Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco, it occupies an area of 27,767 km², being larger than Haiti. Its capital is the city of Maceió, it is made up of 102 municipalities and its most populous cities are Maceió, Palmeira dos Índios, Rio Largo, União dos Palmares, São Miguel dos Campos, Santana do Ipanema, Delmiro Gouveia, Marechal Deodoro, Campo Alegre. It is the second smallest Brazilian state in area, with Sergipe it is sometimes called the Rhode Island of Brazil, it is 16th in population. It is one of the largest producers of sugarcane and coconuts in the country, has an economy based on cattle raising. Land of the sururu, lagoon shellfish which serves as food for the coastal population, of coconut water, Alagoas possesses some of the country's richest folklore; the Alagoano territory constituted the southern part of the Captaincy of Pernambuco and only gained its autonomy in 1817. Its occupation pushed the expansion of the captaincy's sugarcane farming, which required new areas of cultivation, southward.
Thus arose Porto Calvo and Penedo, nuclei which guided the colonization and social life of the region for a long time. The Dutch invasion in Pernambuco was extended to Alagoas in 1631; the invaders were expelled in 1645, after intense fighting in Porto Calvo, leaving the economy in ruins. The escape of African slaves during the Dutch invasion created a serious labour shortage problem on the sugarcane plantations. Grouped in villages called quilombos, the Africans were only dominated at the end of the 17th century with the destruction of the most important quilombo, Palmares. During the empire, the separatist and republican Confederation of the Equator received the support of noteworthy Alagoano figures. Throughout the 1840s, political life was marked by the conflict between the lisos and the cabeludos, liberals. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Alagoano hinterland lived through the pioneering experience of Delmiro Gouveia, a Pernambucano entrepreneur who installed the Estrela thread factory, which came to produce 200 spools daily.
Delmiro Gouveia was killed in October 1917 in circumstances still unclarified, after being pressured, according to rumor, to sell his factory to competing foreign firms. After his death, his machines would be thrown into Paulo Afonso Falls. Nicknamed the Land of the Marshals, for being the birthplace of Deodoro da Fonseca and Floriano Peixoto, Alagoas gave the country numerous illustrious Brazilians among whom are the anthropologist Arthur Ramos, the maestro Hekel Tavares, the philologist Aurélio Buarque de Holanda, the musicians Djavan and Hermeto Pascoal the poet Jorge de Lima, the jurists Pontes de Miranda and Marcos Bernardes de Mello, besides the writers Lêdo Ivo and Graciliano Ramos; the Latin lacus, "reservoir, lake" is the origin, in the primitive vocabulary heritage, of the Portuguese and Italian lago, French lac, one of its derivatives, the Latin lacuna, "pitfall, hole", "lack, neglect", explains the Spanish and Italian laguna. But the Portuguese lagoa, coincidentally with the Spanish lagona and Mirandese llagona, suggests a change in suffix documented in a 938 document from Valencia, under the spelling lacona, in another from 1094, in Sahagún, under the spelling lagona.
The Portuguese lagoa under the spelling lagona, is documented in the 14th century, alternated with the other for a long time. The name appears as a competitor with the names of the lagoons of Manguaba, a lagoa do sul, Mundaú, a lagoa do norte in the 16th century, when settlements were founded near the Alagoa do Norte and the Alagoa do Sul, the Alagoas, with the inclusion of the rest of the lagoons in the area; the suffix -ano is characteristic of Brazil, alagoano, baiano and acriano. The state's name originates with the lakes along its coast near the city of Maceió; the coast is bordered by many fine beaches. Behind the beaches, sometimes only hundreds of meters and defined by steep scarps, lies a stretch of green coastal hills having enough rainfall for considerable agriculture and scarce remnants of the Mata Atlântica that now is limited to steep hill tops or steep valley sides and bottoms; this is the area long dominated by sugar cane. Still farther inland lies the Sertão of the Northeast region of the nation.
