A bedroom is a room of a house, castle, hotel, apartment, duplex or townhouse where people sleep. A typical western bedroom contains as bedroom furniture one or two beds (ranging from a crib for an infant, a single or twin bed for a toddler, teenager, or single adult to bigger sizes like a full, queen, king or California king, a clothes closet, a nightstand, a dresser. Except in bungalows, ranch style homes, or one-storey motels, bedrooms are on one of the floors of a dwelling, above ground level. In larger Victorian houses it was common to have accessible from the bedroom a boudoir for the lady of the house and a dressing room for the gentleman. Attic bedrooms exist in some houses; the slope of the rafters supporting a pitched roof makes them inconvenient. In houses where servants were living in they used attic bedrooms. In the 14th century the lower class slept on mattresses that were stuffed with broom straws. During the 16th century mattresses stuffed with feathers started to gain popularity, with those who could afford them.
The common person was doing well. In the 18th century cotton and wool started to become more common; the first coil spring mattress was not invented until 1871. The most common and most purchased mattress is the innerspring mattress, though a wide variety of alternative materials are available including foam, latex and silk; the variety of firmness choices range from soft to a rather firm mattress. A bedroom may have bunk beds. A chamber pot kept under the bed or in a nightstand was usual in the period before modern domestic plumbing and bathrooms in dwellings. Furniture and other items in bedrooms vary depending on taste, local traditions and the socioeconomic status of an individual. For instance, a master bedroom may include a bed of a specific size. Built-in closets are less common in Europe than in North America. An individual’s bedroom is a reflection of their personality, as well as social class and socioeconomic status, is unique to each person. However, there are certain items. Mattresses have a bed set to raise the mattress off the floor and the bed provides some decoration.
There are many different types of mattresses. Night stands are popular, they are used to put various items such as an alarm clock or a small lamp. In the times before bathrooms existed in dwellings bedrooms contained a washstand for tasks of personal hygiene. In the 2010s, having a television set in a bedroom is common as well. 43% of American children from ages 3 to 4 have a television in their bedrooms. Along with television sets many bedrooms have computers, video game consoles, a desk to do work. In the late 20th century and early 21st century the bedroom became a more social environment and people started to spend a lot more time in their bedrooms than in the past. Bedding used in northern Europe is different from that used in North America and other parts of Europe. In Japan futons are common. In addition to a bed, a child's bedroom may include a small closet or dressers, a toy box or computer game console, bookcase or other items. Many houses in North America have at least two bedrooms—usually a master bedroom and one or more bedrooms for either the children or guests.
In some jurisdictions there are basic features that a room must have in order to qualify as a bedroom. In many states, such as Alaska, bedrooms are not required to have closets and must instead meet minimum size requirements. A closet by definition is a small space used to store things. In a bedroom, a closet is most used for clothes and other small personal items that one may have. Walk in closets are more popular today and vary in size. However, in the past wardrobes have been the most prominent. A wardrobe is a tall rectangular shaped cabinet that clothes can be hung in. Clothes are kept in a dresser. Nicer clothes are kept in the closet because they can be hung up while leisure clothing and undergarments are stored in the dresser. In buildings with multiple self-contained housing units, the number of bedrooms varies widely. While many such units have at least one bedroom—frequently, these units have at least two—some of these units may not have a specific room dedicated for use as a bedroom.
Sometimes, a master bedroom is connected to a dedicated bathroom called an ensuite. Bedrooms have a door for privacy and a window for ventilation. In larger bedrooms, a small desk and chair or an upholstered chair and a chest of drawers may be used. In Western countries, some large bedrooms, called master bedrooms, may contain a bathroom. Where space allows bedrooms may have televisions and / or video players, in some cases a personal computer. Cabin Comforter Laundry room Nursery
An overhang in architecture is a protruding structure which may provide protection for lower levels. Overhangs on two sides of Pennsylvania Dutch barns protect doors and other lower level structure. Overhangs on all four sides of barns is common in Swiss architecture. An overhanging eave is the edge of a roof, protruding outwards, beyond the side of the building to provide weather protection. Overhangs are common in medieval Indian architecture the Mughal architecture, where it is known as Chhajja supported by an ornate corbel and seen in Hindu temple architecture as well, it was adapted into the Indo-Saracenic architecture which flourished during the British Raj. Extensive overhangs are incorporated the early Buddhist architecture, seen in early Buddhist temples became part of the Tibetan architecture, Chinese architecture, the traditional Japanese architecture, where it became a striking feature. In late medieval and Renaissance Europe, the upper storeys of timber framed houses overhung the storey below.
This technique had been superseded by the start of the 18th century, as building in brick or stone became common. It was one of the most common features of American colonial architecture of New England and Connecticut, starting 17th century, which had an overhanging or jettied second story, which ran across the front of the house, sometimes around it; these are known as a garrison houses. In early 20th century it was adapted into the Prairie School architecture, with architects like Frank Lloyd Wright, thus made way into the modern architecture as well. An overhang may refer to an awning or other protective elements
A boudoir is a woman's private sitting room or salon in a furnished accommodation between the dining room and the bedroom, but can refer to a woman's private bedroom. The term derives from the French verb bouder or adjective boudeur —the room was a space for sulking in, or one to put away or withdraw to. A cognate of the English "bower" the boudoir formed part of the private suite of rooms of a "lady" or upper-class woman, for bathing and dressing, adjacent to her bedchamber, being the female equivalent of the male cabinet. In periods, the boudoir was used as a private drawing room, was used for other activities, such as embroidery or spending time with one's romantic partner. English-language usage varies between countries, is now historical. In the United Kingdom, in the period when the term was most used, a boudoir was a lady's evening sitting room, was separate from her morning room, her dressing room; as this multiplicity of rooms with overlapping functions suggests, boudoirs were found only in grand houses.
In the United States, in the same era, boudoir was an alternative term for dressing room, favored by those who felt that French terms conferred more prestige. In Caribbean English, a boudoir is the front room of the house where women entertain family and friends; the term boudoir has come to denote a style of furnishing for the bedroom, traditionally described as ornate or busy. The plethora of links available on the Internet to furnishing sites using the term boudoir tend to focus on Renaissance and French inspired bedroom styles. In recent times, they have been used to describe the'country cottage' style with whitewashed-style walls and heavy bed furniture, deep bedding; the term "boudoir" may be ascribed to a genre of photography. Boudoir photography is not a new concept and numerous examples including images of Clara Bow, Mae West and Jean Harlow photographed in a boudoir style from the 1920s through the 1940s. Shot in a photographer's studio or luxury hotel suites, it has become fashionable to create a set of sensual or sexually suggestive images of women in indoor "boudoir style" environments.
The most common manifestation of contemporary boudoir photography is to take variations of candid and posed photographs of the subject clothed or in lingerie. Nudity is more implied than explicit. Commercially the genre is derived from a market for brides to surprise their future husbands by gifting the images on or before their wedding day. Other motivations or inspiration for boudoir photography shoots include anniversaries, Valentine's Day, weight loss regimes, other form of body change or alteration and for servicemen and women overseas. Boudoir photography may, in some cases, be distinguished from other photography genres such as glamour photography, fine art nude photography and erotic photography; the Marquis de Sade in his literary works helped develop a reputation in this small room dedicated to the privacy of female talks. Since the success of his book Philosophy in the Bedroom, the small sitting room or salon has a scandalous reputation combined with those of all exchanges and frolics.
Harem Ladyfinger, which translates as boudoirs in French
A toilet, in this sense, is a small room used for accessing the sanitation fixture for urination and defecation. Toilet rooms include a sink with soap for handwashing, as this is important for personal hygiene; this room is known as a "bathroom" in American English, a "loo" in British English, a "washroom" in Canadian English, by many other names across the English-speaking world. "Toilet" referred to personal grooming and came by metonymy to be used for the personal rooms used for bathing, so on. It was euphemistically used for the private rooms used for urination and defecation. By metonymy, it came to refer directly to the fixtures in such rooms. At present, the word refers to such fixtures and using "toilet" to refer to the room or activity is somewhat blunt and may be considered indiscreet, it is, however, a useful term since it is understood by English-speakers across the world, whereas more polite terms vary by region. "Lavatory" was common in the 19th century and is still broadly understood, although it is taken as quite formal in American English, more refers to public toilets in Britain.
The contraction "lav" is used in British English. In American English, the most common term for a private toilet is "bathroom", regardless of whether a bathtub or shower is present. In British English, "bathroom" is a common term but is reserved for private rooms used for bathing. Other terms are used, some as part of a regional dialect; some forms of jargon have their own terms for toilets, including "lavatory" on commercial airplanes, "head" on ships, "latrine" in military contexts. Larger houses have a secondary room with a toilet and sink for use by guests; these are known as "powder rooms" or "half baths" in North America, "cloakrooms" in Britain. The main item in the room is the sanitation fixture itself, the toilet; this may be the flushing sort, plumbed into a cistern operated by a ballcock. Or it may be a dry model; the toilet room may include a plunger, a rubber or plastic tool mounted on a handle, used to remove blockages from the toilet drain. Toilets have a wall mirror above the sink for grooming, checking one's appearance and/or makeup.
Some toilets have a cupboard where personal hygiene products may be kept. If it is a flush toilet the room also includes a toilet brush for cleaning the bowl. Methods of anal cleansing vary between cultures. If the norm is to use paper typically the room will have a toilet roll holder, with the toilet paper hanging either next to or away from the wall. If instead, people are used to cleaning themselves with water the room may include a bidet shower or a bidet. Toilets such as the Washlet, popular in Japan, provide an automatic washing function. A sink, with soap, is present in the room or outside it, to ensure easy handwashing. Above the sink there mounted on the wall, or on a medicine cabinet; this cabinet. Typically contains prescription and over the counter drugs, first aid supplies, grooming equipment for shaving or makeup. Into the modern era, humans practiced open defecation or employed latrines or outhouses over a pit toilet in rural areas and used chamber pots emptied into streets or drains in urban ones.
The Indus Valley Civilization had advanced sanitation, which included common use of private flush toilets. The ancient Greeks and Romans had public toilets and, in some cases, indoor plumbing connected to rudimentary sewer systems; the latrines of medieval monasteries were known as reredorters. In the early modern period, "night soil" from municipal outhouses became an important source of nitrates for creating gunpowder. 19th century refinements of the outhouse included the pail closet. Indoor toilets were at first a luxury of the rich and only spread to the lower classes; as late as the 1890s, building regulations in London did not require working-class housing to have indoor toilets. In some cases, there was a transitional stage where toilets were built into the house but accessible only from the outside. After World War I, all new housing in London and its suburbs had indoor toilets. Bathrooms became standard than toilets, but entered working-class houses at around the same time. For plumbing reasons, flush toilets have been located in or near residences' bathrooms.
In upper-class homes, the first modern lavatories were washrooms with sinks located near the bedrooms. In Britain, there was long a prejudice against having the toilet located in the bathroom proper: in 1904, Hermann Muthesius noted that "a lavatory is never found in an English bathroom; when toilets were placed within bathrooms, the original reason was cost savings. In 1876 Edward William Godwin, a progressive architect-designer, drew u
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. A modern middle-class residential kitchen is equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, worktops and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher, other electric appliances; the main functions of a kitchen are to store and cook food. The room or area may be used for dining and laundry; the design and construction of kitchens is a huge market all over the world. The United States are expected to generate $47,730m in the kitchen furniture industry for 2018 alone. Commercial kitchens are found in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and workplace facilities, army barracks, similar establishments; these kitchens are larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen. For example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine.
In some instances commercial kitchen equipment such as commercial sinks are used in household settings as it offers ease of use for food preparation and high durability. In developed countries, commercial kitchens are subject to public health laws, they are inspected periodically by public-health officials, forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying running water to private homes. Food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs; the houses in Ancient Greece were of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen.
Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room next to a bathroom, both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils. In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities had no kitchen of their own; some had small mobile bronze stoves. Wealthy Romans had well-equipped kitchens. In a Roman villa, the kitchen was integrated into the main building as a separate room, set apart for practical reasons of smoke and sociological reasons of the kitchen being operated by slaves; the fireplace was on the floor, placed at a wall—sometimes raised a little bit—such that one had to kneel to cook. There were no chimneys. Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building; the "kitchen area" was between the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was more than one kitchen. In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens; the kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them.
In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America. In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke; the first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period; these stoves, called kamado, were made of clay and mortar. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come, with only minor modifications. Like in Europe, the wealthier homes had a separate building. A kind of open fire pit fired with charcoal, called irori, remained in use as the secondary stove in most homes until the Edo period. A kamado was used to cook the staple food, for instance rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source.
The kitchen remained unaffected by architectural advances throughout the Middle Ages. European medieval kitchens were dark and sooty places, whence their name "smoke kitchen". In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire hearth in the middle of the room. In wealthy homes, the ground floor was used as a stable while the kitchen was located on the floor above, like the bedroom and the hall. In castles and monasteries, the living and working areas were separated. In some castles the kitchen was retained in the same structure, but servants were separated from nobles, by constructing separate spiral stone staircases for use of servants to bring food to upper levels; the kitchen might be separate from the great hall due to the smoke from cooking fires and the chance the fires may get out of control. Few medieval kitchens survive as they were "notoriously ephemeral structures". An extant example of such a medieval kitchen with servants
The phrase common room is used in British and Canadian English to describe a type of shared lounge, most found in dormitories, at universities, military bases, rest homes and minimum-security prisons. It is connected to several private rooms, may incorporate a bathroom. However, they may be found in day schools and sixth forms. Regular features include couches, coffee tables, other generic lounge furniture for socializing. Depending on its location and purpose of use, a common room may be known by another name. For instance, in mental hospitals, where access is restricted to the daytime hours, this type of room is called a "day room". In Singapore, the term refers to a bedroom without attached bathroom in an HDB apartment unit. Common rooms are mentioned in the Harry Potter series. Common Room Student lounge Media related to Common rooms at Wikimedia Commons