SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Subah

A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire. The word is derived from Persian; the governor/ruler of a Subah was known as a subahdar, which became subedar to refer to an officer in the Indian Army. The subahs were established by badshah Akbar during his administrative reforms of years 1572-1580. Subahs were divided into districts. Sarkars were further divided into Mahals, his successors, most notably Aurangzeb, expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests. As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British. In modern context subah is a word used for province in Urdu language. After the administrative reforms of Akbar, the Mughal empire was divided into 12 subahs: Kabul, Multan, Agra, Illahabad, Bangalah, Malwa and Gujarat. After the conquest of Deccan, he created three more subahs there: Berar and Ahmadnagar. At the end of Akbar's reign, the number of subahs was thus 15, it was increased to 17 during the reign of Jahangir.

Orissa was created as a separate subah, carved out of Bangalah in 1607. The number of subahs increased to 22 under Shah Jahan. In his 8th regnal year, Shah Jahan separated the sarkar of Telangana from Berar and made it into a separate Subah. In 1657, it was merged with Zafarabad Bidar subah. Agra was renamed Akbarabad 1629 and Delhi became Shahjahanbad in 1648. Kashmir was carved out of Thatta out of Multan and Bidar out of Ahmadnagar. For some time Qandahar was a separate subah under the Mughal Empire but it was lost to Persia in 1648. Aurangzeb added Bijapur and Golkonda as new subahs. There were 22 subahs during his reign; these were Kabul, Lahore, Delhi, Avadh, Bihar, Orissa, Ajmer, Berar, Aurangabad, Thatta, Bijapur and Haidarabad. During the reign of Bahadur Shah, Arcot became a Mughal subah in 1710. In modern usage in Urdu language, the term is used as a word for province, while the word riyasat is used for state; the terminologies are based on administrative structure of British India, derived from the Mughal administrative structure.

In modern times, the term subah is used in Pakistan, where its four provinces are called "Subah" in Urdu language. The twelve subahs created as a result of the administrative reform by Akbar the Great: The subahs which added were: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ainakbarimap.jpg Keay, John. India: a History. Grove Press, New York. Markovits, Claude. A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London

Garden Island (Michigan)

Garden Island is an uninhabited 4,990 acre island located in the Beaver Island archipelago in northern Lake Michigan. It is wholly owned by the U. S. state of Michigan and is overseen by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources as part of the Beaver Islands State Wildlife Research Area. It is accessible by private boat; the Native American name for the island is Minis Gitigaan, which has become Garden Island by direct translation. The Island's Native American cemetery was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in March 1978. Garden Island's maximum length, from northwest to southeast, is five miles; the island is not inhabited on a year-round basis. Some of these native Islanders lived on the island year-round, others lived there during the warmer months. An increasing number of Anishinaabe from the mainland and Beaver Island owned farms on the Garden Island after the treaties of 1836 and 1847, planting corn and squash. Other Anishinaabe worked as fishermen; this Native settlement shrank during the early 1900s.

Much of the land reverted to the state of Michigan as a result of the nonpayment of property taxes. The state never properly explained property tax law to the islanders. Other patches of land were abandoned; the last Garden Island resident, Peter Monatou, died in the 1940s. Most of the old-growth timber on Garden Island was cut and sawn by a short-lived sawmill that operated on the island in 1912-1913. A small town, now a true ghost town, was named "Success", Michigan. In 1978, Garden Island was the location for the climax of a Girl Scout Wider Opportunity called Scouts on Survival'78. 48 Senior Girl Scouts ages 15 –18 were brought to Michigan State University to study survival techniques. After two weeks of classes, the girls spent a week at Rose Lake Park practicing their new skills, a week on Garden Island. On Garden Island, they were placed in groups of 8; each girl had only a knife and steel, a space blanket. The girls survived by building lean-tos, setting snares, fishing with handmade fishing hooks and twine, foraging for wild plants.

Garden Island is surrounded by cool, shallow water, making the area ideal for sport and commercial fishing. The island itself is low and spotted with many ponds and wetlands; the island is well known as a place of wetland plants. Although the island is uninhabited year-round, a Native cemetery on the island, the Garden Island Indian Cemetery, continues in active use and contains more than 3,500 burials, most of them unmarked; the cemetery is notable for a number of "spirit houses" marking burial sites. The cemetery land is owned by a nonprofit group that keeps the site protected and open to all native peoples. Keewaydinoquay Peschel

Abbas Akhavan

Abbas Akhavan is a Toronto-based visual artist. His recent work consists of site-specific installations, sculpture and performance in response to the environment in which the work is created. Akhavan was born in Tehran, Iran in 1977, he received his Bachelor of Fine Arts from Concordia University in 2004 and his Master of Fine Arts from the University of British Columbia in 2006. Akhavan's family immigrated to Canada during the Iran–Iraq War, his work has gained international acclaim, exhibiting in museums and biennales all over North America and the Middle East. He is the recipient of the Kunstpreis Berlin, the Abraaj Group Art Prize, the Sobey Art Award. Domestic spaces, as negotiated between hospitality and hostility, have been an ongoing area of research in Akhavan's practice, his works are created in direct response to the situation he finds himself working in, whether that might be a specific structure, geographic region, or community. His recent work has moved past the confines of home to the surrounding areas, including an examination of domesticated landscapes.

Akhavan has exhibited work at the Western Front in Vancouver, the Delfina Foundation in London, the Bergen Museum in Norway, ABC Art Berlin Contemporary. Kathleen Ritter writes about his site-specific audio project Landscape: for the birds at the Vancouver Art Gallery in 2009: "an extension of Akhavan's previous projects, where he has, for example, places a pile of shoes at the foot of a gallery's door, hung a white sheet from a gallery's window, planted a live wall of hedges inside gallery and blocked off a gallery's entrance with a wall of sandbags resembling a military blockade; the installations reinterpret the gallery entrance as a site of special significance, drawing attention to the threshold between expected and unexpected sites of cultural activity.". "Akhavan's art is a thoughtful, at times mournful, interrogation of our habits of perception, underscoring the provisional nature of our understanding of the world around us." Akhavan was awarded the Kunstpreis Berlin in 2012 and the Abraaj Group Art Prize in 2014.

In 2015, Akhavan won the $50,000 Sobey Art Award, given to an artist under 40 whose work has been displayed in a public or commercial art gallery. The Sobey Art Award's six-member curatorial panel said in a statement that they "wanted to underline the generosity and empathy at play in Abbas's work", that "through a fugitive practice that resists fixed meaning, Akhavan reasserts that power and engagement are always relevant subjects for examination." Foundation Marcelino Botin with Mona Hatoum, Le Printemps de Septembre Trinity Square Video Western Front, Fogo Islands The Watermill Center The Delfina Foundation Variations on a Garden, Mercer Union, Toronto Burning down the house, Gwangju Biennale, Gwangju Variations on a Garden, Galerie Mana, Istanbul Study for a Glasshouse, Peel Art Gallery and Archives Turkey Green House, Western Front, Vancouver Study for a Garden, Delfina Foundation, London Material Information, Bergen Museum, Norway Tactics for Here & Now, Bucharest Biennale, Bucharest Tools for Conviviality, Power Plant, Toronto Beacon, Darling Foundry, Montreal Phantomhead, Performa 11, New York Seeing is Believing, KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin.

About painting, ABC Art Berlin Contemporary, Berlin