The Sertão is a high dry region dominated by scrub, thorn-filled and sometimes toxic, the caatinga. This area and its people are famed in song, it is the land of the cowboy, clad from head to toe with thick leather to avoid the sharp vegetation. See also: History of Alagoas During the first three centuries of its history, Alagoas was part of the captaincy of Pernambuco, only changing into an independent captaincy in 1817; as a reprisal against the Pernambucan Revolution, the King John VI of Portugal ordered a vast portion of the Pernambucan territory to be taken
Roraima is the northernmost and least populated state of Brazil, located in the Amazon region. It borders the states of Pará, as well as the nations of Venezuela and Guyana; the population is 450,000 and the capital is Boa Vista. Roraima is the Brazilian state with 15 in total; the climate of Roraima is tropical with an annual mean temperature of 26°C. The state's southern part is located in the Amazon rainforest, while the north has open grassland fields, there is a small strip of savanna to the east; the state is rich in mineral deposits - gold, cassiterite, bauxite and copper. Many of these deposits are located in indigenous reserves, illegal mining has resulted in frequent conflicts with the native population the Yanomami and the Macuxi and allied groups; the Monte Roraima National Park is located around one of the highest mountains of both Venezuela and Brazil, the highest in Guyana, a 2,875 m high tepui known as Monte Roraima. Only a small fraction of the mountain is in Brazilian territory and the highest point of the Brazilian part is at 2,734 metres.
Except for the higher mountains where the climate is cooler but wet, Roraima has an equatorial climate. This is a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season – all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 mm, it is found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator – which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial climate is denoted Af in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforest is the natural vegetation in equatorial regions. Since the beginnings of the 16th century, the region now considered the state of Roraima was disputed territory, because of its rich mineral reserves, it was sought by the Spanish, Portuguese and English until the beginning of the last century. But in 1943, together with a section from the state of Amazonas, the Federal Government created the territory of Rio Branco, which became Roraima in 1962. In 1988, Roraima became a state by decision of the National Congress; the name of the state was taken from Mount Roraima, whose name comes from the Pemon words “roroi” and “ma”.
One of the main archaeological site is the Pedra Pintada, with ancient rock art and engravings. According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 405,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 1.8 inh./km². Urbanization: 80.3%. The latest PNAD data reveal the following numbers: 278,000 Brown people, 81,000 White people, 29,000 Black people, 15,000 Asian or Amerindian people. Ethnic groups found in Roraima include: Amerindians, Africans, Spanish and Lebanese; the Brazilian Indian Agency, estimates the state's indigenous population at 30,715. The largest indigenous groups are the better-known Yanomami. Much of the state's indigenous population lives in several large recognized indigenous reserves and a number of smaller ones, totalling 46.13% of the land area of the state. Vehicles: 187,209 Mobile phones: 148,000 Telephones: 67,000 Cities: 15; the service sector is the largest component of GDP at 87.5%, followed by the industrial sector at 8.7%. Agriculture represents 3.8%, of GDP. Roraima exports: wood 74%, leather 22.6%.
Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.1%. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Universidade Federal de Roraima; the city's major teams are: Atlético Roraima Clube. The passenger terminal and apron were all enlarged, a separate taxiway was built; the airport has the capacity to receive 675,000 passengers a year. BR-174; the blue of the flag represents the pure air and the sky of Roraima, the white strip symbolizes peace, the green to the right represents the forests and fields. The star - symbolizing the state in the national flag of Brazil - is yellow, which symbolizes the mineral resources of the state; the red line in bottom stands for the equator. The flag was designed by the artist Mário Barreto, was adopted by Law No.133 of June 14, 1996. Official Website Brazilian Tourism Portal
Ceará is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is the eighth-largest Brazilian State by the 17th by area, it is one of the main tourist destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of the country's fourth most populous city; the name Ceará means "sings the jandaia". According to José de Alencar, one of the most important writers of Brazil and an authority in Tupi Guaraní, Ceará means turquoise or green waters. There are theories that the state name would derive from Siriará, a reference to the crabs from the seashore; the state is best known with 600 kilometers of sand. There are mountains and valleys producing tropical fruits. To the south, on the border of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Piauí, is the National Forest of Araripe. Ceará has an area of 148,016 square kilometres, it is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba, on the south by Pernambuco state, on the west by Piauí.
