A county-level municipality, county-level city, or county city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions. Known as prefecture-controlled city. Most county-level cities were created in the 1990s by replacing counties. A county-level city is a "city" and "county"; as such it is a city, a municipal entity, a county, an administrative division of a prefecture. County-level cities are not "cities" in the strictest sense of the word, since they contain rural areas many times the size of their urban, built-up area; this is because the counties that county-level cities have replaced are themselves large administrative units containing towns and farmland. To distinguish a "county-level city" from its actual urban area, the term "市区", or "urban area", is used. In France, an equivalent of a county-level city is an agglomeration community. While the idea of a "city" being a unit consisting of several "towns" is not a common one in English-speaking world, a somewhat similar naming convention is used for local government areas in some parts of Australia.
For example, in New South Wales such a unit may be called a "city", consist of "towns". E.g. City of Blue Mountains is made of a number of towns. Another example would be "municipal government" in the Canadian province of Ontario. Small municipalities and towns, along with urban, sub-urban and rural areas were merged or integrated into a "super" area, in part to obtain economies in administrative overhead by not having for each city and town individual library commissions, fire fighting units, health care, other social services common to all areas. So for example, there has been for less than 10 years the "Municipality of Chatham-Kent" wherein the Corporation of the City of Chatham serves as the "seat" for the newly Chatham-Kent merged municipality; this agglomeration includes all of the "townships" in the county of Kent, with cities and towns like Wallaceberg, Dresden, Wheatley. This "amalgamation" as it is referred to, was controversial when it was "forced" upon the constituents through provincial legislation.
Today, instead of each city having its own mayor and city councillors, there is a council with representatives from the various areas surrounding Chatham city. As of September 2018, there are 375 county-level cities in total: A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefecture-level cities. Examples include, Qianjiang and Jiyuan. Administrative divisions of China Counties of the People's Republic of China Prefecture-level city List of cities in China
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Ethnic townships, towns, and sumu of China
Ethnic townships, ethnic towns, ethnic sumu are fourth-level administrative units designated for ethnic minorities of political divisions in China. They are not considered to be autonomous and do not enjoy the laws pertaining to the larger ethnic autonomous areas such as autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, autonomous counties and autonomous banners. Paifang Hui and Manchu Ethnic Township Saijian Hui Ethnic Township Gugou Hui Ethnic Township Gudui Hui Ethnic Township Lichong Hui Ethnic Township Taodian Hui Ethnic Township Changying Hui Ethnic Township Changshaoying Manchu Ethnic Township Labagoumen Manchu Ethnic Township Yujiawu Hui Ethnic Township Debao Tujia Ethnic Township Henghe Tujia Ethnic Township Mozi Tujia Ethnic Township Shiqiao Miao and Tujia Ethnic Township Wenfu Miao and Tujia Ethnic Township Houping Miao and Tujia Ethnic Township Haokou Miao and Gelao Township Taihe Tujia Ethnic Township Chang'an Tujia Ethnic Township Longqiao Tujia Ethnic Township Yunwu Tujia Ethnic Township Qingshui Tujia Ethnic Township Xiaocang She Ethnic Township Huokou She Ethnic Township Guanzhuang She Ethnic Township Lufeng She Ethnic Township Jinhan She Ethnic Township Banzhong She Ethnic Township Township Muyun She Ethnic Township Township Kangcuo She Ethnic Township Township Xiamen She Ethnic Township Jiayang She Ethnic Township Shuimen She Ethnic Township Chongru She Ethnic Township Yantian She Ethnic Township Baiqi Hui Ethnic Township Qingshui She Ethnic Township Zhiping She Ethnic Township Longjiao She Ethnic Township Huxi She Ethnic Township Chiling She Ethnic Township Zhangxi She Ethnic Township Lantian Yao Ethnic Township Yao'an Yao Ethnic Township Sanshui Yao Ethnic Township Chengjia Yao Ethnic Township Shendushui Yao Ethnic Township Shuai Zhuang and Yao Ethnic Township Guzhai Yao Ethnic Township Jiafang Yao Ethnic Township Zhenwei Yao Ethnic Township Wangdian Yao Ethnic Township Lingzhan Yao Ethnic Township Chaoli Yao Ethnic Township Shali Yao Ethnic Township Yuhong Yao Ethnic Township Zuodeng Yao Ethnic Township Lucheng Yao Ethnic Township Lizhou Yao Ethnic Township Bagui Yao Ethnic Township Badu Yao Ethnic Township Nazuo Miao Ethnic Township Puhe Miao Ethnic Township Zubie Yao and Miao Ethnic Township Nanping Yao Ethnic Township Guo'an Yao Ethnic Township Malian Yao Ethnic Township Caoping Hui Ethnic Township Wantian Yao Ethnic Township Huangsha Yao Ethnic Township Pulu Yao Ethnic Township Jiaojiang Yao Ethnic Township Dongshan Yao Ethnic Township Huajiang Yao Ethnic Township Fulong Yao Ethnic Township Beiya Yao Ethnic Township Sannong Yao Ethnic Township Jinya Yao Ethnic Township Pingle Yao Ethnic Township Jiangzhou Yao Ethnic Township Xunle Miao Ethnic Township Zhongbao Miao Ethnic Township Bawei Yao Ethnic Township Lihu Yao Ethnic Township Bala Yao Ethnic Township Huangdong Yao Ethnic Township Daping Yao Ethnic Township Xianhui Yao Ethnic Township Huashan Yao Ethnic Township Liang'an Yao Ethnic Township Guzhai Mulao Ethnic Township Tonglian Yao Ethnic Township Gunbei Dong Ethnic Township Tongle Miao Ethnic Township Fulu Miao Ethnic Township Gaoji Yao Ethnic Township Changping Yao Ethnic Township Xiayi Yao Ethnic Township none Jiumen Hui Ethnic Township Pengjiazhuang Hui Ethnic Township Gaotou Hui Ethnic Township Haotouzhuang Hui Ethnic Township Loucun Manchu Ethnic Township Lingyunce Hui and Manchu Ethnic Township Yang'erzhuang Hui Ethnic Township Xincun Hui Ethnic Township Yangsanmu Hui Ethnic Township Jiedi Hui Ethnic Township Dulin Hui Ethnic Township Litianmu Hui Ethnic Township Dazhecun Hui Ethnic Township Benzhai Hui Ethnic Township Xidi Manchu Ethnic Township Gangzi Manchu Ethnic Township Liangjia Manchu Ethnic Township Yinjiaying Manchu Ethnic Township Miaozigou Mongol and Manchu Ethnic Township Pianpoying Manchu Ethnic Township Badaying Mongol Ethnic Township Taipingzhuang Manchu Ethnic Township Jiutun Manchu Ethnic Township Xi'achao Manchu and Mongol Ethnic Township Baihugou Manchu and Mongol Ethnic Township Pingfang Manchu Ethnic Township Anchungoumen Manchu Ethnic Township Xiaoying Manchu Ethnic Township Xigou Manchu Ethnic Township Dengchang Manchu Ethnic Township Wudaoyingzi Manchu Ethnic Township Mayingzi Ethnic Township Fujiadian Manchu Ethnic Township Datun Manchu Ethnic Township Liuxi Manchu Ethnic Township Qijiadai Manchu Ethnic Township Pingfang Manchu and Mongol Ethnic Township Maolangou Manchu and Mongol Ethnic Township Guozhangzi Manchu Ethnic Township Nantian Manchu Ethnic Township Bagualing Manchu Ethnic Township Yingzhen Hui Ethnic Township Chencun Hui Ethnic Township Daweihe Hui and Manchu Ethnic Township Guanjiawu Hui Ethnic Township Xiaxiaying
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Leagues of China
A league is an administrative unit of the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China. Leagues are the prefectures of Inner Mongolia; the name comes from a Mongolian administrative unit used during the Qing Dynasty in Mongolia. Mongolian Banners were organized into conventional assemblies at the league level. During the ROC era, the leagues had a status equivalent to provinces. Leagues contain banners, equivalent to counties. After the establishment of the provincial level Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947, leagues of Inner Mongolia became equal to prefectures in other provinces and autonomous regions; the administrative commission of the league is the administrative branch office dispatched by the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The leader of the league's government, titled as league leader, is appointed by People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. So are deputy leaders of leagues. Instead of local level of People's Congress, league's working commissions of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region are detached and supervise the league's governments, but can not elect or dismiss league's government officials.
In such a way, the league's working committee of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is instead of league's committee of CPPCC. Leagues have existed since the Qing Dynasty as a level of government; the head of a league was chosen from sula of the banners belonging to it. The original six leagues were Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ih Ju. More were added in the subsequent centuries. Today, leagues belong to the prefecture level of the Chinese administrative hierarchy. Of the 9 leagues that existed in the late 1970s, 6 have now been reorganized into prefecture-level cities. There are only 3 leagues remaining in Inner Mongolia: Xilingol and Hinggan. Administrative divisions of Mongolia during Qing Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China Prefecture of China List of prefecture-level divisions of China Banner Eight Banner system List of administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia Aimag
National Central City
National Central City was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. The National Central Cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading and performing tasks in political and cultural aspects. In February 2010, the ministry issued the "National Urban System Plan" and designated five major cities and Tianjin in the Bohai Economic Rim, Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, Chongqing in the West Triangle Economic Zone as the National Central Cities. In May 2016, Chengdu was announced to be the sixth National Central City by the government. In December the same year and Zhengzhou are added to the list of National Central Cities; the National Central Cities sphere of influence have great impact around the surrounding cities on modernizing and integrating services in fields such as infrastructure, public education, social welfare, business licensing and urban planning.
For more information, please see the People Daily article. List of Chinese municipalities and prefecture-level cities by GDP List of Chinese municipalities and prefecture-level divisions by GDP per capita List of cities in the People's Republic of China by urban population List of province-level capitals and sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China