Blue Reform is a Finnish conservative political party. Blue Reform was founded by the 19 MPs who left the Finns Party on 13 June 2017 in protest against Jussi Halla-aho having been elected party leader; the new parliamentary group of these defectors was called New Alternative. The party's current name was announced on 19 June; the association of this name was registered on 3 July 2017. The Blue Reform is chaired by Sampo Terho, the Minister for European Affairs and Sport, it includes all the other cabinet ministers who were members of the Finns Party: Timo Soini, Jussi Niinistö, Jari Lindström and Pirkko Mattila. It was one of the three parties that made up the Sipilä Cabinet until its resignation on 8th of March 2019. According to a Helsingin Sanomat opinion poll conducted in May 2018, Blue Reform has a popular support of 1.7 percent, making it the least popular group represented in the Parliament of Finland. The Blue Reform originates from the Finns Party, founded by Timo Soini, Raimo Vistbacka, Urpo Leppänen and Kari Bärlund in 1995.
It took some time before the Finns Party gained ground in Finnish elections and the party's sole MP until 2003 was Vistbacka. In 2003, the party won three seats: besides Vistbacka and Tony Halme were elected. Soini had taken over as the chairman in 1997 and remained in the position for twenty years until 2017; the party gained ground, but saw exceptional rise in 2011 election, when the party gained 39 seats, making them the third largest party in the parliament and the leading opposition party. In the 2015 election, the Finns Party rose to be the second biggest party in the parliament with 38 seats; the Finns Party subsequently entered into a coalition government with the Centre Party and the National Coalition Party, led by Prime Minister Juha Sipilä. In March 2017, Soini announced. In June 2017, Jussi Halla-aho and Sampo Terho faced off in the leadership election, in which Halla-aho received 949 votes against Terho's 646 votes and thus succeeded Soini as party chairman. Sipilä and Finance Minister Petteri Orpo soon announced that they would not continue their coalition with the Finns Party if it was led by Halla-aho.
On 13 June 2017, 20 members of the Finns Party, including Soini and Terho, left its parliamentary group to form the New Alternative parliamentary group. The decision followed the election of Halla-aho, who had received criticism both inside and outside of the Finns Party for his strict views on immigration. MP Simon Elo was chosen to lead the group for the time being. While Halla-aho's Finns Party was expelled from the Finnish government, the New Alternative continued as a member of the government coalition. On 19 June 2017, Sampo Terho announced that a new party would be formed based on the New Alternative parliamentary group under the name Blue Reform; the parliamentary group still saw some changes, as on 22 June 2017, Ritva Elomaa left the group to re-join the Finns Party, after which the group had 19 members left. On 30 June 2017, Hanna Mäntylä left the Parliament to work for the Council of Europe and she was replaced by the substitute MP Matti Torvinen. Torvinen subsequently joined the New Alternative.
On 15 November 2017, the Blue Reform was registered as a political party. The first party convention, organized on 16 December 2017, elected Terho as the first chairman of the party and MP Matti Torvinen as the party secretary. Blue Reform says that it wants a society that encourages people to work, to found businesses and to care about others and ensures a living for every citizen; the party respects family values and says that "the only interest group it works for is the people of Finland". In addition, Blue Reform says that it respects human rights and denounces all hatred towards human beings; the name "Blue Reform" is said to mean stability, reformism and patriotism. Simon Elo Tiina Elovaara Reijo Hongisto Ari Jalonen Kimmo Kivelä Kari Kulmala Jari Lindström Anne Louhelainen Pirkko Mattila Lea Mäkipää Martti Mölsä Jussi Niinistö Pentti Oinonen Vesa-Matti Saarakkala Timo Soini Sampo Terho Matti Torvinen Kike Elomaa Maria Lohela Hanna Mäntylä Kaj Turunen Finnish People's Unity Party List of political parties in Finland Politics of Finland Official website Blue Reform Parliamentary Group on the website of the Parliament of Finland Parliamentary groups on the website of the Parliament of Finland
The Finns Party known in English as the True Finns, is a Finnish conservative political party, founded in 1995 following the dissolution of the Finnish Rural Party. In the 2011 parliamentary election, the party won 19.1% of votes, becoming the third largest party in the Finnish Parliament. In the 2015 election the party got 17.7% of the votes, making them the parliament's second largest party. The party was in opposition for the first 20 years of its existence. In 2015 they joined the government coalition formed by Prime Minister Sipilä. Following a 2017 split, over half of the party's MPs left the parliamentary group and were subsequently expelled from their party membership; this defector group, New Alternative, continued to support the government coalition, while the Finns Party went into opposition. The party combines left-wing economic policies with conservative social values, socio-cultural authoritarianism, ethnic nationalism. Several researchers have described the party as fiscally centre-left conservative, a "centre-based populist party" or the "most left-wing of the non-socialist parties", whereas other scholars have described them as radically right-wing populist.
