Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and relationship of the mind to the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigm issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness, the nature of particular mental states. Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events, mental functions, mental properties, the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, the relationship of the mind to the body. Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly. Dualism finds its entry into Western philosophy thanks to René Descartes in the 17th century. Substance dualists like Descartes argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, whereas property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.
Monism is the position that body are not ontologically distinct entities. This view was first advocated in Western philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th century BCE and was espoused by the 17th-century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. Physicalists argue that only entities postulated by physical theory exist, that mental processes will be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. Physicalists maintain various positions on the prospects of reducing mental properties to physical properties, the ontological status of such mental properties remains unclear. Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the mind. Neutral monists such as Ernst Mach and William James argue that events in the world can be thought of as either mental or physical depending on the network of relationships into which they enter, dual-aspect monists such as Spinoza adhere to the position that there is some other, neutral substance, that both matter and mind are properties of this unknown substance.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism. Most modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive physicalist or non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body; these approaches have been influential in the sciences in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences. Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states. Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the mind is not a separate substance, mental properties supervene on physical properties, or that the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable, cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science. Continued neuroscientific progress has helped to clarify some of these issues. Modern philosophers of mind continue to ask how the subjective qualities and the intentionality of mental states and properties can be explained in naturalistic terms.
The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes. The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, these stimuli cause changes in our mental states causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is how someone's propositional attitudes cause that individual's neurons to fire and muscles to contract.
These comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of mind from at least the time of René Descartes. Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between matter, it begins with the claim. One of the earliest known formulations of mind–body dualism was expressed in the eastern Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, which divided the world into purusha and prakriti; the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali presents an analytical approach to the nature of the mind. In Western Philosophy, the earliest discussions of dualist ideas are in the writings of Plato who maintained that humans' "intelligence" could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, their physical body. However, the best-known version of dualism is due to René Descartes, holds that the mind is a non-extended, non-physical substance, a "res cogitans". Descartes was the first to identify the mind with consciousness and self-awareness, to distinguish this from the brain, the seat of intelligence.
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Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity is a 2007 book by gender theorist and writer Julia Serano. The book is a transfeminist manifesto which makes the case that transphobia is rooted in sexism and that transgender activism is a feminist movement; the second edition of the book was published in March 2016. The book extensively discusses transmisogyny, misogyny toward trans women. Serano explores trans-objectification, trans-fascimilation, trans-sexualization, trans-interrogation, trans-erasure, trans-exclusion, trans-mystification, she argues that sexism in Western culture is a twofold phenomenon, comprising traditional sexism and oppositional sexism, “the belief that female and male are rigid, mutually exclusive categories”. Serano coins the term effemimania to describe the societal obsession with male and trans expressions of femininity—an obsession that she claims is rooted in transmisogyny. In a collection of essays, Serano deconstructs Western societal narratives about trans women, including those of academia and the media.
She cites her personal experiences as a lesbian trans woman, which differ from the predominant narrative of the heterosexual trans woman. Serano argues that "oppositional sexism" is a driving force behind cissexism and homophobia. In addition to oppositional sexism, she writes that traditional sexism is the second requirement for "maintaining a male-centered gender hierarchy."Serano uses the term cissexual assumption to describe the belief among cisgender people that everyone experiences gender identity in the same way. In her book, Serano argued that cisgender people, lacking discomfort with their gender assigned at birth, nor thinking of themselves as or wishing they could become a different gender, project that experience onto all other people. Thus, it is argued, they're assuming that everyone they meet is cisgender, "thus transforming cissexuality into a human attribute, taken for granted". Serano wrote that cissexual assumption is invisible to most cisgender people, but "those of us who are transsexual are excruciatingly aware of it."
Serano's argument of intrinsic inclinations was discussed in great detail in the book, taking the entirety of the sixth chapter, with much of the rest of the book relying on an understanding of this model in order to discuss the presence and place of trans women in feminism. The intrinsic inclinations model is an idea of gender and how there came to be the variation that exists amongst people in modern society; the idea that there are both biological and social factors at play in the variation that occurs in sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression is at the core of the intrinsic inclinations model, it is how Serano attempts to explain both the typical and atypical forms of each of the three traits. This model is built upon four basic tenets; the first tenet of this model, the model's core that everything that follows is built upon, is the fact that "subconscious sex, gender expression, sexual orientation represent separate gender inclinations that are determined independent of one another."
The assumption that these three things are determined individually allows for the natural variation that exists amongst people to be explained as it is now a matter of explaining individual traits rather than trying to explain things for a society as a whole, it allows this model to be able to explain exceptions to typical forms of gender expression without crushing the entire model. The second tenet of the model, where the model gets its name, is the assumption that "these gender inclinations are, to some extent, intrinsic to our persons... and remain intact despite societal influences and conscious attempts by individuals to purge, repress, or ignore them." Serano argues that it is because of the fact that these traits are occurring, the differences present in society represent the natural variation, found in numerous other species. The third tenet states that since there has not been one single factor, determined to cause any of these gender inclinations, these traits have multiple factors that determine and make up them, and, as such, a range of possible outcomes should be accepted rather than discrete classes.
The fourth and final tenet of this model states that "each of these inclinations correlates with physical set, resulting in a bimodal distribution pattern similar to that seen for other gender differences, such as height." This idea is what allows for the natural exceptions to gender expression to exist within the system without attempting to claim that they exist in as high of numbers as typical gender expression. In 2005, Serano's 36 page chapbook called On the Outside Looking In: A Trans Woman's Perspective on Feminism and the Exclusion of Trans Women from Lesbian and Women-only Spaces was published by Hot Tranny Action Press, it contains 4 essays. Updated versions of three of these are included in Whipping Girl. In the introduction to Whipping Girl, Serano says that she chose the title'to highlight the ways in which people who are feminine, whether they be female, and/or transgender, are universally demeaned compared with their masculine counterparts'
Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It is a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way; the effect is stronger for charged issues and for entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias is of particular current interest because of the increasing polarisation between left-wing and right-wing political viewpoints, the gullible acceptance of the current rapid spread of fake news. People tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization, belief perseverance, the irrational primacy effect and illusory correlation. A series of psychological experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring alternatives.
In certain situations, this tendency can bias people's conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way; however scientists can be prone to confirmation bias. Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in organizational contexts. Confirmation bias is called confirmatory bias. An alternative name is myside bias. Confirmation bias is a variation of the more general tendency of apophenia - the tendency to mistakenly perceive connections and meaning between unrelated things. Confirmation biases are effects in information processing, they differ from what is sometimes called the behavioral confirmation effect known as self-fulfilling prophecy, in which a person's expectations influence their own behavior, bringing about the expected result.
Some psychologists restrict the term confirmation bias to selective collection of evidence that supports what one believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Others apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one's existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory. Experiments have found that people tend to test hypotheses in a one-sided way, by searching for evidence consistent with their current hypothesis. Rather than searching through all the relevant evidence, they phrase questions to receive an affirmative answer that supports their theory, they look for the consequences that they would expect if their hypothesis were true, rather than what would happen if they were false. For example, someone using yes/no questions to find a number they suspect to be the number 3 might ask, "Is it an odd number?" People prefer this type of question, called a "positive test" when a negative test such as "Is it an number?" would yield the same information.
However, this does not mean. In studies where subjects could select either such pseudo-tests or genuinely diagnostic ones, they favored the genuinely diagnostic; the preference for positive tests in itself is not a bias, since positive tests can be informative. However, in combination with other effects, this strategy can confirm existing beliefs or assumptions, independently of whether they are true. In real-world situations, evidence is complex and mixed. For example, various contradictory ideas about someone could each be supported by concentrating on one aspect of his or her behavior, thus any search for evidence in favor of a hypothesis is to succeed. One illustration of this is the way the phrasing of a question can change the answer. For example, people who are asked, "Are you happy with your social life?" report greater satisfaction than those asked, "Are you unhappy with your social life?"Even a small change in a question's wording can affect how people search through available information, hence the conclusions they reach.
This was shown using a fictional child custody case. Participants read. Parent B had a mix of salient positive and negative qualities: a close relationship with the child but a job that would take them away for long periods of time; when asked, "Which parent should have custody of the child?" the majority of participants chose Parent B, looking for positive attributes. However, when asked, "Which parent should be denied custody of the child?" they looked for negative attributes and the majority answered that Parent B should be denied custody, implying that Parent A should have custody. Similar studies have demonstrated how people engage in a biased search for information, but that this phenomenon may be limited by a preference for genuine diagnostic tests. In an initial experiment, participants rated another person on the introversion–extroversion personality dimension on the basis of an interview, they chose the interview questions from a given list. When the i
The Freud Museum in London is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, located in the house where Freud lived with his family during the last year of his life. In 1938, after escaping Nazi annexation of Austria he came to London via Paris and stayed for a short while at 39 Elsworthy Road before moving to 20 Maresfield Gardens, where the museum is situated. Although he died a year in the same house, his daughter Anna Freud continued to stay there until her death in 1982, it was her wish. It was opened to the public in July 1986. Freud continued to work in London and it was here that he completed his book Moses and Monotheism, he maintained his practice in this home and saw a number of his patients for analysis. The centrepiece of the museum is the couch brought from Berggasse 19, Vienna on which his patients were asked to say whatever came to their mind without consciously selecting information, named the free association technique by him. There are two other Freud Museums, one in Vienna, another in Příbor, the Czech Republic, in the house where Sigmund Freud was born.
The latter was opened by four of Freud's great-grandsons. The museum is located at 20 Maresfield Gardens in one of London's suburbs; the ground floor of the museum houses Freud's study, library and the dining room. The museum shop is on ground floor as well; the first floor has a video room, Anna Freud's room and there is a temporary exhibitions room which hosts alternate contemporary art and Freud-themed exhibitions. Art installations use several rooms within the museum, such as the 2001/02 exhibition "A Visit to Freud’s" by Austrian photographer Uli Aigner. Many areas such as the kitchen and Anna Freud's consulting room are out of public view and have been converted into offices; the house had only finished being built in 1920 in the Queen Anne Style. A small sun room in a modern style was added at the rear by Ernst Ludwig Freud that same year. Freud was over eighty at this time, he died the following year, but the house remained in his family until his youngest daughter Anna Freud, a pioneer of child therapy, died in 1982.
The house has a well maintained garden, still much as Freud would have known it. The Freuds moved all household effects to London. There are Biedermeier chests and cupboards, a collection of 18th century and 19th century Austrian painted country furniture; the museum owns Freud's collection of Egyptian, Greek and Oriental antiquities, his personal library. The star exhibit in the museum is Freud's psychoanalytic couch, given to him by one of his patients, Madame Benvenisti, in 1890; this was restored at a cost of £5000 in 2013. The study and library were preserved by Anna Freud after her father's death; the bookshelf behind Freud's desk contains some of his favourite authors: not only Goethe and Shakespeare but Heine and Anatole France. Freud acknowledged that poets and philosophers had gained insights into the unconscious which psychoanalysis sought to explain systematically. In addition to the books, the library contains; the collection includes a portrait of Freud by Salvador Dalí. The museum organizes research and publication programmes and it has an education service which organises seminars and educational visits to the museum.
The museum is a member of the London Museums of Medicine. Sigmund Freud Museum A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière David Morgan Official website of the Freud Museum
Collective unconscious, a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts and by archetypes: universal symbols such as The Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, the Tree of Life, many more. Jung considered the collective unconscious to underpin and surround the unconscious mind, distinguishing it from the personal unconscious of Freudian psychoanalysis, he argued that the collective unconscious had profound influence on the lives of individuals, who lived out its symbols and clothed them in meaning through their experiences. The psychotherapeutic practice of analytical psychology revolves around examining the patient's relationship to the collective unconscious. Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Lionel Corbett argues that the contemporary terms "autonomous psyche" or "objective psyche" are more used today in the practice of depth psychology rather than the traditional term of the "collective unconscious."Critics of the collective unconscious concept have called it unscientific and fatalistic, or otherwise difficult to test scientifically.
Proponents suggest that it is borne out by findings of psychology and anthropology. The term "collective unconscious" first appeared in Jung's 1916 essay, "The Structure of the Unconscious"; this essay distinguishes between the "personal", Freudian unconscious, filled with sexual fantasies and repressed images, the "collective" unconscious encompassing the soul of humanity at large. In "The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology", Jung wrote: And the essential thing, psychologically, is that in dreams and other exceptional states of mind the most far-fetched mythological motifs and symbols can appear autochthonously at any time apparently, as the result of particular influences and excitations working on the individual, but more without any sign of them; these "primordial images" or "archetypes," as I have called them, belong to the basic stock of the unconscious psyche and cannot be explained as personal acquisitions. Together they make up that psychic stratum, called the collective unconscious.
The existence of the collective unconscious means that individual consciousness is anything but a tabula rasa and is not immune to predetermining influences. On the contrary, it is in the highest degree influenced by inherited presuppositions, quite apart from the unavoidable influences exerted upon it by the environment; the collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. It is the matrix of all conscious psychic occurrences, hence it exerts an influence that compromises the freedom of consciousness in the highest degree, since it is continually striving to lead all conscious processes back into the old paths. On October 19, 1936, Jung delivered a lecture "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious" to the Abernethian Society at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, he said: My thesis is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, of a personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche, there exists a second psychic system of a collective and impersonal nature, identical in all individuals.
This collective unconscious is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents. Jung linked the collective unconscious to'what Freud called "archaic remnants" – mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal and inherited shapes of the human mind', he credited Freud for developing his "primal horde" theory in Totem and Taboo and continued further with the idea of an archaic ancestor maintaining its influence in the minds of present-day humans. Every human being, he wrote, "however high his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche."As modern humans go through their process of individuation, moving out of the collective unconscious into mature selves, they establish a persona—which can be understood as that small portion of the collective psyche which they embody and identify with.
The collective unconscious exerts overwhelming influence on the minds of individuals. These effects of course vary since they involve every emotion and situation. At times, the collective unconscious can terrify, but it can heal. Jung contrasted the collective unconscious with the personal unconscious, the unique aspects of an individual study which Jung says constitute the focus of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Psychotherapy patients, it seemed to Jung described fantasies and dreams which repeated elements from ancient mythology; these elements appeared in patients who were not exposed to the original story. For example, mythology offers many examples of the "dual mother" narrative, according to which a child has a biological mother and a divine mother. Therefore, argues Jung, Freudian psychoanalysis would neglect important sources for unconscious ideas, in the case of a patient with neurosis around a dual-mother image; this divergence over the nature of the unconscious has been cited as a key aspect of Jung's famous split from Sigmund Freud and his school of psychoanalysis.
Some commentators have rejected Jung's characterization of Freud, observing that in texts such as Totem an
"Subconscious" is the second single by American solo artist and singer Samantha James from her second album, Subconsious. A music video was shot for "Subconscious" and was released as a video montage on Samantha James' official Om Records page. Samantha James on OM Records
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay