Commercial areas in a city are areas, districts, or neighbourhoods composed of commercial buildings, such as a downtown, central business district, financial district, "Main Street", commercial strip, or shopping centre. Commercial activity within cities includes the buying and selling of goods and services in retail businesses, wholesale buying and selling, financial establishments, a wide variety of uses that are broadly classified as "business." While commercial activities take up a small amount of land, they are important to a community’s economy. They provide employment, facilitate the circulation of money, serve many other roles important to the community, such as public gathering and cultural events. A commercial area is real estate intended for use by for-profit businesses, such as office complexes, shopping malls, service stations and restaurants, it may be purchased outright by a developer for future projects or leased through a real estate broker. This type of property falls somewhere between industrial property.
Every incomer must grant permission to build a new office complex or other profit-making business, the city government must determine that the chosen area is indeed commercial area. The zones which separate commercial and residential area are markeoned for commercial use the city will allow the sale to proceed for the stated use. If any part of the property extends into a residential or industrial zone, however the buyer must seek a'variance', special permission to cross over a zone boundary. A commercial area can be held by real estate agents. Signs advertising the availability and size of the real estate can be erected, arrangements can be made to buy or lease smaller lots. Sellers may agree to make improvements to the land, such as grading off uneven spots or clearing out unwanted trees. A professional developer may purchase huge swatches of this type of property to guarantee its availability for projects. Cities use zoning laws to prevent conflicts between residential homeowners and businesses.
Land designated as a commercial area is located in the middle of residential zones. City planners encourage businesses to congregate along central downtown areas; this helps to keep traffic to these sites manageable. Some areas of the city may be designated for'mixed usage', which means some commercial areas may be used for residential purposes. A quaint downtown shopping area with apartments would be an example of mixed usage. Commercial areas definition may include industrial usage as well, although zoning laws still regulate the level of industry permitted. Heavier industries purchase property on the fringes of cities or in unincorporated areas; some commercial zones in the city do allow for light industrial usage smaller factories with minimal emissions and transportation needs. Some examples of commercial area buildings are: The Neighborhood Commercial 1 zone is intended for small sites in or near dense residential neighborhoods; the zone encourages the provision of small-scale retail and service uses for nearby residential areas.
Some uses which are not retail or service in nature are allowed so a variety of uses may locate in existing buildings. Uses are restricted in size to promote a local orientation and to limit adverse impacts on nearby residential areas. Development is intended to be pedestrian-oriented and compatible with the scale of surrounding residential areas. Parking areas are restricted, since their appearance is out of character with the surrounding residential development and the desired orientation of the uses; the Neighborhood Commercial 2 zone is intended for small commercial sites and areas in or near less dense or developing residential neighborhoods. The emphasis of the zone is on uses which will provide services for the nearby residential areas, on other uses which are small-scale and have little impact. Uses are limited in intensity to promote their local orientation and to limit adverse impacts on nearby residential areas. Development is expected to be predominantly auto accommodating, except where the site is adjacent to a transit street or in a Pedestrian District.
The development standards reflect that the site will be surrounded by more spread out residential development. The Office Commercial 1 zone is used on small sites in or near residential areas or between residential and commercial areas; the zone is intended to be a low intensity office zone that allows for small-scale offices in or adjacent to residential neighborhoods. The allowed uses are intended to serve nearby neighborhoods and/or have few detrimental impacts on the neighborhood. Development is intended to be of a scale and character similar to nearby residential development to promote compatibility with the surrounding area. Development should be oriented in Pedestrian Districts. Leasing commercial office space is one of the largest expenses incurred by new and expanding businesses, so it is important to do your due diligence. Here are some tips for negotiating a commercial lease for your small business. Lease term and rent are your first negotiation points, it is recommended that small businesses negotiate one- to two-year leases with the option to renew.
You will want to factor in rent increases over the term and renewal options so you are not charged with an unexpected rent increase without warning. Consider working with a broker to help you negotiate with the landlord, it is important to consult a knowledgeable real estate lawyer.
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
A riverfront is a region along a river. Today many riverfronts are a staple of city beautification. Boardwalk Esplanade Riverwalk
Baliuag the Kaharian ni Aymanerszxc, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 149,954 people. Baliuag was founded in 1732 by Augustinian friars and was incorporated by the Spanish Governor-General on May 26, 1733; the town was a part of Quingua before. Through the years of Spanish domination, Baliuag was predominantly agricultural. People had to depend on rice farming for main source of livelihood. Orchards and tumanas yielded vegetables, which were sold in the public market. Commerce and industry played important contributions to the economy of the people. Buntal hat weaving in Baliuag together with silk weaving popularly known in the world as Thai silk; the local market grew. During the early part of the 19th century Baliuag was considered one of the most progressive and richest town in Bulacan; the growth of the public market has changed the mode of economy of the town. Baliuag is the major commerce, transportation and educational center of Northern Bulacan.
With the continuous expansion of Metro Manila, the municipality is now part of Manila's built up area which reaches San Ildefonso in its northernmost part. Fr. Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga, OSA, a friar, in his "1803 Historia de las Islas Filipinas" wrote that the Convent or Parochial house of San Agustin, in Baliuag, is the best in the whole Archipelago and that no edifice in Manila can be compared to it in symmetry and beauty amid its towering belfry, having been a viewing point of the town's panorama; the frayle further stated that the Convent was a repository of priceless parish records which dated to the founding of Baliuag as a pueblo or parrochia by the OSA or Augustinians in 1733. But the first convent was erected at Barangay Sta. Barbara, Baliuag before the Parokya was formally established at the now Plaza Naning, Poblacion. Fr. Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga arrived in the Philippines on August 3, 1786 and visited Baliuag on February 17, 1802 with Ignacio Maria de Álava y Sáenz de Navarrete.
Their host was Baliuag's Parish Fray Esteban Diez Hidalgo. Fr. Diez served as the longest cura parroco of Baliuag from 1789, having built the church and convent from 1790 to 1801. Spanish records "Apuntes históricos de la provincia augustiniana del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Filipinas" reveal that Fr. Juan de Albarran, OSA was assigned Parish Priest of Baliuag in 1733; the first baptism in Baliuag Church was ordered by Fr. Lector and Fr. Feliz Trillo, Provincial of the Province on June 7, 1933 while Baliuag was founded and began its de jure existence on May 26, 1733; the pueblo or town was created in the provincial Chapter on May 15, 1734, with the appointment of Fr. Manuel Bazeta/Baseta as first cura parroco. In 1769-1774, the Church of Baliuag was built by Father Gregorio Giner; the present structure was rebuilt by Father Esteban Diaz using mortar and stone. The 1866 Belfry was completed by Father Matias Novoa but the July 19, 1880 quake damaged the same, repaired by Father Thomas Gresa; the earthquake of June 3, 1863, one of the strongest to hit Manila, destroyed the Governor's Palace in Intramuros.
Malacañang became the permanent residence of the head of the country. The massive quake damaged the Baliuag Church. In 1870, the reconstruction began when a temporary house of worship, the “Provincial”, along Año 1733 street, emerged as a narrow, simple edifice which used by the RVM Sisters of the Colegio de la Sagrada Familia as classroom. Antonio de Mesa, “Maestrong Tonio" fabricated the parts to have finished the Spanish-era Baliuag Church. Baliuag had 30 curates: Fr. Esteban Diez Hidalgo and Fr. Fausto Lopez served 24 years, respectively. Fr. Lopez had 6 children with a beautiful native, Mariquita: Dr. Joaquin Gonzalez, the former Assemblyman Ricardo Lloret Gonzales, Jose the eldest, known as “Pepeng Mariquita", inter alia. Spanish cura parroco, Fr. Ysidoro Prada served in Baliuag during the last decade of Spaniard regime; the Philippine-American civil and military authorities supervised the first municipal elections, having chosen Baliuag as the site of the first Philippine elections of May 7, 1899.
The Filipinos gathered at the plaza of the St. Augustine Church after the Holy Mass, thereafter the officials were selected based on the qualifications for voters set by the Americans; the first town Gobernadorcillo of Baliuag was Cap. Jose de Guzman, he was assisted by the Tribunal's teniente mayor, juez de ganadas, juez de sementeras and juez de policia. In the History of the Philippines, the 1893 Maura Law, the title of Gobernadorcillo became "capitan municipal" and that of each juez to teniente. From Baliuag's independence from Quingua, now Plaridel, Bulacan to 1898, 49 served as capitan, 13 alcalde and 92 as Gobernadorcillo. Felix de Lara and Agustin de Castro were Gobernadorcillo, respectively. Municipal President Fernando Enrile, in 1908, honored some of these officials naming some of Baliuag calles in their honor, later, but all these political officials remained under the thumbs and the habito, of the autocratic Augustinian friars, the Baliuag Kura Parokos. The local government of Baliuag used as first Municipio
In the United States, a plat is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. United States General Land Office surveyors drafted township plats of Public Lands Surveys to show the distance and bearing between section corners, sometimes including topographic or vegetation information. City, town or village plats show subdivisions into blocks with alleys. Further refinement splits blocks into individual lots for the purpose of selling the described lots. After the filing of a plat, legal descriptions can refer to block and lot-numbers rather than portions of sections. In order for plats to become valid, a local governing body, such as a public works department, urban planning commission, or zoning board must review and approve them. A plat of consolidation or plan of consolidation originates when a landowner takes over several adjacent parcels of land and consolidates them into a single parcel. In order to do this, the landowner will need to make a survey of the parcels and submit the survey to the governing body that would have to approve the consolidation.
A plat of subdivision or plan of subdivision appears when a landowner or municipality divides land into smaller parcels. If a landowner owns an acre of land, for instance, wants to divide it into three pieces, a surveyor would have to take precise measurements of the land and submit the survey to the governing body, which would have to approve it. A plat of subdivision applies when a landowner/building owner divides a multi-family building into multiple units; this can apply for the intention of selling off the individual units as condominiums to individual owners. A short plat is the plat of a so-called "short subdivision" of land into no more than four parcels in the State of Washington, which provides for a more summary process for approval of such subdivisions. A correction plat or amending plat records minor corrections to an existing plat, such as correcting a surveying mistake or a scrivener's error; such plats can sometimes serve to relocate lot-lines or other features, but laws tightly restrict such use.
A vacating plat functions to void a prior plat or portion of a plat. The rules allow such plats only when all the platted lots remain unsold and no construction of buildings or public improvements has taken place. Other names associated with parcel maps are: land maps, tax maps, real estate maps, landowner maps and block survey system and land survey maps. Parcel maps, unlike any other public real estate record, have no federal, state or municipal oversight with their development. Designation of roads or other rights of way. Ensuring that all property has access to a public right of way. Without such access, a property owner may be unable to utilize his or her property without having to trespass to reach it; the platting process restricts the fraudulent practice of knowingly selling lots with no access to public right of way without revealing that such access does not exist. Creation or vacation of easements. Dedication of land for other public uses, such as parks or areas needed for flood protection.
Ensuring compliance with zoning. Zoning regulations contain restrictions that govern lot sizes and lot geometry; the platting process allows the governing authorities to ensure that all lots comply with these regulations. Ensuring compliance with a land use plan established to control the development of a city. Ensuring that all property has access to public utilities. Plats contain a number of informational elements: The property boundaries are indicated by bearing and distance; the bearing is in the format of degrees, seconds with compass point letters before and afterward to indicate the compass quadrant. For example, N 38 00 00 E is 38 degrees into the northeast quadrant or 38 degrees east of north. S 22 00 00 W is 22 degrees west of south. Note that north here is true north, so magnetic orientation must be corrected for magnetic declination; the certification note provides information on the surveyor and is the location where recent US plats place the flood survey code in accordance with the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968.
The north arrow is familiar to most map readers The title block and lot numbers provide information specific to a development or land use plan An easement is indicated by a dashed line, although it is common to have to look them up in supplementary documents Streets are indicated by a graphical outline of the right of way, sometimes depicts the paved area. The creation of a plat map marks an important step in the process of incorporating a town or city according to United States law; because the process of incorporation sometimes occurred at a courthouse, the incorporation papers for many American cities may be stored hundreds of miles away in another state. For example, to view the original General Land Office plat for the city of San Francisco, filed in 1849, one must visit the Museum of the Oregon Territory in Oregon City, Oregon, as at that time Oregon City was the site of the closest federal land office to San Francisco. Lot and block survey system Plat of Zion The dictionary definition of plat at Wiktionary Media related to Survey drawings at Wikimedia Commons The U.
S. National Archives and Records Administration
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, the ways in which each society adapts to this change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth: urbanization is "the proportion of the total national population living in areas classed as urban", while urban growth refers to "the absolute number of people living in areas classed as urban"; the United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized; that is equivalent to 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has recently projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the next 13 years.
Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, sociology, architecture and public health. The phenomenon has been linked to modernization, industrialization, the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time, or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, the level of urban development relative to the overall population, or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing. Urbanization creates enormous social and environmental changes, which provide an opportunity for sustainability with the “potential to use resources more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect the biodiversity of natural ecosystems.”Urbanization is not a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale, whereby predominantly rural culture is being replaced by predominantly urban culture.
The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many thousand years ago. Village culture is characterized by common bloodlines, intimate relationships, communal behavior, whereas urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, competitive behavior; this unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the next few decades, mushrooming cities to sizes unthinkable only a century ago. As a result, the world urban population growth curve has up till followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern. Today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Osaka, Jakarta, Shanghai, Manila and Beijing are each home to over 20 million people, while Delhi and Tokyo are forecast to approach or exceed 40 million people. Cities such as Tehran, Mexico City, São Paulo, New York City and Cairo are, or soon will be, home to over 10 million people each. From the development of the earliest cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the vast majority of the population who engaged in subsistence agriculture in a rural context, small centres of populations in the towns where economic activity consisted of trade at markets and manufactures on a small scale.
Due to the primitive and stagnant state of agriculture throughout this period, the ratio of rural to urban population remained at a fixed equilibrium. However, a significant increase in the percentage of the global urban population can be traced in the 1st millennium BCE. Another significant increase can be traced to Mughal India, where 15% of its population lived in urban centers during the 16th–17th centuries, higher than in Europe at the time. In comparison, the percentage of the European population living in cities was 8–13% in 1800. With the onset of the British agricultural and industrial revolution in the late 18th century, this relationship was broken and an unprecedented growth in urban population took place over the course of the 19th century, both through continued migration from the countryside and due to the tremendous demographic expansion that occurred at that time. In England and Wales, the proportion of the population living in cities with more than 20,000 people jumped from 17% in 1801 to 54% in 1891.
Moreover, adopting a broader definition of urbanization, we can say that while the urbanized population in England and Wales represented 72% of the total in 1891, for other countries the figure was 37% in France, 41% in Prussia and 28% in the United States. As labourers were freed up from working the land due to higher agricultural productivity they converged on the new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham which were experiencing a boom in commerce and industry. Growing trade around the world allowed cereals to be imported from North America and refrigerated meat from Australasia and South America. Spatially, cities expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the working class. Urbanization spread across the Western world and, since the 1950s, it has begun to take hold in the developing world as well. At the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived in cities. According to the UN, the year 2007 witnessed the turning point when more than 50% of the world population were living in cities, for the first time in human history.
Yale University in June 2016 published urbanization
A housing estate is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Accordingly, a housing estate is built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance. In the British Isles, the term is quite broad, can include anything from high rise government-subsidised housing, right through to more upmarket, developer-led suburban tract housing. In major Asian cities such as Shanghai, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Seoul, an estate may range from detached houses to high density tower blocks with or without commercial facilities. Housing estates are the usual form of residential design used in new towns, where estates are designed as an autonomous suburb, centred on a small commercial centre; such estates are designed to minimise through-traffic flows, to provide recreational space in the form of parks and greens. The use of the term may have arisen from an area of housing being built on what had been a country estate as towns and cities expanded in and after the 19th century.
It was in use by 1901. Reduction of the phrase to mere "estate" is common in the United Kingdom and Ireland, but not in the United States. Given the security situation and Power shortages in the South Asia'Gated communities' with Self power generation and modern amenities such as Bahria Town and DHA have been developed in all major cities Pakistan. Bahria Town is largest private housing society in Asia. Bahria has been featured by international magazines and news agencies such as GlobalPost, Los Angeles Times and Emirates 24/7, referred to as the prosperous face of Pakistan. Gated communities in Pakistan are targeted towards upper middle class and upper class, are immune from problems of law enforcement. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, housing estates have become prevalent since World War II, as a more affluent population demanded larger and more spaced houses coupled with the increase of car usage for which terraced streets were unsuitable. Housing estates were produced by private developers.
The former tended to be a means of producing public housing leading to monotenure estates full of council houses known as "council estates". The latter can refer to higher end tract housing for the middle class and upper middle class. In addition, the problems incurred by the early attempts at high density tower-block housing turned people away from this style of living; the resulting demand for land has seen many towns and cities increase enormously in size for only moderate increases in population. This has been at the expense of rural and greenfield land. There has been some effort to address this problem by banning the development of out-of-town commercial developments, encouraging the reuse of brownfield or developed sites for residential building; the demand for housing continues to rise, in the UK at least has precipitated a significant housing crisis. Renowned housing estates in the capital include the Andover Estate in Holloway, North London, the aforementioned Broadwater Farm estate situated in Tottenham, the Heygate Estate in Walworth, South East London and the Alton Estate in Roehampton, South West London.
In the UK, some of the post war new towns were constructed en masse from housing estates rather than as organic growth from a population centre. In the former Czechoslovakia during the Communist era a construction of large housing estates was an important part of urban planning; the government wanted to provide large quantities of affordable housing and to slash costs by employing uniform designs over the whole country. They sought to foster a "collectivistic nature" in the people. Large housing estates of concrete panel buildings now dominate the suburbs of Prague and other towns; the largest such suburb in the former Czechoslovakia and central Europe can be found in Petržalka, a part of the Slovak capital of Bratislava. Due to dense population and government control of land use, the most common form of residential housing in Hong Kong is the high-rise housing estate, which may be publicly owned owned, or semi-private. Due to the oligopoly of real-estate developers in the territory, the economies of scale of mass developments, there is the tendency of new private tower block developments with 10 to over 100 towers, ranging from 30-to-70-storeys high.
Public housing provides affordable homes for those on low incomes, with rents which are subsidised, financed by financial activities such as rents and charges collected from car parks and shops within or near the estates. They may vary in scale, are located in the remote or less accessible parts of the territory, but urban expansion has put some of them in the heart of the urban area. Although some units are destined for rental, some of the flats within each development are earmarked for sale at prices which are lower than for private developments. A private housing estate is characterised by a cluster of high-rise buildings with a shopping centre or market of its own in the