Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, the various degrees of sergeant major are appointments held by warrant officers. In the United States, there are various grades of sergeant major, but they are all of the same pay grade of E-9. However, the Sergeant Major of the Army and the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, as their respective service's Senior Enlisted Advisor, receive a special rate of basic pay, higher than all other sergeants major. In 16th century Spain, the sargento mayor was a general officer, he commanded an army's infantry, ranked about third in the army's command structure. In the 17th century, sergeant majors appeared in individual regiments; these were field officers, third in command of their regiments, with a role similar to the older, army-level sergeant majors. The older position became known as "sergeant major general" to distinguish it. Over time, the term sergeant was dropped from both titles, giving rise to the modern ranks of major and major general.
The full title of sergeant major fell out of use until the latter part of the 18th century, when it began to be applied to the senior non-commissioned officer of an infantry battalion or cavalry regiment. It is about this time that the U. S. and British histories with the American Revolutionary War. A sergeant major is an appointment, not a rank, it is held by the senior warrant officer of an army or marine unit. These appointments are made at several levels, for example: the senior warrant officer of a company, battery or squadron; the title consists of the unit title followed by'sergeant major', abbreviated by the initials. A sergeant major of a regiment or battalion is known as a regimental sergeant major, rather than a "regiment sergeant major" or "battalion sergeant major". In the Australian Defence Force, in addition to CSMs and RSMs, the most senior warrant officer of the army carries the appointment of Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army; the sergeant-major of a unit is directly responsible to the commanding officer for all matters pertaining to dress, discipline, performance and morale of the non-commissioned members of that unit.
Sergeant majors are addressed as "sir" or "ma'am" by subordinates, as "sergeant major" or by their full title by superiors. In the British Armed Forces, the plural is sergeant majors and not sergeants major as it is in the United States; the appointment of sergeant major is given to the senior non-commissioned member within sub-units and some formations of the Canadian Army. The regimental sergeant-major is the senior sergeant major in a battalion-sized unit, including infantry battalions and artillery, armoured and signal regiments; this appointment is held by a chief warrant officer. The same position can be held by a master warrant officer in anticipation of promotion, or a shortage of available chief warrant officers. In company-sized units, the company sergeant-major holds the rank of master warrant officer, although in some cases, it may be held by a warrant officer if the company is smaller, or in a shortage of available master warrant officers. In artillery batteries, this appointment is known as battery sergeant-major, while in units with a cavalry heritage, the term is squadron sergeant-major.
In company-sized sub-units of battalions or regiments, the company sergeant-major answers both to his or her officer commanding for matters pertaining to the company in particular, to the regimental sergeant-major on matters of concern to the regimental sergeant-major. Company sergeant-majors and their equivalents are addressed as "Sergeant-Major" or by rank. By subordinates, they are referred to as "Sir", "Ma'am", or "Warrant" as appropriate. "CSM" is a title reserved for use by the commanding officer. Regimental sergeant-majors are never addressed as "Sergeant-Major", they are addressed by rank or as "Mr" or "Ms", thereafter by subordinates as "Sir" or "Ma'am". "RSM" is reserved for use by the commanding officer. In some unusual cases, a chief petty officer 1st class or chief petty officer 2nd class in the Royal Canadian Navy may succeed to a sergeant-major's position in units with a large number of "purple trades", such as service battalions; the forms of address remain the same, except that chief petty officers 1st and 2nd class are never addressed as "Sir" or "Ma'am", but as "Chief".
The opera Leo, the Royal Cadet by Oscar Ferdinand Telgmann and George Frederick Cameron includes a character "Battalion Sergeant Major at the Royal Military College of Canada" and song "The Royal Cadet - The Battalion Sergeant Major". The senior cadet of the Royal Military College of Canada was a battalion sergeant major from 1878–1923 and from 1934–42. Since 1952, the senior cadet is known as a cadet wing-commander. Sergeant major is a rank in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. While technically it is the 6th level of rank, below corps sergeant major and above staff sergeant major, it, along with the other two, are specialized ranks and not part of the normal progression, which would proceed from staff sergeant to inspector. A sergeant major appointment exists in
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general; when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general. In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank, although the rank is not regarded as a general officer; the rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, was first used in the French revolutionary armies. In the first quarter of the 20th century and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general.
Some of these armies use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. Mexico uses the ranks of General de brigada; this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore; the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is the highest rank in the Air Force; this is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier. The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer; the Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General and Lieutenant General.
In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed; this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement; the rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip - example. As in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer". Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however "the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier", although classified as a "one-star rank", a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General.
Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier; the Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigadegeneraal. However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context. General de brigada is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include "Brigadeiro" – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro, the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar; the rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division or Military Operation Commands.
In civil service, a brigadier general holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries. In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, junior to a major-general or rear admiral; the rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late
Flight Lieutenant is a junior commissioned air force rank that originated in the Royal Naval Air Service and is still used in the Royal Air Force and many other countries in the Commonwealth. It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in non-English-speaking countries those with an air force-specific rank structure. Flight lieutenant ranks below squadron leader; the name of the rank is the complete phrase. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-2, is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and a captain in the British Army and the Royal Marines; the equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, Women's Royal Air Force and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service was flight officer. On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenants and Royal Flying Corps captains becoming captains in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own rank titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navy's officer ranks, with the word "air" inserted before the naval rank title.
For example, the current rank of flight lieutenant would have been "air lieutenant". Although the Admiralty objected to this simple modification of their rank titles, it was agreed that the RAF might base many of its officer rank titles on navy officer ranks with differing pre-modifying terms, it was suggested that RAF captains might be entitled flight-leaders. However, the rank title flight lieutenant was chosen as flights were commanded by RAF captains and the term flight lieutenant had been used in the Royal Naval Air Service; the rank of flight lieutenant has been used continuously since 1 August 1919. Although in the early years of the RAF a flight lieutenant commanded an aircraft flight, with the increasing combat power of aircraft and therefore squadrons and control has shifted up the rank structure; the RAF's promotion system is automatic up until Flight Lieutenant. Every officer will attain the rank provided they complete their professional training and do not leave early. For Aircrew, Flight Lieutenant is reached 2.5 years after commissioning, BEng/MEng qualified engineers 2.5 and 1.5 years and for all ground branch officers, 3.5 years.
Aircrew are appointed to an Early Departure Payment Commission upon reaching their Operational Conversion Unit, a commission for 20 years or age 40, whichever is later. Promotion to Squadron Leader thereafter is upon merit. Resigning a commission is dependent on the needs of the Service, although an officer who has completed their Return of Service could leave after as little as four years. For aircrew, given the large expense required for training, this Return of Service is the length of their initial commission anyway, unless they re-role to a different branch having failed an element of flying training. Most aircrew reach their squadrons as Flight Lieutenants due to the length of training time required; the majority of squadron line pilots are flight lieutenants, with some squadron executives or Career Commission aircrew reaching Squadron Leader. Aside from aircrew, whose work does not require active leadership for units of airmen, ground branch officers can expect to operate units that can range in size from a few specialist non-commissioned personnel to 50 or more personnel for engineering or other manpower intensive roles.
The role of a Flight Lieutenant involves management of a team of specialists Non-Commissioned Officers and airmen, within their specific branch. In the RAF Regiment, a Flight Lieutenant has the same role and responsibility as a Captain in the British Army, in charge of a Regiment Flight of 30 men, could be second-in-command of a Squadron of up to 120 men. Flight Lieutenant is the most common rank in the RAF. In RAF informal usage, a flight lieutenant is sometimes referred to as a "flight lieuy". A Flight Lieutenant's starting salary is £39,236.40 as of 2015. In the Air Training Corps, a flight lieutenant is the officer commanding of a squadron. Retired flight lieutenants are the first rank that may continue to use their rank after they have left active service; the rank insignia consists of two narrow blue bands on wider black bands. This is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulders of the flight suit or the casual uniform; the rank insignia on the mess uniform is similar to the naval pattern, being two band of gold running around each cuff but without the Royal Navy's loop.
Unlike senior RAF officers, flight lieutenants are not entitled to fly a command flag under any circumstances. The rank of flight lieutenant is used in a number of the air forces in the Commonwealth, including the Bangladesh Air Force, Ghana Air Force, Indian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force, it is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman, Royal Thai Air Force and the Air Force of Zimbabwe. The Royal Can
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organisation, designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer, designated an officer by a commission, a non-commissioned officer, designated an officer by virtue of seniority. The rank was first used in the 13th century in the Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the "other ranks" category, equivalent to the US "E" category and rank between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers; the warrant officers in Commonwealth navies rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant, in Commonwealth air forces between flight sergeant and pilot officer, in Commonwealth armies between staff sergeant and second lieutenant. Warrant officers in the United States are in the "W" category. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers.
They may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew. In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status; the standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline.
By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers, etc. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers' mess rather than the wardroom. Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen. In 1949, the ranks of warrant officer and commissioned warrant officer were changed to "commissioned officer" and "senior commissioned officer", the latter ranking with but after the rank of lieutenant, they were admitted to the wardroom, the warrant officers' messes closing down.
Collectively, these officers were known as "branch officers", being retitled "special duties" officers in 1956. In 1998, the special dutie
An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces. In certain air forces, it can refer to a specific enlisted rank. In civilian aviation usage, the term airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airman's certificate, male or female; this certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch. In the U. S. Air Force, airman is a general term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force, regardless of rank, a specific enlisted rank; the rank of airman is the second enlisted rank from the bottom, just above the rank of Airman Basic, just below that of Airman First Class. Since the Air Force was established in 1947, all of the various ranks of "airman" have always included women, in this context, the word "man" means "human being". Former U. S. Air Force ranks included Airman Third Class; the current E-2 paygrade rank of Airman was called Airman Third Class from 1952 to 1967.
A person with the rank of Airman Basic is promoted to the rank of Airman after six months of active duty service in the Air Force, if that member had signed up for an enlistment period of at least four years of active duty. On the other hand, an enlistee could be promoted to the rank of Airman after completing Air Force basic training given one of several additional qualifications: Having completed at least two years of a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps while in high school. Having achieved the Eagle Scout level from the Boy Scouts of America, or the Gold Award from the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Having earned 20 college semester credit hours; those enlistees who have qualified for these early promotions to the rank of Airman are allowed to wear their single airman insignia stripe during the Air Force basic training graduation ceremony at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. They receive a retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the pay grade for an Airman upon their completion of basic training.
While at the rank of Airman, the duties of enlisted personnel include adjusting to the Air Force way of military life and becoming proficient in their Air Force duty specialties. Note that upon leaving basic training, all Airmen enter a period of many weeks or many months of training at Air Force schools in their duty specialties that they and the Air Force have selected for them depending on their aptitudes and interests, the needs of the Air Force. For Airmen with high aptitudes, some of these training programs include more than one school and take a year or more to complete. Airmen are nicknamed “mosquito wings" due to the insignia's resemblance to a mosquito’s small wings. In the U. S. Navy, Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Navy's aviation field, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, pay grade E-4. In the U. S. Coast Guard, the ranks are similar or identical to the ones in the U. S. Navy, a Coast Guard airman is identical in rank and pay to an Airman in the Navy.
Coast Guard Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Coast Guard's aviation field. Airman is just above the Coast Guard rank of airman apprentice, Seaman Apprentice, fireman apprentice, the E-2 pay grade, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, E-4 pay grade. Military pilot Soldier Sailor Marine U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia U. S. Navy enlisted rate insignia RAF enlisted ranks Aircraftman
Leading Seaman is a junior non-commissioned rank or rate in navies those of the Commonwealth. When it is used by NATO nations, Leading Seaman has the rank code of OR-4, it is equivalent to the army and air force rank of corporal and some navies use Corporal rather than Leading Seaman. The rank is used in the navies of Australia, Canada, Ghana, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom; the badge in the Royal Australian Navy is the fouled anchor over the word "Australia", worn on the shoulders, or the fouled anchor worn on the left sleeve, depending on what uniform is worn at the time. It is senior to able seaman but junior to petty officer. Leading seaman or leading hand, which it is known as, is the equivalent of corporal in the Royal Australian Air Force and the Australian Army. Leading seamen are addressed as "leader", informally known as "killicks" from the killick anchor, the symbol of their rank. In the Royal Canadian Navy, leading seaman is senior to the rank of able seaman, junior to master seaman.
Its Army and Air Force equivalent is corporal and it is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers. Leading seamen are initially addressed as "Leading Seaman Smith", thereafter as "Leading Seaman"; the same rank title is used for female members. The slang term for the rank is "killick"; the term is still used though the old-style insignia of a fouled anchor is no longer used for this rank in the RCN. Leading seamen mess and billet with other seamen and their army and air force equivalents: privates and master corporals, their mess on naval bases or installations is named the "junior ranks mess". "Leading seaman" is a naval enlisted rank of the Navy of the Russian Federation. It is senior to the lowest rank of "seaman"; the rank was introduced to the Soviet Navy in 1946 and inherited by the Russian state in 1991. The former Soviet republics of Belarus and Ukraine maintain similar ranks with the same pronunciation but different orthography - старшы матрос and старший матрос; the rate of leading seaman, leading hand or leading rating in the Royal Navy is senior to able seaman and junior to petty officer.
It is equivalent to corporal in the other services. The badge is the fouled anchor, worn on the upper left arm in formal uniform, white front or overalls and on the shoulder slides in working dress, although this has been updated to single hook in the chest centre. Specialists use the word "leading" before their speciality. A leading rating is called a "killick", referring to the rank insignia of a fouled anchor. In the United States Navy, the position of leading seaman is that of the seniormost seaman in the division; the rank equivalent of a leading seaman is a petty officer third class, although the leading seaman only has the authority of a PO3, not the rank. The leading seaman position is used when a PO3 or PO2 is not available. Non-commissioned member Seaman Non-commissioned officer