Tanzania the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania; the first humans known lived in Pliocene Tanzania 6 million years ago. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them. In the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia.
These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 1,700 years ago. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I; the mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania; the United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic and religious groups; the sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, some government ministries are located.
Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. Tanzania is densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi; the eastern shore is humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area; the Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa; the country does not have a de jure official language.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it comprises the first three letters of the two states, "Tan" and "Zan" as well as the only two vowels in the names of two states, "I" and "a" to form Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga and nyika, creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness", it is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika. The name of Zanzibar comes from "zenji", the name for a local people, the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.
The indigenous populations of eastern Africa are thought to be the linguistically isolated Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania, they are ancestral to the Iraqw and Burunge. Based on linguistic evidence, there may have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago; these movements took place at the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the p
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Mara Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Musoma. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,743,830, lower than the pre-census projection of 1,963,460. For 2002-2012, the region's 2.5 percent average annual population growth rate was the thirteenth highest in the country. It was the twelfth most densely populated region with 80 people per square kilometer. == The neighboring regions are Mwanza Region and Simiyu Region, Arusha Region, Kagera Region. To the northeast, the Mara Region borders Narok Migori County in Kenya; the Mara Region is the home of Julius Nyerere. The Mara Region was the birthplace of Benga music; the Mara Region is the ancestral homeland to the following peoples: Luo Jita Ruri Zanaki, Kurya Kabwa Kiroba Simbiti Ngoreme Kwaya Nata Ikoma Isenye Ikizu Sizaki Sukuma Datooga Kine Hacha SurwaUnder occupying British rule, the Mara region was a district called the Lake Province, which became the Lake Region after independence in 1961.
The Mara region is located in the northern part of mainland Tanzania. It is located between latitudes 1° 0’ and 2° 31’ and between longitudes 33° 10’ and 35° 15’, it contains 30,150 sq kilometers 10,584 sq kilometers of such being water area. To the north the Mara region borders Kenya, it is bordered by the Arusha region to its east, Shinyanga region to its south, as well as the Mwanza region in the southwest and west. There are six administrative districts within the region: Musoma Rural, Musoma Urban, Serengeti and Rorya; the maximum temperature of the region is 29.32℃ and minimum of 27.68℃, with an average of 28.50℃. The Mara region experiences a bimodal rainfall pattern, consisting of two rainy seasons and two dry seasons; the long rainfall period last between February until June. The short rainfall period last between June; the Mara region can be divided into 3 climatic zones. The northern zone resides in the Tarime district as well as parts of the Serengeti district. On average, it receives annual rainfall of 1,250-2,000 mm/year.
The central zone includes eastern parts of Serengeti. It receives an annual rainfall of 900-1300 mm/year; the Lowland zone covers much of the lake shores. This zone receives 700-900 mm/year; the Mara region is covered with natural vegetation, but there are large areas for cultivation. The most prevalent landscape seen in the natural vegetation is the “savannah type” most found in areas that receive annual rainfall between 900-1200 mms/year; the Serengeti plains consist of savannah type vegetation with predominant forest vegetation, but scattered woodlands and wooded grasslands. The northern zone, receiving high annual rainfall, is composed of the humid forest; the lowland zones with less annual rainfall consist of wooded grassland and bushland of dense thickets.14,750 sq kilometers of land is occupied by the Serengeti National Park. It is located at the border of the Mara Region, it was established in 1951, contains the vast and astonishing concentration of plain animals left anywhere in Africa.
Lake Victoria borders the Mara Region of Tanzania. The lake has a surface area 68,800 square km, its coastline expands over 3,220 km, it is the Nile's principle water reservoir. Lake Victoria has groups of islands. There are a plethora of over 200 species of fish, however economically; the Mara Region is home to the Serengeti National Park, one of the world's most famous national parks. Listed as a World Heritage Site, the national park occupies a large area of grasslands and woodlands and is home to a diverse range of wildlife, it attracts close to 150,000 tourists every year. The sanctuary is home to more than a million wildebeest, 200,000 zebras, 300,000 Thomson's gazelles. Apart from conventional tourism in the park, there is a range of ecotourism opportunities available in the Mara Region. Julius Nyerere- the first president of both Tanganyika and Tanzania, attended Mwisenge Primary School in Musoma Joseph Warioba- Tanzania's sixth prime minister and fourth vice president Stephen Wassira- politician Maria Nyerere- Tanzania's first first lady Daniel Owino Misiani- Tanzanian musician Academics: Ibrahim Juma- Tanzanian High Court judge Prof. Philemon Sarungi- Tanzania's first Orthopaedic SurgeonAthletes: Dickson Marwa Mkami- Tanzanian long-distance runner Mbwana Samata- football athlete Amri Kiemba- football athlete The region is administratively divided into seven districts: For parliamentary elections, Tanzania is divided into constituencies.
As of the 2010 elections the Mara Region had seven constituencies: Bunda Constituency and Mwibara Constituency in Bunda District. Musoma Mjini Constituency in Musoma Urban District, Musoma Vijijini Constituency in Musoma Rural District, Rorya Constituency in Rorya District Serengeti Constituency in Serengeti District Tarime Constituency in Tarime District Serengeti National Park