In the parliament seating order, the party's MPs have always been seated in the centre and the party's supporters have described themselves as centrists as well. The party has drawn people from left-wing parties but central aspects of their manifesto have gained support from right-wing voters as well; the Finns Party has been compared by international media to the other Nordic populist parties and other similar nationalist and right-wing populist movements in Europe that share euroscepticism and are critical of globalism, whilst noting its strong support for the Finnish welfare state. In June 2014, the Finns Party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists Group in the European Parliament, where it co-operates with parties like the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom and Law and Justice of Poland; the predecessor of the Finns Party was the Finnish Rural Party, founded by Agrarian League dissident Veikko Vennamo in 1959. Vennamo ran into serious disagreement with Arvo Korsimo, the Agrarian League's party secretary, was excluded from the parliamentary group.
As a result, Vennamo started building his own organization and founded the Finnish Rural Party. Vennamo was a populist and became a critic of President Urho Kekkonen and of political corruption within the "old parties" the Centre Party; the Rural Party achieved two major victories in the elections of 1970 and 1983, winning 18 and 17 seats respectively. In the 1970s, Vennamo's personalized leadership style alienated some in the party, which led to a split in the parliamentary group in 1972. After the Rural Party's new rise in 1983 under Vennamo's son Pekka, the party became a partner in two coalition governments. However, the party's support declined in the late-1980s and early-1990s. In 1995, the party soon filed for bankruptcy. In the summer of 1995, following the collapse of the Finnish Rural Party, the decision to found the Finns Party was made by Timo Soini, Raimo Vistbacka, Urpo Leppänen and Kari Bärlund. Soini had been the Rural Party's last party secretary and Vistbacka its last chairman and MP.
The party collected the five thousand signatures needed for registration and was added to the official party register on 13 October 1995. The first party congress was held in November. Vistbacka was elected Soini the party secretary, it took some time. At the time of its founding in 1995, the party's sole MP was Vistbacka, reelected in the 1999 election. In 2003, the party won three seats: besides Vistbacka and Tony Halme were elected. In the 2007, the party gained two further seats for a total of five. In the 2008 municipal election, the Finns Party were most successful in those districts where the Social Democrats and the Left Alliance lost most. In the 2011 election, the Centre Party suffered the largest blow from the Finns Party's success. According to a 2008–2009 study, Finns Party supporters viewed themselves as centrist: on a scale where 1 was extreme left and 10 was extreme right, the average supporter placed themselves at 5.4. According to the same study, supporters were united by social conservatism.
A 2011 study indicated that the Finns Party was the most popular party among voters with an annual income of 35,000–50,000 euros, while over a quarter of the party's voters earn over 50,000 per year. The same study indicated that the party's voters included a higher percentage of blue collar workers than those of the Social Democrats. Timo Soini led the Finns Party for twenty years, from 1997 until 2017, he was first elected to the parliament in 2003. He was the party's candidate in the 2006 presidential election, was elected to the European Parliament in 2009 with the highest personal vote share in the country, he served as an MEP for two years. Soini was the party's presidential candidate for a second time in the election of 2012. Jussi Halla-aho succeeded Soini as party chairman in 2017; the Finns Party obtained 39 seats in the 2011 election, making them the third largest party, narrowly behind the National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats. Soini received 43,212 personal votes, the highest number of all candidates, leaving behind the Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb and the Finance Minister Jyrki Katainen in their Uusimaa electoral district.
The popularity of the party rose from 4.1% to 19.1% i
National Coalition Party
The National Coalition Party is a centre-right political party in Finland considered to be liberal and liberal-conservative. Founded in 1918, the National Coalition Party is one of the three largest parties in Finland, along with the Social Democratic Party and the Centre Party; the current party chair is Petteri Orpo, elected on 11 June 2016. The party self-statedly bases its politics on "freedom and democracy, equal opportunities, supportiveness and caring" and supports multiculturalism and gay rights, it is pro-European as well as a member of the European People's Party. The party's vote share was 20% in parliamentary elections in the 1990s and 2000s, it won 44 out of 200 seats in the parliamentary elections of 2011, becoming the largest party in the Finnish Parliament for the first time in its history. On the municipal level, it became the most popular party in 2008. In the 2015 election, the NCP lost its status as the country's largest party finishing second in votes and third in seats, but again joining the governing coalition.
The National Coalition Party was founded on 9 December 1918 after the Finnish Civil War by the majority of the Finnish Party and the minority of the Young Finnish Party, both supporting Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse as the King of Finland in the new monarchy. The previous day, the republicans of both parties had founded the National Progressive Party. With over 600 representatives, the foundational meeting of NCP declared the following:A national coalition is needed over old party lines that have lost meaning and have too long separated thinking citizens; this coalition's grand task must be to work to strengthen in our nation the forces that maintain society. Lawful societal order must be upheld and there must be no compromise with revolutionary aspirations, but determined constructive reform work must be pursued."The party sought to accomplish their task by advocating for constitutional monarchy and, failing that, strong governmental powers within a republican framework. On the other hand, their goal was to implement a number of social and economic reforms, such as compulsory education, universal health care, progressive income and property taxation.
The monarchist aims failed and Finland became a parliamentary republic—in which NCP advocated for strong presidential powers. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the threat posed by Joseph Stalin's communist Soviet Union influenced Finnish politics. Communists, backed by Soviet leaders, accelerated their activities while the ideological position of the National Coalition Party shifted to conservative; the new ideology was poorly received by the youth, attracted instead more to irredentist and fascist movements, such as the Academic Karelia Society or Patriotic People's Movement. In the 1933 parliamentary election, the party formed an electoral coalition with the Patriotic People's Movement, founded by former supporters of the radical nationalist Lapua Movement—even though P. E. Svinhufvud, the party's first President of Finland, played a key role in halting the Lapua Movement and vanquishing their Mäntsälä rebellion; the result was a major defeat. The NCP broke ties with the Patriotic People's Movement in 1934 under the newly elected party chair J.
K. Paasikivi, but was shut out from the Finnish Government until the outbreak of the Winter War in 1939 and only regained support. During the Winter War and the Continuation War in 1939–1944, the party took part in the war-time national unity governments and had strong support for its government policies. After the wars, the National Coalition Party sought to portray itself as a defender of democracy against the resurgent Finnish communists. Chair Paasikivi, who had advocated making more concessions to Soviet Union before the Winter War and taken a cautious line regarding cooperation with Germany before the Continuation War, acted first as Prime Minister of Finland and as President of Finland. Paasikivi is remembered as the formulator of Finnish foreign policy after World War II; the conflict between the NCP and the communist Finnish People's Democratic League culminated when President Paasikivi fired the communist Minister of the Interior Yrjö Leino, who had used the State Police to spy on the party's youth wing among other abuses.
In 1951, the party changed its official name from the original Kansallinen Kokoomuspuolue to the current Kansallinen Kokoomus. The 1950s were a time of ideological shifts, as the emphasis on individual liberty and free market reforms increased at the expense of social conservatism and maintenance of a strong government. A minor division in 1958 led to the formation of the Christian Democrats party. From 1966 to 1987, the party was in the opposition. By criticizing Finnish communists and President Urho Kekkonen of the Centre Party, the party had lost the President's trust—and thus governments formed by the Centre Party and left-wing parties followed one another. A new guard emerged within the NCP in the 1970s that sought to improve relations with long-serving President Kekkonen, their work was successful in the late 1970s. However though the NCP supported Kekkonen for president in 1978 and became the second largest party in the country in the 1979 parliamentary election, a spot in the government continued to elude the NCP until the end of Kekkonen's time in office.