Ceará lies upon the northeast slope of the Brazilian Highlands, upon the sandy coastal plain. Its surface is a succession of great terraces, facing north and northeast, formed by the denudation of the ancient sandstone plateau which once covered this part of the continent; the latter are the remains of the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, with a uniform altitude of 2,000 to 2,400 feet. The flat top of such a range is called a chapada or taboleira, its width in places is from 32 to 56 miles; the boundary line with Piauí follows one of these ranges, the Serra de Ibiapaba, which unites with another range on the southern boundary of the state, known as the Serra do Araripe. Another range, or escarpment, crosses the state from east to west, but is broken into two principal divisions, each having several local names; these ranges are not continuous, the breaking down of the ancient plateau having been irregular and uneven. The rivers of the state are small and, with one or two exceptions, become dry in the dry season.
The largest is the Jaguaribe, which flows across the state in a northeast direction. Ceará has a varied environment, with mangroves, jungle and tropical forest; the higher ranges intercept considerable moisture from the prevailing trade winds, their flanks and valleys are covered with a tropical forest, typical of the region, gathering species from tropical forests and cerrado. The less elevated areas of the plateaus are either thinly open campo. Most of the region at the lower altitudes is characterized by scrubby forests called caatingas, an endemic Brazilian vegetation; the sandy, coastal plain, with a width of 12 to 18 miles, is nearly bare of vegetation, although the coast has many enclaves of restingas and mangroves. The soil is, in general and porous and does not retain moisture; some areas in the higher ranges of Serra da Ibiapaba, Serra do Araripe and others are more appropriate for agriculture, as their soil and vegetation are less affected by the dry seasons. The beaches of the state is a major tourist attraction.
Ceará has several famous beaches such as Canoa Quebrada, Morro Branco, Taíba and Flexeiras. The beaches are divided into two groups: Sunrise Coast. Ceará lies in one of the few regions of the country. In 1980 an earthquake measuring 5.8 on the Richter scale struck near Quixeramobim in the center of the state, rattling the city of Fortaleza but causing no injuries. The climate of Ceará is hot all year; the temperature in the state varies from 22 to 36 °C. The coast is humid, tempered by the cool trade winds. In the higher ranges the temperatures are cooler and vary from about 14 to 18 °C; the record minimum temperature registered in Ceará was 8 °C, recorded in Jardim, a small city in Chapada do Araripe. The year is divided into a rainy and dry season, the rains beginning in January to March and lasting until June; the dry season, July to December, is sometimes broken by slight showers in September and October, but these are of slight importance. Sometimes the rains fail altogether, a drought ensues, causing famine and pestilence throughout the entire region.
The most destructive droughts recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries were those of 1711, 1723, 1777–1778, 1790, 1825, 1844–1845, 1877 to 1878, the last-mentioned destroying nearly all the livestock in the state, causing the death through starvation and pestilence of nearly half a million people, or over half the population. Because of the constant risk of droughts, many dams have been built throughout Ceará, the largest of them the Açude Castanhão; because of the dams, the Jaguaribe River no longer dries up completely. The t
Southeast Region, Brazil
The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for 60% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP; the Southeast of Brazil has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions. The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, industries, airports, highways, schools and many other areas. São Paulo Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where 400 species of birds, amphibians and mammals live; the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and caves and waterfalls.
There are 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil. Minas Gerais The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas dam. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines.
Rio de Janeiro The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it has, the third longest coastline in the country, extending 635 kilometers. Espírito Santo With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal plains, mountain forest and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin, the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch. Espírito Santo's climate is tropical with dry winters and rainy summers.
North of Doce River it's drier and hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is influenced by altitude, the average temperatures are colder; the state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra, part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Mountain Range. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, is shared with Minas Gerais. São Paulo state is responsible for one-third of Brazilian GDP; the state's GDP consists of 550 billion dollars, making it the second biggest economy of South America after Brazil and the biggest subdivision economy in Latin America. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, financial companies, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state. Vehicles: 36,030,943. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools.
