Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Cinque Terre is a rugged portion of coast on the Italian Riviera. It is in the Liguria region of Italy, to the west of the city of La Spezia, and comprises five villages, Monterosso al Mare, Corniglia and Riomaggiore. The coastline, the five villages, and the hillsides are all part of the Cinque Terre National Park and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Over the centuries, people have carefully built terraces on the rugged, part of its charm is the lack of visible corporate development. Paths and boats connect the villages, and cars cannot reach them from the outside, the Cinque Terre area is a very popular tourist destination. The villages of the Cinque Terre were severely affected by rains which caused floods. Nine people were confirmed killed by the floods, and damage to the villages, particularly Vernazza, the first historical documents on the Cinque Terre date back to the 11th century. Monterosso and Vernazza sprang up first, while the villages grew later, under military. In the 16th century to oppose the attacks by the Turks, the railway allowed the inhabitants to escape their isolation, but brought about abandonment of traditional activities.
The consequence was an increase in poverty which pushed many to emigrate abroad, at least up to the 1970s, unlike the common belief that house colors originated to distinguish the fishermans houses, they were not painted until the late 1970s. The only village that used fishing as its industry was Monterosso. The locals lived off vineyards and olive cultivation, there are few roads into the Cinque Terre towns that are accessible by car, the one into Vernazza is open as of June 2012, but very narrow at many places. It leads to a parking area a kilometre from town and it is best to plan not to travel by car at all, but to park at La Spezia, for instance, and take the trains. Local trains from La Spezia to Genoa and the rest of the regions network connect the Cinque Terre, intercity trains connect the Cinque Terre to Milan, Rome and Tuscany. The Cinque Terre tracks run most of the distance in tunnels between Riomaggiore and Monterosso, the Cinque Terre trains connect the La Spezia train station to all five towns.
Unlimited day passes are available for tourists, and the trip from one village to another is five minutes or less, a passenger ferry runs between the five villages, except Corniglia. The ferry enters Cinque Terre from Genoas Old Harbour and La Spezia, Lerici, a walking trail, known as Sentiero Azzurro, used to connect the five villages but the section from Riomaggiore to Manarola called the Via dellAmore is closed. The stretch from Manarola to Corniglia is the easiest to hike, the section from Manarola to Cornelia is currently closed
Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, just south of the French island of Corsica, the regions official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, and its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city and its indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken by the Sardinians enjoy equal dignity with Italian under regional law. The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd-, romanised as sardus and it makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the names existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Platos dialogues and its people as well might have named after Sardò. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, in Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called Ichnusa, Σανδάλιον Sandal and Sardó.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres and it is situated between 38°51 and 41°18 latitude north and 8°8 and 9°50 east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea, to Sardinias east is the Tyrrhenian Sea, the nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, and Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula, the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone and its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone. The highest peak is Punta La Marmora, part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island.
The islands ranges and plateaux are separated by wide valleys and flatlands. Sardinia has few rivers, the largest being the Tirso,151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas. There are 54 artificial lakes and dams that supply water and electricity, the main ones are Lake Omodeo and Lake Coghinas. The only natural lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline, the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. During the year there is a concentration of rainfall in the winter and autumn, some heavy showers in the spring
Monterosso al Mare
Monterosso al Mare is a town and comune in the province of La Spezia, part of the region of Liguria. It is one of the five villages in Cinque Terre, Monterosso al Mare is located at the center of a small natural gulf, protected by a small artificial reef, to the east of Punta Mesco in the Riviera of La Spezia. It is the westernmost of the Cinque Terre, the local train station is located at Fegina and the beaches are relatively larger compared to the narrow cliffs that characterize the other villages of the Cinque Terre. The town is divided into two parts, the old town and the new town. The two areas are divided by a tunnel that caters to pedestrians and the very few cars in the town. The beach at Monterosso runs along most of the coast line and is used by tourists. The beach is the extensive sand beach in the Cinque Terre. Monterosso is a town overrun by tourists in the summer months. The village was excluded from the Cinque Terre trail in 1948. Italian officials considered the village too large to be considered part of the historic trail, the area is famous for its many lemon trees that can be seen throughout Monterosso.
