A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Styx River (Tasmania)
The Styx River is a perennial river in the centre of southern Tasmania, Australia. The upper reaches of the Styx River are in the Tasmanian Wilderness, south west of Maydena; the river is a popular destination for canoeing. The Styx River rises below Mount Mueller at an elevation of 1,110 metres above sea level and flows east by north, joined by five minor tributaries, before reaching its confluence with the River Derwent near Macquarie Plains, west of New Norfolk; the river descends 1,090 metres over its 59-kilometre course. The Styx Valley contains old growth forests including the tallest hardwood trees on earth, Eucalyptus regnans; the Wilderness Society and Senator Bob Brown have campaigned to save the forest from harvesting for sawn timber and woodchips. Some trees are so large they have become tourist attractions and named, including the Christmas Tree and Chapel Tree; the first settlers in the Styx Valley arrived in 1812. The name has no classical associations; the name came from this feature the'river of sticks' - Sticks River.
The name was changed by a government official. List of rivers of Tasmania
Dicksonia antarctica is a species of evergreen tree fern native to eastern Australia, ranging from south-east Queensland, coastal New South Wales and Victoria to Tasmania. These ferns can grow to 15 m in height, but more grow to about 4.5–5 m, consist of an erect rhizome forming a trunk. They are hairy at the base of the stipe; the large, dark green, roughly-textured fronds spread in a canopy of 2–6 m in diameter. The shapes of the stems vary as there are multi-headed ones; the fronds are borne in flushes, with fertile and sterile fronds in alternating layers. The "trunk" of this fern is the decaying remains of earlier growth of the plant and forms a medium through which the roots grow; the trunk is solitary, without runners, but may produce offsets. They can be cut down and, if they are kept moist, the top portions can be replanted and will form new roots; the stump, will not regenerate since it is dead organic matter. In nature, the fibrous trunks are hosts for a range of epiphytic plants including other ferns and mosses.
The fern produces spores at the age of about 20 years. Reproduction by this species is from spores, but it can be grown from plantlets occurring around the base of the rhizome. In cultivation, it can be grown as a "cutting", a method not to be encouraged unless the tree-fern is doomed to die in its present position; this involves sawing the trunk through at ground level, removing the fronds. The fern grows on damp, sheltered woodland slopes and moist gullies, they occur at high altitudes in cloud forests. Dicksonia antarctica is the most abundant tree fern in South Eastern Australia; the plant can grow in acid and alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade, it resents drought or dryness at the roots, does best in moist soil. Dicksonia antarctica grows best in areas of rainfall of over 1,000 mm per year but in lower rainfall areas does well in moist gullies, it is tolerant of fire and re-shoots after re-location. It can provide habitat for epiphytes and provides shelter for more delicate fern species to flourish underneath.
Plant in organic soils and ensure the fern is kept watered. Dicksonia antarctica requires a minimum rainfall of 500 mm per year. In dry climates, a drip irrigation or spray system applied overhead is the most effective method of watering, it is best to leave old fronds on the plant in order to protect the trunk from desiccation. Winter protection of the trunk is recommended during severe cold weather; this plant is suited to garden planting and landscaping purposes. As an ornamental plant, it is hardy to about −5 °C, succeeding outdoors in the milder areas of Britain where it thrives and self-sows in Cornish and Scottish west coast gardens, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Large Dicksonia antarctica available for sale come from old growth Tasmanian forests, may be hundreds of years old; the trunks are available from local suppliers who licence collection of minor species from Forestry Tasmania, the State Government GBE who manage forestry. The Soft Tree Fern can be used as a food source, with the pith of the plant being eaten either cooked or raw.
It is a good source of starch. The 1889 book'The Useful Native Plants of Australia records that "The pulp of the top of the trunk is full of starch, is eaten by the aboriginals both raw and roasted; the native blacks of the colony used to split open about a foot and a-half of the top of the trunk, take out the heart, in substance resembling a Swedish turnip, of the thickness of a man's arm. This they either ate as bread. Plants For a Future: Dicksonia antarctica Australian National Botanic Gardens: Dicksonia antarctica – the soft tree fern Large, M. F. and J. E. Braggins 2004. Tree Ferns. Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-630-2 Fern Files: Dicksonia antarctica
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Nothofagus cunninghamii, the myrtle beech, is an evergreen tree native to Tasmania and Victoria, Australia. It grows in the temperate rainforests, but grows in alpine areas, it is not related to the Myrtle family. It is referred to as Tasmanian myrtle within the timber industry. N. cunninghamii was proposed to be renamed Lophozonia cunninghamii in 2013. There has been some controversy over the change in name from Nothofagus to Lophozonia; these plants range from trees 30–40 m tall with large trunks to low-growing alpine shrubs less than 1 m tall. Maximum height is about 55 m; the leaves are simple and alternate, growing 0.5–1.5 cm long, in Victoria up to 2 cm long. The leaf color is with new growth brilliant red, pink or orange in spring, they are triangular with irregular minute teeth. The plants have separate female flowers on the same tree; these flower form inconspicuous clusters beside leaves near the tips of the branches. The fruit contains three small winged nuts. One may see round, orange-like fruiting bodies of a fungus protruding from the trunk.