English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. French is widely studied. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers; the project, in the tendering phase, is part of the
Rondônia is a state in Brazil, located in the northern part of the country. To the west is a short border with the state of Acre, to the north is the state of Amazonas, in the east is Mato Grosso, in the south and southwest is Bolivia, its capital is Porto Velho. The state was named after Cândido Rondon. Rondonia was home to over 200,000 km2 of rainforest, but has become one of the most deforested places in the Amazon. By 2003 around 70,000 km2 of rainforest had been cleared; the area around the Guaporé River is part of the Beni savanna ecoregion. The Samuel Dam is located on the Jamari River. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 1,519,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 6.6 inh./km². Urbanization: 66.8%. The last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 832,000 Brown people, 546,000 White people, 115,000 Black people, 16,000 Asian people, 8,000 Amerindian people; as of 2011 there were 21 Indigenous Territories in Rondônia, with two more in process of being demarcated.
The largest of these, the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau Indigenous Territory, covers over 1.8 million hectares. Another, the Rio Omerê Indigenous Territory, is home to the Kanoê and Akuntsu people, who number only four and five individuals respectively. Belmonte Airport is located in the state capital of Porto Velho. Official Website Rondonia Web
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Neighboring states are Rondônia, Pará, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; the nation of Bolivia is located to the southwest. A state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso has three different ecosystems: Cerrado and the Amazon Rainforest; the vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state. The Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, with caves, grottoes and waterfalls, is one of its tourist attractions. In the north is the Amazonian forest, with a biodiversity covering half of the state. Much of this has been disrupted and cleared for logging, agricultural purposes, pastures; the Xingu National Park and the Araguaia River are in Mato Grosso. Further south, the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, is the habitat for nearly one thousand species of animals, many aquatic birds. Located in the Mato Grosso is the Chapada dos Guimarães, a unique environment of sandstone mountains that have eroded into amazingly varied terrain.
The terrain of the Mato Grosso is varied and includes cliffs and waterfalls. The biologically rich Pantanal, one of the world's largest wetland/prairie ecosystems, is located within this state. Much environmental degradation has occurred to the Pantanal since the late 20th century because of development, efforts to contain or slow it have had limited success; the Pantanal has a habitat similar to that of the Everglades in Florida in the United States, although the Pantanal is on a much larger scale. See also: History of Mato GrossoIn 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul being organized as a new state; the Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso's capital and largest city, to protect settlers from Bororo raids. By the end of the 19th century, although reduced by disease and by warfare with explorers, slave traders, prospectors and other indigenous groups, as many as five to ten thousand Bororo continued to occupy central and eastern Mato Grosso, as well as western Goiás.
The southwestern part of this state was ceded by Brazil to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903. This remote area attracted expeditions of exploration in the early 20th century that sought to find lost civilizations. A notable example were efforts by British Captain Percy Fawcett. In addition, theorists of Hollow Earth speculated that this region had sites of access to the interior of the earth and its settlements. Mato Grosso had a high rate of population growth in the 20th century due to timber and agricultural development; the state as a whole still has one of the lowest population densities of any Brazilian state. According to the IBGE of 2018, 3,441,998 people resided in the state; the population density was 3.8 inh./km². Urbanization: 76.6%. Ethnically, the state includes a high proportion of caboclos, as do other areas of interior Brazil; the last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 1,532,000 Brown people. Agriculture is the largest component of GDP at 40.8%, followed by the service sector at 40.2%.
The industrial sector represents 19% of GDP. Mato Grosso exports: soybeans 83%, wood 5.6%, meats 4.8%, cotton 3.3%. The state's share of the Brazilian economy is 1.8%. Vehicles: 1,614,797. Portuguese is the official national language, as well as the primary language taught in schools; however and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. More than 58 universities are located in state of Mato Grosso. Cuiabá is home to the following universities: Federal University of Mato Grosso; the local culture is rich, due to the influences of and encounters with various cultures, such as indigenous peoples, colonial Spanish and other European settlers, Africans enslaved and transported there in the Atlantic slave trade by the Portuguese, other Europeans. Two long periods of isolation contributed to its developing along different lines than coastal areas of Brazil. Recent immigration has brought many urban influences to the state. Cuiabá has a rich cuisine influenced by natives, they have maintained traditional dances and music.
