Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties, is done under color of law or involves trading in influence. Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, cronyism, parochialism, influence peddling and embezzlement. Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, human trafficking, though is not restricted to these activities. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is considered political corruption. Masiulis case is a typical example of political corruption; the activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the jurisdiction. For instance, some political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or ill-defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions.
Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy meaning "rule by thieves"; some forms of corruption – now called "institutional corruption" – are distinguished from bribery and other kinds of obvious personal gain. A similar problem of corruption arises in any institution that depends on financial support from people who have interests that may conflict with the primary purpose of the institution. Over time, corruption has been defined differently. For example, in a simple context, while performing work for a government or as a representative, it is unethical to accept a gift. Any free gift could be construed as a scheme to lure the recipient towards some biases. In most cases, the gift is seen as an intention to seek certain favors such as work promotion, tipping in order to win a contract, job or exemption from certain tasks in the case of junior employee giving the gift to a senior employee who can be key in winning the favor.
In politics, corruption undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or subverting formal processes. Corruption in elections and in the legislature reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking, it violates a basic principle of republicanism regarding the centrality of civic virtue. More corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government if procedures are disregarded, resources are siphoned off, public offices are bought and sold. Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Recent evidence suggests that variation in the levels of corruption amongst high-income democracies can vary depending on the level of accountability of decision-makers. Evidence from fragile states shows that corruption and bribery can adversely impact trust in institutions. Corruption can impact government’s provision of goods and services, it increases the costs of services which arise efficiency loss. In the absence of corruption, governmental projects might be cost-effective at their true costs, once corruption costs are included projects may not be cost-effective so they are not executed distorting the provision of goods and services.
In the private sector, corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves, the management cost of negotiating with officials and the risk of breached agreements or detection. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting bureaucracy, the availability of bribes can induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. Removing costly and lengthy regulations are better than covertly allowing them to be bypassed by using bribes. Where corruption inflates the cost of business, it distorts the field of inquiry and action, shielding firms with connections from competition and thereby sustaining inefficient firms. Corruption may have a direct impact on the firm's effective marginal tax rate. Bribing tax officials can reduce tax payments of the firm if the marginal bribe rate is below the official marginal tax rate. However, in Uganda, bribes have a higher negative impact on firms’ activity than taxation. Indeed, a one percentage point increase in bribes reduces firm’s annual growth by three percentage points, while an increase in 1 percentage point on taxes reduces firm’s growth by one percentage point.
Corruption generates economic distortion in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful. Officials may increase the technical complexity of public sector projects to conceal or pave the way for such dealings, thus further distorting investment. Corruption lowers compliance with construction, environmental, or other regulations, reduces the quality of government services and infrastructure, increases budgetary pressures on government. Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in Africa, corruption has taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home. In Nigeria, for example, more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers estimated that from 1970 to 1996, capital flight from 30 Sub-Saharan countries total
RNZ International or Radio New Zealand International, sometimes abbreviated to RNZI, is a division of Radio New Zealand and the official international broadcasting station of New Zealand. It broadcasts a variety of news, current affairs and sports programmes in English and news in seven Pacific languages; the station's mission statement requires it to promote and reflect New Zealand in the Pacific, better relations between New Zealand and Pacific countries. As the only shortwave radio station in New Zealand, RNZ International broadcasts to several island nations, it has studios in Radio New Zealand House, Wellington and a transmitter at Rangitaiki in the middle of the North Island. Its broadcasts cover from East Timor in the west across to French Polynesia in the east, covering all South Pacific countries in between; the station targets Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Cook Islands, Solomon Islands and Tonga during a 24-hour rotation. The signal can be heard in Europe and North America.
RNZ International was launched in 1948 as Radio New Zealand, a subsidiary of what was the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. It utilised two 7.5 kW transmitters at Titahi Bay, left behind by the US military during World War II. It closed before reopening in 1976, under the foreign policy of the third Labour government. From 1987, the Government faced growing pressure to have a more active foreign policy towards the Pacific region, it upgraded the station, installed a new 100 kW transmitter and re-launched it as Radio New Zealand International on the first day of the Auckland 1990 Commonwealth Games. The station adopted new digital technology and launched a website in 2000. In 1992, Johnson Honimae was fired as the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation head of current affairs over his work as a freelance reporter in Bougainville for RNZI and other international media outlets. SIBC general manager Patterson Mae was accused of undermining the principles of press freedom, resigned as president of the regional journalism body the Pacific Islands News Association.