It is renowned for its wines, grapes. In 1870, the Italian government built a line into the city. It is the way in which people enter the city. During World War II, many men from the Cinque Terre fought for the resistance against the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. The Castle, partially ruined, built by the Genoese, the parish church of St. John the Baptist. Its façade features four small marble columns and a portal surmounted by a fresco portraying the baptism of Christ. The building is of a plan that includes a nave. The square medieval tower is crowned by merlons
Sabbioneta is a town and comune in the province of Mantua, Lombardy region, Northern Italy. It is situated about 30 kilometres north of Parma, not far from the bank of the Po River. It was inscribed in the World Heritage List in 2008, in 2008, Sabbioneta was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List as a recognition of its perfect example of practical application of Renaissance urban planning theories. Sabbioneta is known for its historic Jewish Ghetto and Synagogue, in 1551 Tobias Foa set up the press, he had, published certain anti-Christian books and his career was forcibly ended. His work and possibly his type were taken up by a Christian printer, Vicenzo Conte. )Churches of the Assunta and Carmine Chiesa della Beata Vergine Incoronata The church, Vespasiano Gonzaga Colonna duca di Sabbioneta e cavaliere del Toson doro. Luca Sarzi Amadè, Il duca di Sabbioneta, Guerre e amori di un europeo del XVI secolo, paperback,332 pages, SugarCo, ISBN 88-7198-040-9 Vespasiano Gonzaga e il ducato di Sabbioneta, a cura de U. L.
Ventura, Il collezionismo di un principe, la raccolta di marmi di Vespasiano Gonzaga Colonna, Vespasiano Gonzaga Colonna 1531-1591, luomo e le opere, actes del congrés destudis, Teatro olimpico di Sabbioneta,5 de juny,1999, a cura de E. Asinari
Castle of Rivoli
The Castle of Rivoli is a former Residence of the Royal House of Savoy in Rivoli. It is currently home to the Castello di Rivoli - Museo dArte Contemporanea, the House of Savoy acquired Rivoli in the 11th century, and soon began a feud with the bishops that as soon as 1184 resulted in damage to the castle. In 1330 Amadeus VI of Savoy moved in the castle the Consiglio dei Principi, the castle was the first place of public veneration of the Shroud of Turin in his path towards Turin under Amadeus IX. After a period of decline, the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis established that Duke Emmanuel Philibert could not reside in Turin until he had not a male child and he therefore set his residency in the Castle of Rivoli, having it restored by architect Ascanio Vitozzi. In 1562 heir Charles Emmanuel I was born, and he returned to Turin, numerous works of art were however stolen by French troops in the following years. Victor Amadeus II commissioned a new façade from Filippo Juvarra, Victor Amadeus lived here as a prisoner with his morganatic spouse the Marchesa di Spigno after his abdication and his failed attempt to regain the reign from his son Charles Emmanuel III.
After his death, the castle was abandoned, and in 1863 the commune of Rivoli turned it into barracks. The edifice was damaged during World War II, and remained in a substantial state of abandon until 1979. In 1984 the castle was reopened as seat of the Museo di Arte Contemporanea, the castle contains the Michelin-starred restaurant Combal. Zero. The first renovation works was made by the Turin architect Andrea Bruno, the initiative was not completed for the budget was only enough to repair the structure damages. A few years later, in 1967, the same Bruno proceed to break down the parts of the atrium. The palace is the setting for the play King Victor and King Charles by Robert Browning
Royal Palace of Turin
The Royal Palace of Turin is a historic palace of the House of Savoy in the city of Turin in Northern Italy. It was originally built in the 16th century and was modernized by Christine Marie of France in the 17th century. The palace includes the Palazzo Chiablese and the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, in 1946, the building became the property of the state and was turned into a museum. In 1997, it was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list along with 13 other residences of the House of Savoy, construction of the palace was ordered by the Regent Maria Christina in 1645. She wanted a new residence for the court after her son returned from the civil war. The chosen location was the previous Bishops Palace, which had built in the middle of the new capital of Savoy, during the reign of Emmanuel Philibert. Its advantages included an open and sunny position, in addition to being close to buildings where the court met. The Duke was able to monitor the two entrances of the city from the Bishops Palace, the Bishops Palace in Turin was captured by the French in 1536 and served as a residence of the French Viceroys of Savoy, who were appointed by Francis I of France.
Opposite the Bishops Palace was the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo di San Giovanni and this building, disparagingly known as Pasta con Tonno because of its architecture, was replaced by the grand Ducal Palace. Thus the old Bishops Palace became the seat of power and was expanded by Emmanuel Philibert to house his ever growing collection of art, marbles. Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin in August 1580 and the Savoyard throne was handed down to his son, Charles Emmanuel I and his son, the future Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, entered into a prestigious marriage when he married the French Princess Christine Marie of France. Their marriage took place in Paris at the Louvre in 1619, Victor Amadeus I succeeded to the Duchy of Savoy in 1630. He had previously spent his youth in Madrid at the court of his grandfather and his wife set the tone for Victor Amadeus Is reign. Christine Marie had the court moved from the palace in Turin to the Castello del Valentino. Many of Victor Amadeus I and Christine Maries children were born at Valentino, including Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy and his successor Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy.