Dance and music were traditionally connected to the worship of Catholic saints and their festivals, Saint Benedict, being one of the favorite. The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday, known as Carnival is well celebrated; as with every state in Brazil, Mato Grosso celebrates this holiday in a typical fashion - including parades and dance - with wide participation. Fishing in the Teles Pires, São Benedito and Azul rivers is productive all year long. Bird watching: with the more than 570 species of catalogued birds and new species being discovered every year, the region of Alta Floresta and Azul River Basin receives constant visits from famous ornithologists and bird watchers; the largest sandstone cavern in Brazil, Aroe Jari, extends nearly 1,550 meters and several pr
Paraíba is a state of Brazil. It is located in the Brazilian Northeast, it is bordered by Rio Grande do Norte to the north, Ceará to the west, Pernambuco to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Paraíba is the third most densely populated state of the Northeast. Paraíba is most populated along the Atlantic coast, which extends as far as Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of the Americas; the state is industrial hotspot. It is named after the Paraíba river; some of the most notable Brazilian writers and poets are from Paraíba like Augusto dos Anjos, José Américo de Almeida, José Lins do Rego, Ariano Suassuna and Pedro Américo, the last being known for his historical paintings. See also: History of ParaíbaIn the mid-16th century, settlers from Spain and Portugal and Itamaracá founded Filipéia de Nossa Senhora das Neves at the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River; the area soon proved perfect for sugar production, with the French, the Dutch and the Portuguese all fighting to control the Paraíba region to grow the lucrative sugarcane in.
The fortress of Santa Catarina, near João Pessoa, was built to protect the city from the Dutch, who soon became a threat to Portuguese supremacy in Brazil. In late 1989 a team led by gemstone prospector Heitor Dimas Barbosa uncovered in a small mountain range what some consider to be the finest tourmaline crystals found. A trace of copper gives the tourmalines a vivid turquoise color that had never been seen before in the gems, is sometimes referred to as "neon"; the "neon" paraiba tourmaline, a vivid blue and blue green, has been found in other deposits close to the Batalha mine of Barbosa, in the neighboring state of Rio Grande do Norte. The bright colors of this tourmaline are due to the presence of copper. Around 2000, a similar copper-containing tourmaline was found in Nigeria, although the colors are not as intense. Around 2005, beautiful crystals of copper-containing tourmaline were found in Mozambique; the nomenclature for this tourmaline was "Paraíba tourmaline". Note the capitalization and the accent on the "i".
In 2006, the LMHC agreed that "paraiba" should refer to a variety of tourmaline, not indicate a geographic origin. Note "paraiba" is not capitalized, does not have an accent on the "i". For more information on paraiba tourmaline, see article on tourmaline; the term "paraiba tourmaline" may now refer to gems found in Brazil and Mozambique that contain copper and have the characteristic blue-green color. According to the IBGE census as of 2010, there were 3,766,528 people residing in the state, with a population density of 66.7 inh./km². Other numbers include: Urbanization rate: 75.4%, Population growth: 0.8% and Houses: 987,000. The 2010 census revealed the following figures relating ethnicity: 1,986,619 Brown people, 1,499,253 White, 212,968 Black and 67,636 people of Amerindian and Asian ancestry. Among people of mixed ancestry the White and African altogether combination is the most prevalent one, followed by caboclo and zambo. Vehicles: 432,337; the service sector is the largest component of GDP at 56.5%, followed by the industrial sector at 33.1%.
Agriculture represents 10.4%, of GDP. Paraíba exports: woven of cotton 36.3%, footweares 20.1%, sugar and alcohol 10.8%, fish and crustacean 9.7%, sisal 7%, cotton 6.6%. Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.8%. The Paraíba economy is based upon the making of shoes and other leather products, the raising of cattle for beef, sugarcane, corn. Though sugarcane has dominated the Paraíba agricultural sector, pineapple and beans cultivation are widespread; the other important economical sector in the state is tourism the state urban and unspoilt beaches and festivals such as "carnaval" and "São João." Portuguese is the official and only language spoken in the state and thus the primary language taught in schools. Minor dialectal differences regarding other Brazilian varieties are phonological. English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Festa Junina was introduced to Northeastern Brazil by the Portuguese for whom St John's day, on the 24th of June, is one of the oldest and most popular celebrations of the year.
Differently, of course, from what happens on the European Midsummer Day, the festivities in Brazil do not take place during the summer solstice but during the winter solstice. The festivities traditionally begin after the 12th of June, on the eve of St Anthony's day, last until the 29th, Saint Peter's day. During these fifteen days