In 1998 and again in 2000 RNZI won a Commonwealth Broadcasting Association's Rolls-Royce Award for Excellence. At a function of the Association for International Broadcasting in London, November 2007, RNZI received the International Radio Station of the Year award ahead of the BBC World Service; the association praised the station for what it said was an ability and clarity of vision - and for the delivery of something it said was valued by audiences throughout the region. RNZI won the award for Most Innovative Partnership; as of 2015, RNZI has 13 staff. These include manager Linden Clark, technical manager Adrian Sainsbury, news editor Walter Zweifel and deputy news editor Don Wiseman. Myra Oh, Colette Jansen, Damon Taylor, Dominic Godfrey and Jeremy Veal serve as technical producers and continuity announcers. In May of 2017 Radio New Zealand International's online brand was changed to RNZ Pacific to more reflect what the service does and emphasise its role in engaging with the domestic Pasifika audience in New Zealand.
According to RNZ, "For now, the RNZI brand will continue to be maintained on-air through our international service, but domestically it is now known as RNZ Pacific." Aside from Radio Australia, RNZI is the only international state-owned public broadcaster covering the Pacific region. Its news service focuses on South Pacific countries, includes news bulletins in eight languages; the station's reporters include Johnny Blades, Sally Round, former Pacific Media Centre editor Alex Perrottet, Moera Tuilaepa-Taylor, Indira Moala, Koroi Hawkins, Koro Vaka'uta, Leilani Momoisea, Amelia Langford, Bridget Tunnicliffe, Mary Baines, Jenny Meyer and The Wireless contributor Jamie Tahana. Vinnie Wylie heads the station's sports coverage, freelancers are used for on-the-ground reporting; the station's news service focuses on news that relates to New Zealand, ongoing stories like natural disasters and political crises. It predominantly cites Government and opposition leaders and the spokespeople of non-government organisations and government departments.
Marshall Islands journalist Giff Johnson is an RNZI correspondent, World Bank regional director Franz Dreez-Gross and Victoria University academic John Fraenkel are interviewed for stories. RNZI covers the Papua conflict and interviews exiled Koteka tribal leader Benny Wenda on his visits to New Zealand, it has reported on Vanuatu's Parliamentary debate on the conflict, Indonesian estimates of the death toll and West Papua National Liberation Army claims of militant arrests. The station has interviewed members of the Melanesian Spearhead Group over the army's bid to join the group. However, the station does not have any reporters on the ground; the station provides ongoing coverage of several regional issues, including climate change, rapid emigration, LGBT rights in Oceania, the development of Pacific tax havens and the growing influence of China. It allowed other media to redistribute its ongoing coverage of Fijian politics after the 2000 Fijian coup d'état, has covered the transition to independence in East Timor and political stability in the Solomon Islands.
RNZI gives greater air time to national news stories from South Pacific countries than New Zealand's other mainstream and Pacific media outlets. For instance, during March 2013 it covered the constitutional crisis in Nauru, video of alleged torture of prisoners by Fijian government officials and a World Bank grant to the Samoan government. RNZI produces most of its own programming, including regional current affairs, Pacific business and news bulletins in various languages; some local Pacific Island radio stations rebroadcast selected ite
Chinese in Samoa
The majority of Chinese nationals residing in Samoa are businessmen, labour workers and shopowners in the south western island nation of Samoa, there are at least 30,000 people in Samoa who are of mixed Samoan and Chinese descent, although they are classified as ethnic Samoans in official census. Around the world, about 25% of all Samoans claim Chinese ancestry. Nearly all Chinese nationals in Samoa reside within the Apia municipal area; the Chinese community in Samoa is becoming economically strong. A new wave of northern Chinese migrants are moving to Samoa, bringing their culture and languages with them. There are no Chinese schools in Samoa but an estimated 98.7% of Chinese expatriates and migrants send their children and youth to Robert Louis Stevenson School, Samoa, a private school with an Australasian and Samoan curriculum. There is a primary campus located in the village of Lotopa, Faleata District and the secondary campus in the urban village of Tafaigata. Notable Chinese businesses include Frankie's Supermarket and Wholesale, Alan wholesale and Treasure Garden company as well as other small businesses and restaurants.