Christine Marie became the regent of Savoy after the death of her husband in 1637 on behalf of her two sons, who succeeded as Dukes of Savoy. During the reign of Victor Amadeus II, the Daniel gallery was created and named after Daniel Seiter, Victor Amadeus II had a collection of summer apartments built to look onto the court and a winter apartment overlooking the gardens. His wife was the niece of Louis XIV, born Anne Marie dOrléans, Louis XVs mother and aunt were born in the palace in 1685 and 1688, respectively
Mantua is a city and commune in Lombardy and capital of the province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua became Italian Capital of Culture, as chosen by the Italian Government on 27 October 2015, in 2017, Mantua will be European Capital of Gastronomy, included in the Eastern Lombardy District. In 2007, Mantuas centro storico and Sabbioneta were declared by UNESCO to be a World Heritage Site. Mantuas historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family has made it one of the artistic and especially musical hubs of Northern Italy. Mantua is noted for its significant role in the history of opera, the city is known for its architectural treasures and artifacts, elegant palaces. It is the place where the composer Monteverdi premiered his opera LOrfeo and it is the nearest town to the birthplace of the Roman poet Virgil, who was commemorated by a statue at the lakeside park Piazza Virgiliana. Mantua is surrounded on three sides by artificial lakes, created during the 12th century, as the defence system.
These lakes receive water from the Mincio River, a tributary of the Po River which descends from Lake Garda, the three lakes are called Lago Superiore, Lago di Mezzo, and Lago Inferiore. A fourth lake, Lake Pajolo, which served as a defensive water ring around the city. These dated, without interruption, from Neolithic times to the Bronze Age and the Gallic phases, and ended with Roman residential settlements, which could be traced to the 3rd century AD. Mantua was a settlement which was first established about the year 2000 BC on the banks of River Mincio. In the 6th century BC, Mantua was an Etruscan village which, the name may derive from the Etruscan god Mantus. This new Roman territory was populated by soldiers of Augustus. Mantuas most famous ancient citizen is the poet Virgil, or Publius Vergilius Maro, after the fall of the western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Mantua was invaded in turn by Goths, Byzantines and Franks. In the 11th century, Mantua became a possession of Boniface of Canossa, the last ruler of that family was the countess Matilda of Canossa, according to legend, ordered the construction of the precious Rotonda di San Lorenzo in 1082.
The Rotonda still exists today and was renovated in 2013, free Imperial City of Mantua After the death of Matilda of Canossa, Mantua became a free commune and strenuously defended itself from the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1198, Alberto Pitentino altered the course of River Mincio, three of these lakes still remains today and the fourth one, which ran through the centre of town, was reclaimed in the 18th century. Podesteria Rule From 1215, the city was ruled under the podesteria of the Gallic-Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli, during the struggle between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Pinamonte Bonacolsi took advantage of the chaotic situation to seize power of the podesteria in 1273
Riomaggiore is a village and comune in the province of La Spezia, situated in a small valley in the Liguria region of Italy. It is the first of the Cinque Terre one meets when travelling north from La Spezia, the village, dating from the early thirteenth century, is known for its historic character and its wine, produced by the towns vineyards. Riomaggiore is in the Riviera di Levante region and has shoreline on the Mediterraneans Gulf of Genoa, with a small beach, riomaggiores main street is Via Colombo, where numerous restaurants and shops can be found. The Via dellAmore is a path connecting Riomaggiore to its frazione Manarola, Riomaggiore is the most southern village of the five Cinque Terre, all connected by trail. The water and mountainside have been declared national parks, Riomaggiore inspired paintings by Telemaco Signorini, one of the artists of the Macchiaioli group. Riomaggiore was featured in the 2014 driving video game Forza Horizon 2, the village was not featured as a main location but was referenced of various road signs.
Liguria wine Welcome to Italy, Riomaggiore Virtual tour, Riomaggiore
Manarola is a small town, a frazione of the comune of Riomaggiore, in the province of La Spezia, northern Italy. It is the second smallest of the famous Cinque Terre towns frequented by tourists, Manarola may be the oldest of the towns in the Cinque Terre, with the cornerstone of the church, San Lorenzo, dating from 1338. The local dialect is Manarolese, which is different from the dialects in the nearby area. The name Manarola is probably an evolution of the Latin. In the Manarolese dialect this was changed to magna roea which means large wheel, manarolas primary industries have traditionally been fishing and wine-making. The local wine, called Sciacchetrà, is renowned, references from Roman writings mention the high quality of the wine produced in the region. In recent years and its neighboring towns have become popular tourist destinations, tourist attractions in the region include a famous walking trail between Manarola and Riomaggiore and hiking trails in the hills and vineyards above the town.
Manarola is one of the five villages of the Cinque Terre, mostly all of the houses are bright and colourful. Manarola was celebrated in paintings by Antonio Discovolo, like its fello Cinque Terre town of Riomaggiore, it was featured in video game Forza Horizon 2. Riomaggiore Vernazza Monterosso al Mare Corniglia Virtual tour, Manarola Media related to Manarola at Wikimedia Commons Manarola photoblog