During the long years in opposition, the party's support grew and in 1987 it attained the best parliamentary election result in its history so far. Harri Holkeri became the party's fi
Parliament of Finland
The Parliament of Finland is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906. In accordance with the Constitution of Finland, sovereignty belongs to the people, that power is vested in the Parliament; the Parliament consists of 200 members, 199 of whom are elected every four years from 13 multi-member districts electing 7-36 using the proportional d'Hondt method. In addition, there is one member from Åland. Legislation may be initiated by either the one of the members of Parliament; the Parliament passes legislation, decides on the state budget, approves international treaties, supervises the activities of the government. It may bring about the resignation of the Finnish Government, override presidential vetoes, alter the constitution. To make changes to the constitution, amendments must be approved by two successive parliaments, with an election cycle in between, or passed as an emergency law with a 166/200 majority. Most MPs work in parliamentary groups; as of June 2018, the Parliament comprises ten parliamentary groups and one independent MP.
Since the establishment of the Parliament in 1905, the parliamentary majority has been held once by a single party – the Social Democrats in the 1916 election. Thus, for the Government to gain a majority in the Parliament, coalition governments are favored; these are formed by at least two of the three major parties: the Social Democrats and National Coalition. Ministers are but not MPs; the Parliament meets in the Parliament House, located in central Helsinki. The most recent parliamentary election took place on April 19, 2015; the Centre Party, the Finns Party, the National Coalition Party cooperated to form the Sipilä Cabinet, a centre-right coalition government. Following the split of the Finns Party in June 2017, Prime Minister Juha Sipilä terminated the government's co-operation with the Finns Party and proposed a new coalition consisting of three groups: the intact Centre and National Coalition parties, as well as Blue Reform, a new party consisting of former members of the Finns Party.
The Parliament's Finnish name is eduskunta, uncapitalized. This word is used to refer to Finland's legislature. In Swedish, the Parliament's name is riksdag, uncapitalized; this is the general term for the Swedish legislature. The Parliament of Finland was preceded by the Diet of Finland, which had succeeded the Riksdag of the Estates in 1809; when the unicameral Parliament of Finland was established by the Parliament Act in 1906, Finland was an autonomous grand duchy and principality under the Imperial Russian Tsar, who ruled as the Grand Duke, rather than as an absolute monarch. Universal suffrage and eligibility was implemented, making Finland the second country in the world to adopt universal suffrage. Women could both vote and run for office as equals, this applied to landless people, with no excluded minorities; the first election to the Parliament was arranged in 1907. The first Parliament had 19 female representatives, an unprecedented number at the time, which grew to 21 by 1913; the first years of the new Parliament were difficult.
Between 1908 and 1916 the power of the Finnish Parliament was completely neutralized by the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the so-called "sabre senate" of Finland, a bureaucratic government formed by Imperial Russian Army officers during the second period of "Russification". The Parliament was dissolved and new elections were held every year; the Finnish Parliament received the true political power for the first time after the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia. Finland declared its independence on December 6, 1917, in the winter and spring of 1918 endured a civil war in which the forces of the Senate, known as the White Guard, defeated the socialist Red Guard. After the war and republicans struggled over the country's form of government; the monarchists seemed to gain a victory when the Parliament elected a German prince as King of Finland in the fall of 1918. This decision was made on the basis of other Scandinavian countries having monarchs. However, the king-elect abdicated the throne after Imperial Germany was defeated in World War I, on November 11, 1918.
In the parliamentary election of 1919, the republican parties won three quarters of the seats, extinguishing the monarchists' ambitions. Finland became a republic with a parliamentary system, but in order to appease the monarchist parties, which favoured a strong head of state, extensive powers were granted to the President of Finland. For the duration of the Winter War in the 1930s and 1940s, the Parliament was temporarily moved to Kauhajoki; the Constitution of 1919, which instituted a parliamentary system, did not undergo any major changes for 70 years. Although the government was responsible to the Parliament, the President wielded considerable authority, used to its full extent by long-standing President Urho Kekkonen; as the Constitution implemented strong protections for political minorities, most changes in legislation and state finances could be blocked by a qualified minority of one third. This, in conjunction with the inability of some of the parties to enter into coalition governments, led to weak, short-lived cabinets.
During President Mauno Koivisto's tenure in the 1980s, cabinets sitting for the whole parliamentary term became the norm. At the same time, the ability of qualified minorities to block legislation was removed and the powers of the Parliament wer
Matti Taneli Vanhanen is a Finnish politician, Prime Minister of Finland from 2003 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Centre Party, in the second half of 2006 he was President of the European Council. In his earlier career he was a journalist. Vanhanen is the son of professor Tatu Anni Tiihonen. Vanhanen studied political science at the University of Helsinki, graduating as a Master of Social Sciences in 1989, he was chairman of the Centre Party Youth League from 1980 to 1983. He served as a member of the Espoo City Council from 1981 to 1984. Vanhanen used to work as a journalist, he was an editor-in-chief at the local newspaper Kehäsanomat. In a column in Suomenmaa, he condemned the Baltic Star pro-Estonian independence demonstration held in Helsinki in July 1985, calling the demonstration "provocative". Vanhanen was elected to the Finnish Parliament in 1991; as a member of Parliament he was interested in ecological issues. For instance, Vanhanen spoke against the building of a fifth nuclear power plant in 1992, at the same time as serving on the board of electricity corporation Fortum.
He served on the Parliamentary Environment Committee 1991–1995, was chair of the Parliamentary Grand Committee 2000–2001. He was vice-chair of the Centre Party Parliamentary group 1994–2001, Deputy Chairman of the Centre Party 2000–2003. Another important topic for Vanhanen was security policy; as a specialist on the European Union he was a member of the European Union Constitutional Convention. There he criticised the president of the convention, former French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, as authoritarian. Vanhanen has said that he is unenthusiastic about European co-operation, that he is an "EU pragmatist", so he may be considered a eurosceptic when compared to his EU-enthusiast predecessor Paavo Lipponen. Vanhanen resigned from the Constitutional Convention in 2003 when he became Minister of Defense in the cabinet of Prime Minister Anneli Jäätteenmäki. After Jäätteenmäki's resignation, Vanhanen was elected Prime Minister and his first cabinet was formed; as a politician, Vanhanen is considered to be part of the liberal wing of the old agrarian Central Party, along with the two other Party ministers from Uusimaa region.
His government cut the top state income tax rate from 35.5% to 33.5% in 2005 and 32.5% in 2006. The corporate tax rate was lowered to 26% and capital gains to 28%, though at the same time dividends were made taxable. Vanhanen has said; as the Centre Party candidate, Vanhanen challenged President Tarja Halonen in the 2006 Finnish presidential election. He received 18.6% of the vote, coming third to the National Coalition Party's Sauli Niinistö and Social Democrat and incumbent Tarja Halonen, thus did not qualify for the runoff. Vanhanen expressed his support for Niinistö in the runoff election against his coalition partner's candidate Halonen; the presidential election, co-operation between Centre Party and National Coalition Party, proved to be a major strain on the government coalition between the Centre Party and Social Democrats. The flashpoint came in March, when the Centre Party demanded national agricultural subsidies to cover farmers' losses when the Finnish exception in the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy was about to expire.
At the end of the crisis Vanhanen told his parliamentary group that taxpayers would cover ninety percent or about 100 million euros in losses. After the March 2007 election the Centre Party narrowly remained the largest party after losing four seats; however their coalition partner, the SDP, lost eight seats and the centre-right National Coalition Party gained ten. Vanhanen's second cabinet was formed on a centre-right basis, with minor partners the Green League and the Swedish People's Party. A scandal involving Vanhanen's second cabinet began rolling in May 2008, after the leader of the Centre Party's parliamentary group Timo Kalli said publicly that he would not reveal information about his campaign finances, because such disclosure was not required. After a media backlash, Kalli gave up his secrecy and listed a group of businessmen known as "Kehittyvien maakuntien Suomi", who had financed the Centre Party. Centre Party links with KMS were suspected, as one address of the organisation belonged to a party official.
It was revealed that the organisation had been formed in the Centre Party's general secretary's office. After the Russian response to the Georgian invasion of South Ossetia, Vanhanen said that Finland would rethink its security. Vanhanen's cabinet proposed raising the retirement age from 63 to 65 years, his proposal was fiercely opposed by the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions, affiliated with the SDP. In December 2009, Vanhanen announced that he would step down as chair of the Centre Party at its June 2010 convention. Mari Kiviniemi was chosen to the position and she inherited the position as Prime Minister. In September 2010 Vanhanen started as the head of the Family Business Network Finland and left the parliament. In 2010, the Finnish police investigated whether Vanhanen had been wrong not to disqualify himself in certain cabinet decisions on financial contributions to an organisation affiliated with the Centre Party, which had financed Vanhanen's presidential campaign; because the charges concerned Vanhanen's actions while in office, the decision whether he should be prosecuted fell to the Constitutional Law Committee of the
Judicial system of Finland
Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. This is achieved through the judicial system of Finland; the Finnish judicial system is organized under the Ministry of Justice, consists of the independent courts of law and administrative courts the prosecution service the enforcement authorities, who see to the enforcement of judgments the prison service and the probation service, who see to the enforcement of custodial sentences, the Bar Association and the other avenues of legal aid. The Finnish legal system originated during the period before Swedish rule; the traditional system of tings for criminal cases and civil disputes continued after conquest and the country's first court of appeals was established at Turku in 1634. Olaus Petri's The Rules for Judges unified legal system since the 1530s and the law concerning the judicial procedure, the Code of Judicial Procedure, was instituted as part of the legal codification of 1734.