An estimated 4000 Chinese tourists visit Samoa every year via Apia's Faleolo International Airport. Historical records of Chinese settlement dates back to at least the 1870s. Two Chinese sailors under the command of Bully Hayes were based there for two years, one of them settled down in 1876 and married a Samoan wife. A few Chinese traders settled in Samoa and raised local families, maintained close ties with Samoa's paramount chief, Malietoa Laupepa. In 1880, Malietoa issued a subsequent ban on people of Chinese descent from settling in Samoa. Four years after Western Samoa came under German rule in 1899, the colonial governor Wilhelm Solf lifted Malietoa's ban and shipped in Chinese labourers from 1903 onwards. Chinese coolies complained of tough working punishments as well as brutal physical punishments which they had to face, these reports prompted the provincial governor of Canton to stop sending Chinese coolies to the German colonies. Chinese immigrants were entirely men, most of the labourers took Samoan women as wives and by 1918 offspring of Chinese-Samoan descent were a visible minority, although smaller in terms of population compared to offspring of European and Samoan descent.
This led to a ban in 1931 that prohibited Chinese men from interacting with Samoan women on all grounds. By the end of World War II only 295 Chinese remained, all of whom had either taken Samoan wives or were unmarried. Many Chinese coolies had since remained in Samoa with their families. In 1994, China provided financial assistance to fund the construction of the government office building in Apia. More the Chinese government has funded various other Samoan government constructions. Aeau Peniamina, deputy leader of Samoa Democratic United Party, caused a minor controversy in January 2005 when he remarked that "there are too many Chinese in the country". Joe Keil, the Minister of Tourism, of part-Chinese descent, promptly rebutted Peniamina's remarks. Chinese-Samoans are well represented in the civil service, China established diplomatic relations with Samoa in November 1975. Chinese-Samoans are well represented in the retail, import-export, restaurant sectors, notably in Apia. Samoa's legislative capital city, signed a treaty on 31 August 2015 with a delegation from Shenzhen, making Apia and Shenzhen, China sister cities.
The treaty will help promote Chinese tourism to boost Samoa's growing tourism industry, bring economic growth to Samoa, encourage stronger ties between the two cities. Shenzhen Airlines is set to operate flights from Shenzhen International Airport and Faleolo International Airport in Apia; the majority of the Chinese coolies came from the Guangdong province and spoke Cantonese or Hakka as their primary language. However, their descendants in Samoa have adopted Samoan and English as their mother tongues, while Cantonese is still spoken by a few elderly people. Since the 1980s, the overwhelming majority of Chinese immigrants and enterprises are derived from mainland China where Mandarin Chinese is spoken; the cultural legacy of Chinese laborers in Samoa is apparent in the various Chinese dishes that have been adopted into Samoan cuisine. Chinese immigrants brought their culinary traditions with them to Samoa, where rice, cha siu bao, chop suey, Chinese pastries have all been adopted into standard Samoan cuisine.
Several food items such as taro and sugarcane were familiar to the Chinese and Samoans prior to colonial times. Entrepreneurship, commerce and communal investment are all business practices and cultural traits that facilitated the rise of Chinese immigrants from plantation laborers to business owners and trading moguls; the commercial and financial contribution of the Chinese continued as more Samoan-Chinese marriages and business arrangements were made. This Chinese-Samoan prevalence in modern Samoa is still apparent in the many prominent firms in Apia that bear Chinese names, such as Ah Liki Wholesale, Apia Central Hotel, Leung Wai Legal Services, Chan Chui & Sons, Ltd, Ah Him Co. Treasure Garden, etc. Despite obvious physical and cultural differences, it became apparent to both the Cantonese and the Samoans that their cultures shared much in common, intermarriage since the 1870s has resulted in a large proportion of ethnic Samoans having Chinese ancestry today. Respect for parents
Chief Justice of Samoa
The Chief Justice of Samoa is the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Samoa. The qualifications and powers of the office are governed by Part VI of the Constitution of Samoa and the Judicature Ordinance 1961; the position is held by Patu Tiava'asu'e Falefatu Sapolu. Under the American–British–German condominium, the Supreme Court of Justice for Samoa was established by Article III of the Treaty of Berlin, with the single judge of the court being called the Chief Justice per Section 1 of that Article; the first Chief Justice, Swedish jurist Conrad Cedercrantz, was not appointed until 1890. The position of Chief Justice was subsequently held by Americans Henry Clay Ide from 1893 to 1897 and William Lea Chambers from 1897 to 1899. Chambers' ruling in the kingship dispute between Malietoa Tanumafili I and Mata'afa Iosefo in December 1898 angered the Germans and led to the Second Samoan Civil War. Samoa was subsequently partitioned by the Tripartite Convention of 1899 into a German colony and an American colony, the Treaty of Berlin and its provisions governing appointment to the position of Chief Justice were abolished.
The existing German consular court at Apia was converted into a court of second instance, headed by a chairman. The chief judicial officer was the Imperial Chief Judge, advised on matters of Samoan customary law by a Samoan Chief Judge; the first colonial governor Wilhelm Solf appointed Erich Schultz-Ewerth to the position of Imperial Chief Judge. Schultz succeeded Solf as governor in 1910 but continued to hold the position of Imperial Judge as well. German rule was ended by New Zealand's occupation of German Samoa in 1914. New Zealand ruled Samoa as a League of Nations mandate and subsequently a United Nations Trust Territory from 1920 to 1962 called the Western Samoa Trust Territory. During this period, Part III of the Samoa Constitution Order 1920 provided for a High Court of Western Samoa, headed by a Chief Judge. John Luxford served as Chief Judge from 1929 to 1935, during which time he was involved in controversies including the inquest into Black Saturday and the deportation of Olaf Frederick Nelson.
After independence in 1962, New Zealand expatriates continued to hold the post of Chief Justice for some years, as in other Pacific Island countries. Public demand for a Samoan to be appointed to the position became stronger in the wake of CJ Bryan Nicholson's controversial decision to uphold an election petition to remove two members of the Legislative Assembly, returned in the 1979 general election; the first Samoan to become Chief Justice was Vaovasamanaia Phillips, appointed in 1983. The O le Ao o le Malo appoints the Chief Justice. Judges of the Supreme Court, including the Chief Justice, must have eight years' total experience as barristers in Samoa or other approved countries, must meet other qualifications prescribed by the Head of State, acting on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission. A Samoan citizen appointed as Chief Justice has life tenure until reaching the age of 68, which may be extended by the Head of State acting on the advice of the Prime Minister, while a non-Samoan citizen is appointed for a term of years.
Judges of the Supreme Court may only be removed by the Head of State with the approval of a two-thirds supermajority of the Legislative Assembly, though the Head of State acting on the advice of the Prime Minister may suspend the Chief Justice when the Legislative Assembly is not in session. Under the Treaty of Berlin the Chief Justice was appointed by agreement among the three state parties, or failing that by the King of Sweden and Norway, could be removed either by the appointing authority, or at the request of at least two of the three state parties. Under New Zealand administration, the Chief Judge was appointed by, held office at the pleasure of, New Zealand's Minister of External Affairs; the Chief Justice is ex officio the president of the Judicial Service Commission and the Court of Appeal of Samoa, assumes the functions of the Council of Deputies if the Legislative Assembly has not elected the members of that council. The Chief Justice determines when the absence or incapacity of the Head of State requires that the Council of Deputies exercise the functions of the office of the Head of State.
Remuneration of the post is governed by statute and was last increased in 2001. The Chief Justice was also ex officio the president of the Land and Titles Court, the court which has jurisdiction on disputes over land tenure and chiefly titles. Under German administration, Imperial Chief Judge Schultz-Ewerth was concurrently the head of the Land and Titles Court's predecessor, the Land and Titles Commission; this practice continued under New Zealand rule: the Samoa Native Land and Titles Commission Order 1924 and the Native Land and Titles Protection Ordinance 1934 provided that the Chief Judge of the High Court would ex officio hold office as the head of the Native Land and Titles Commission. This situation continued for some years after independence, though as the number of cases at the court increased drastically beginning in the late 1960s, the President presided over hearings of first instance, instead only hearing appeals from decisions of judges of the court; the Land and Titles Act 1981 ended this practice by providing that the head of the Land and Titles Court could be the Chief Justice, any other judge of the Supreme Court, or any person qualified to be a judge of the Supreme Court.
However, at times since the Chief Justice has served as Acting President of the Land and Titles Court
Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves; these representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes; the uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Todd Landman draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights"; the term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy, meaning "rule of an elite".
While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy; these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, the freedom of its eligible citizens is secured by legitimised rights and liberties which are protected by a constitution. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: upward control, political equality, social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality; the term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism.
Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally "fair," i.e. just and equitable
Samoa the Independent State of Samoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia; the Lapita people settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed Samoan cultural identity. Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions; the country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976; the entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. New Zealand scientists have dated remains in Samoa to about 2900 years ago; these were found at a Lapita site at Mulifanua and the findings were published in 1974. The origins of the Samoans are studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing.
Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa and Tonga, the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included Queen Salamasina. Nafanua was a famous woman warrior, deified in ancient Samoan religion. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa; the Salem brig Roscoe, in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, the Maro of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa.
The whalers came for fresh drinking water and provisions, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people." The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa.
Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties; the Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict; the Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia.
Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. The eastern island-group was known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received termination of German rights in Tonga, all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, territorial alignments in West Africa; the German Empire governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. Wilhelm Solf was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands; the German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu