun in 1833. Advancements in technology made it cheaper to print newspapers and "penny papers" emerged; these issues sought out local coverage of society. News-gathering became a central function of newspapers. With the invention of the telegraph in 1845, the "inverted pyramid" structure of news was developed. Through the latter half of the 1800s, politics played a role. By the end of the century, modern aspects of newspapers, such as banner headlines, extensive use of illustrations, "funny pages," and expanded coverage of organized sporting events, began to appear. Media consolidation began with many independent newspapers becoming part of "chains".
The early 1900s saw Progressive Era journalists using a new style of investigative journalism that revealed the corrupt practices of government officials. These exposing articles became featured in many magazines; the people who wrote them became labeled as "muckrakers". They became influential and were a vital force in the Progressive reform movement. However, after 1912 muckraking declined; the public began to think the exposés were sensationalized, but they did make a great impact on future policies. During the 1920s, radio became a news medium, was a significant source of breaking news. Although, during World War I, radio broadcasts in America were only given information about Allied victories because Great Britain had a monopoly on the transatlantic radio lines. For the newspapers, the government suppressed any radical or German papers after the war. With the introduction of the television came The Communications Act of 1934, it was an agreement between commercial television and the people of the United States that established that: The airways are public property.
During the Vietnam War, the media reporting directly challenged the government, drawing attention to the "credibility gap" — official lies and half-truths about the war. Television news continued to expand during the 1970s, by 1990, more than half of American homes had cable systems and nationally oriented newspapers expanded their reach. With technological advancements in the newsroom, notably the Internet, a new emphasis on computer-assisted reporting and a new blending of media forms emerged, with one reporter preparing the same story in print, on camera for a newspaper's cable station. A "medium" is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include art, or physical objects. A medium may provide storage of information or both; the industries which produce news and entertainment content for the mass media are called "the media". In the late 20th century it became commonplace for this usage to be construed as singular rather than as the traditional plural. "Press" is the collective designation of media vehicles that carry out journalism and other functions of informative communication, in contrast to purely propaganda or entertainment communication.
The term press comes from the printing press of Johannes Gutenberg in the sixteenth century and which, from the eighteenth century, was used to print newspapers the only existing journalistic vehicles. From the middle of the 20th century onwards, newspapers began to be broadcast and broadcast and, with the advent of the World Wide Web came the online newspapers, or cyberjornais, or webjornais; the term "press", was maintained. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals to a number of recipients that belong to a large group; this group may be the public in general, or a large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music worldwide, while a public address system in a workplace may broadcast limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range; the sequencing of content in a broadcast i
24sata is a Croatian daily newspaper published in Zagreb, Croatia. 24sata is the youngest daily newspaper in Croatia. It was launched by Styria Medien AG, an Austrian media group, in March 2005, its first editor-in-chief, Matija Babić, announced that the new newspaper would target "young and modern" audiences. The first issue of 24sata seemed to be nothing more than the first Croatian daily tabloid newspaper in terms of both its content and format. However, within six months after its launch the paper managed to establish its position as the third daily newspaper in Croatia in terms of circulation; this success was due to the attractive price. After Matija Babić was removed from the post of editor-in-chief on 5 July 2005, Boris Trupčević became the new editor in chief. Before he joined 24sata he was the publisher of Sanoma Magazines in Croatia, he was succeeded by Renato Ivanuš, as of 2015. Editor-in-chief is Goran Gavranović.24sata had a circulation of 116,000 copies in 2013, was the only Croatian daily that saw its revenue grow that year.
The online version was launched at the same time as the print edition. It became the most visited website in Croatia in 2012. Online version has a Mobile Website, as well as Android and Windows phone applications. In September 2005 24sata was described as "the most innovative daily newspaper concept" by Tyler Brûlé, a noted designer and Financial Times columnist, in his Fast Lane Media Awards column. In November 2005 the successful launch of 24sata was showcased at the World Association of Newspapers conference held in Athens In January 2006 24sata was presented with the Award of Excellence at the seventh European Newspaper Awards in the category for best national newspaper front page design. In 2009, 24sata was awarded the European Newspaper of the Year in the category of Judges’ Special Recognition by the European Newspapers Congress. In October 2012, the paper was given the Best Use of Facebook Award at the XMA Cross Media Awards held in Frankfurt, Germany. In 2014. INMA awarded 24sata with second place in category Best Idea To Grow Digital Audience or Engagement Official website
Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its lakes; the main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Bavarian group. Carinthian Slovene dialects, which predominated in the southern part of the region up to the first half of the 20th century, are now spoken by a small minority. Carinthia's main industries are tourism, engineering and agriculture; the multinational corporations Philips and Siemens have large operations there. The etymology of the name "Carinthia", similar to Carnia or Carniola, has not been conclusively established; the Ravenna Cosmography referred to a Slavic "Carantani" tribe as the eastern neighbours of the Bavarians. In his History of the Lombards, the 8th century chronicler Paul the Deacon mentions "Slavs in Carnuntum, erroneously called Carantanum" for the year 663. A possible etymology of the name "Carantani" is that it may have been formed from a toponymic base carant- which derives from pre-Indo-European root *karra meaning "rock", or that it is of Celtic origin and derived from *karantos meaning "friend, ally".
The Slovene name *korǫtanъ may have been adopted from the Latin *carantanum. The toponym Carinthia is claimed to be etymologically related, deriving from pre-Slavic *carantia; the state stretches 70 km in north-south direction. With 9,536 km2 it is the fifth largest Austrian state by area. Most of the larger Carinthian towns and lakes are situated within the Klagenfurt Basin in the southeast, an inner Alpine sedimentary basin covering about one fifth of the area; these Lower Carinthian lands differ from the mountainous Upper Carinthian region in the northwest, stretching up to the Alpine crest. The Carinthian lands are confined by mountain ranges: the Carnic Alps and the Karawanks form the border to the Italy and Slovenia; the High Tauern mountain range with Mt Grossglockner, 3,797 m, separates it from the state of Salzburg in the northwest. To the northeast and east beyond the Pack Saddle mountain pass is the state of Styria; the main river of Carinthia is the Drava, it makes up a continuous valley with East Tyrol, Tyrol to the west.
Tributaries are the Gurk, the Glan, the Lavant, the Gail rivers. Carinthia's lakes including Wörther See, Millstätter See, Lake Ossiach, Lake Faak are a major tourist attraction; the capital city is Klagenfurt. The next important town is Villach, both linked economically. Other major towns include Althofen, Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal, Feldkirchen, Friesach, Gmünd, Radenthein, Sankt Andrä, Sankt Veit an der Glan, Spittal an der Drau, Straßburg, Völkermarkt, Wolfsberg. While some of these Slovene place names are official designations, the majority are Slovene colloquial usage. Carinthia has a humid continental climate, with hot and moderately wet summers and long harsh winters. In recent decades, winters have been exceptionally arid; the summer precipitation maxima takes the form of heavy rain and thunderstorms in the mountainous regions. The main Alpine ridge in the north is a meteorological divide with pronounced windward and leeward sides where foehn occurs regularly. Due to the diversified terrain, numerous distinct microclimates exist.
The average amount of sunshine hours is the highest of all states in Austria. In autumn and winter, temperature inversion dominates the climate, characterized by air stillness, a dense fog covering the frosty valleys and trapping pollution to form smog, while mild sunny weather is recorded higher up in the foothills and mountains; the settlement history of Carinthia dates back to the Paleolithic era. Archaeological findings of stone artifacts in a stalactite cave near Griffen are older than 30,000 years. Remains of a prehistoric stilt house settlement were discovered at Lake Keutschach, today part of the Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps World Heritage Site. Skeleton finds from about 2000 BC denote a permanent population, intensive arable farming as well as trading with salt and Mediterranean products was common during the periods of the Urnfield and Hallstatt culture. Hallstatt grave fields were discovered near Dellach, Rosegg and on the Gracarca mountain southeast of Lake Klopein.
About 300 BC, several Illyrian and Celtic tribes joined together in the Kingdom of Noricum, centered on the capital Noreia located in the Zollfeld basin near the Roman city of Virunum. Known for the production of salt and iron, the Kingdom maintained intensive trade relations with Etruscan peoples and over the centuries extended the borders of its realm up to the Danube in the north; the Roman Empire incorporated Noricum in 15 BC. Beside the administrative seat of Virunum, the cities of Teurnia and Iuenna arose as centres of Roman culture; the Noricum province remained strategically important as a mining area for iron and lead and as an agricultural region. In the reign of the Emperor Diocletian
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276. In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have 60,000 students, its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. For centuries, Graz was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace. Graz was the sole Cultural Capital of Europe of 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008; the name of the city, Graz spelled Gratz, most stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad; the German name'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria, it is about 200 km southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor in Slovenia, about 50 km away. Graz is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and forested area; these towns and villages border Graz: to the north: Gratkorn, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Judendorf-Straßengel Graz is divided into 17 districts: The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the Copper Age.
However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Graz came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs; the royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, most of today's Slovenia, parts of Italy. In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Karl-Franzens-Universität called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions.
Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler lived in Graz for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy, he left Graz to go to Prague. Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion.
With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was assaulted, e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus in 1481, by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry, it has been preserved since 1551, displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austri