Since the Code has undergone numerous changes. Nowadays, the Finnish courts are divided into two main branches — general courts dealing with civil suits and criminal cases, administrative courts regulating the actions of the administration and litigations between individuals and the administration; this division dates back to the administrative procedure of the 19th centuries. This division was formalized in 1918 when two sections of the Senate became the newly independent country's two highest courts; the Senate Department of Justice became the Supreme Court, part of the Senate Finance Department was the basis of the Supreme Administrative Court. The two court systems are separate, they have no jurisdiction over one another; the establishment of the two courts was confirmed by the Constitution Act of 1919. Overseeing the system of justice are the Chancellor of Justice and the Parliamentary Ombudsman. Although these two officials have parallel functions and each is required to submit an annual report of their activities to Parliament, the Chancellor of Justice is appointed for life by the President and is a non-voting member of the Government, whereas the Parliamentary Ombudsman is chosen for a four-year term by the Parliament.
Both officials receive complaints from citizens about the conduct of civil servants, on their own may investigate all public officials and may order prosecutors to proceed against them. The Chancellor of Justice supervises advocates. Both officials may call any Finnish authorities to render such assistance; as in the other Nordic countries, there is no constitutional court. Issues dealt with by a court of this kind elsewhere are handled by the Parliament's Constitutional Committee. Finnish thinking on criminal policy, as it was evolved by the 1980s, regards the punishment of offenders as society's reproach to the criminal. In the abstract, the type and the length of punishment prescribed by law are considered indicative of the norms of society regarding the seriousness of the offense and the potential threat posed to society by the offender. In practical terms, punishments are standardized, they are imposed for all categories of crimes, in the interest of ensuring equality in the application of the law.
For this reason, the penal code restricts the discretionary power of the courts in imposing sentences. Imprisonment is not regarded as benefiting the offender, nor is the length of time in an institution to be set on the basis of need for treatment. Thus, the tendency has been to rely on light punishment on fines, to emphasize short sentences of a few weeks or months. In addition to ensuring that sentences are equal and proportional, the penal code advises that sentences imposed should not cause the "unregulated accumulation of sanctions," that is, when assessing punishment, courts should avoid several sanctions' being imposed - such as dismissal from office, or revocation of a driver's permit - as the result of a single offense; the courts are expected to ensure that punishment is not extended indirectly to the offender's family. The tendency since the early 1970s has been to decriminalize a number of actions indictable under the penal code; the modifications in the code reflected changing priorities in assessing the seriousness of criminal conduct, changing norms of social behavior, an attempt to distinguish between premeditated crime and spontaneous actions.
Among the acts decriminalized were creating a public disturbance because of drunkenness as well as certain offenses against property, such as petty theft. Homosexual acts between consenting adults ceased to be regarded as a criminal offense. Stiff penalties for offenses against persons, threats of violence against persons, driving under influence remained unaffected, however. Finland has been less willing than other Scandinavian countries to replace punishment with other measures, such as treatment-oriented institutions for repeat offenders. Under legislation enacted in 1931, offenders "dangerous to private or public safety" could be confined in a separate institution for recidivists after their sentences had expired. In 1971 the law was amended so that property offenses could no longer be considered grounds for indeterminate incarceration, conditions under which violent offenders could be so confined were more narrowly defined; as a result, the number of offenders held in internment of any kind fell from nearly 400 in the 1960s to fewer than 10 in 1984.
Although indefinite detention remained legal, this provision was not enforced after the mid-1970s. The de facto basic degree for a legal professional in Finla