It is an excellent cabinetry timber, hard with strong, close grain. It is a soft pink to reddish brown figured and can be polished to a fine sheen, it is used for flooring, cogs of wheels, furniture, is good for steam bending and carving. It is harvested from old growth forest but the vast majority of the timber is left on the ground as it grows with the harvested mountain ash. Dry Density 700 kg/m³. Nothofagus cunninghamii is a robust species, requiring around 900 mm of rain spread throughout the year, it is most common in Tasmania, where it occurs in most regions except the drier Midlands and east coast. It occurs in some moderately large patches in Victoria, it grows best in the deep red mountain soils of Victoria, or in organic soils. It can grow in full shade, albeit through to full sun, given enough water, it is grown from fresh seed, germinating in a few weeks. Cuttings can be struck. Cultivated specimens survive temperatures of 45 °C down to −7 °C. Trees cultivated in western Scotland are hardy.
Both N. cunninghamii and the related N. moorei are excellent hosts for epiphytes. Myrtle wilt, a parasitic fungus, attacks myrtle beech when the air-borne spores settle on open wounds, it is a natural disease of N. cunninghamii, but in recent years it has become a serious problem due to poor logging practices. Myrtle beech forests cannot survive strong fire, must re-establish from neighbouring areas, they can, survive light fires, by regenerating from seed, or sometimes vegetatively from basal epicormic shoots. Myrtle beech forests only form once a wet sclerophyll forest reaches maturity, taking several hundred years to do so. Wrigley, J. W.. Australian Native Plants. Collins. ISBN 0-7322-0021-0. Myrtle wilt
Atherosperma moschatum, the southern sassafras or blackheart sassafras, is an evergreen tree native to the cool temperate rainforests of Tasmania and New South Wales in Australia. It is common in the rainforests of Tasmania and Victoria, but more scattered and rare in the higher altitudes of eastern New South Wales; the northernmost area is at west of Port Macquarie. The southern sassafras was first described by French naturalist Jacques Labillardière in 1806, was the only member of the genus Atherosperma. A subspecies, A. m. subsp. Integrifolium, has been considered a separate species, its generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek ather "awn", sperma "seed", from the hairs on the fruit, the specific epithet moschatum is the Latin adjective meaning "musk-scented", from the smell of the bark. It is a member of the small family Atherospermataceae along with several other Australian rainforest trees including yellow sassafras.. Its closest relative is the monotypic genus Nemuaron, endemic to New Caledonia.
The southern sassafras is a small to medium-sized tree, growing around 6 to 25 m tall. However, in Tasmania, it can reach heights exceeding a width of 1 m, it can be identified by the conical shape, the pale green leaves, fragrant scent. The bark is grey to light brown, with raised bumps and ridges; the leaves are 3 to 10 cm long and 8 to 25 mm wide, margins are coarsely toothed, but the northern population in Monga National Park, the Blue Mountains, Barrington Tops and at Mount Grundy has narrow entire leaves. Leaves and flowers are fragrant, of a pleasant nutmeg scent. Flowers form in winter, facing down to avoid snow. White petalled, yellow in the centre; the fruit capsules open around January, releasing feathery wind blown seeds. Germination is unreliable. However, abundant new seedlings may unexpectedly form, its distribution is from the Tia River west of Port Macquarie on the New South Wales midnorth coast through Victoria and Tasmania. It is found in the gullies and creek beds of high-altitude temperate rainforest associated with southern beeches of the genus Nothofagus, mountain quandong.
The smooth-barked A. moschatum does not shed its bark annually, is a rich host of lichen species. The most recorded was Pannaria microphyllizans; these pockets of rainforest are thought to be critical refuges for populations of lichen species among fire-prone eucalyptus woodland. The timber is in demand for panelling, musical instruments, other specialty work; the staining of the black heartwood is caused by fungus, makes the timber markings attractive. The springy wood has been used for clothes pegs, the scented bark is made into a beverage, it requires moisture and shade for cultivation, hence is not seen cultivated. It has been planted in the British Isles as far north as Northern Scotland. Forest Trees of Australia, D. J. Boland et al. 1992 "Atherosperma". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. "Atherosperma moschatum". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government
Maydena is a locality in Tasmania, alongside the River Tyenna. Maydena is on the Gordon River Road, south west of New Norfolk, through the Bushy Park Hop Fields, past the Styx Valley, turn left at Westerway, past Mount Field National Park and Russell Falls, through Tyenna and Fitzgerald townships and up to Maydena itself. Gordon River Road continues to Lake Pedder, Lake Gordon and Strathgordon, in the Southwest National Park of Tasmania. At the 2006 census, Maydena had a population of 245. Maydena has a community online centre; the 3' 6" gauge railway line in Maydena was once used for hauling timber and osmiridium ore, as well as a way point for the Dam builders up at Strathgordon. A portion of the disused rail track is now being used by a pedal powered'Rail track riders' tourist attraction. Maydena Post Office opened on 1 May 1944; the climate is cold and wet. Some winter nights drop below freezing, the average winter daytime temperatures average between 8 °C and 15 °C; the summer is mild with temperatures averaging around 5 °C to 12 °C at night to 15 °C to 28 °C during the day.
Rainfall is set to an average of 219.3 days of rainfall. Media related to Maydena, Tasmania at Wikimedia Commons