2014 Indonesian legislative election
Legislative elections were held in Indonesia on 9 April 2014 to elect 136 members of the Regional Representative Council, 560 members of the People's Representative Council and members of regional assemblies at the provincial and regency/municipality level. For eligible voters residing outside Indonesia, elections were held on 5 or 6 April 2014 based on the decision of electoral commission of each different countries. A total of 46 parties registered to take part in the election nationwide, from which only 12 parties passed the requirements set by the General Elections Commission. To contest the elections, all parties had to have A branch office and branch in every province A branch office and branch in at least 75% of the regencies or municipalities in every province A branch in at least 50% of the districts in every regency or municipality At least 1,000 registered membersIn addition, at least one third of each party's candidates had to be female. All parties with seats in the People's Representative Council were to be allowed to contest the election without the need for verification, but on 29 August 2012, Indonesia's Constitutional Court overturned this provision, obliging all parties to undergo the process.
The results of this election were instrumental to the presidential election in July due to the requirement that a presidential ticket had to be supported by a party or a coalition of parties winning at least 20% of the seats or 25% of the popular votes in the legislative election. The 12 national and 3 Aceh parties, together with their ballot numbers were: National Democratic Party National Awakening Party Prosperous Justice Party Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle Golkar Party Great Indonesia Movement Party Democratic Party National Mandate Party United Development Party People's Conscience Party Aceh Peace Party Aceh National Party Aceh Party Crescent Star Party Indonesian Justice and Unity Party The schedule for the elections, as determined by the Indonesian General Elections Commission is as follows: On polling day, voters were given four ballot papers, one each for the national People's Representative Council and Regional Representative Council and one each for their local provincial and regency/municipality Regional Representative Councils.
Candidates for the DPR and DPRDI/II stand on a party platform. The ballot papers had a section for each of the parties with symbol. Under the symbols, that parties candidates were listed. Voters could vote for just the party, or one of the candidates by punching a hole in the ballot paper with the tool provided. Candidates for the DPD stood on an individual basis, so voters needed to punch a hole in the candidate's picture, ballot number or name. For the People's Representative Council election each province was divided into between one and eleven electoral districts depending on population; each of these electoral districts elected between three and ten members by proportional representation with a 3.5% national threshold. Once the votes were counted, the General Elections Commission eliminated any party that had failed to obtain a 3.5% share of the national vote. It allocated seats in the People's Representative Council via a two-stage process. First the number of votes to secure one DPR seat in each electoral district was calculated by dividing the number of valid votes by the number of seats to be elected in each district.
Each party's vote in each district was divided by this amount to determine the number of seats won outright. Any party with less than this amount won no seats in this first stage; the remaining votes were used to determine which party won any seats so far unallocated by awarding these seats to the parties with the largest remainders until all seats were allocated. For the Regional Representative Council each province, regardless of size and population, returns 4 members; the candidates for DPD stood independently. Voters were given only one vote; the system used is Single Non-Transferable Vote. Only parties with at least 25 percent of the popular vote or that control 20 percent of seats in the DPR were able to nominate candidates for the presidential election. Parties that did not achieve this percentage had to form a coalition with other parties to make up the required percentage share to nominate a candidate. Numerous opinion polls have been done by many different pollsters to gauge the voting intention of the electorate.
However, many of them are regarded to be unreliable. The quality of polling in Indonesia varies considerably. Further, some of the polling institutions provide little information about their polling methods; the data set out below should therefore be treated with care. Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle won the election by 18.95% votes, followed by Golkar with 14.75% votes and Great Indonesia Movement Party with 11.81% vote. However, neither of the parties can submit their own presidential candidate for the next 2014 Indonesian presidential election because none of them reached the electoral threshold for the presidential election, 20%
Constitution of Indonesia
The State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia of 1945 is the basis for the government of Indonesia. The constitution was written in June and August 1945, when Indonesia was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II, it was abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950, but restored on 5 July 1959. The 1945 Constitution set forth the Pancasila, the five nationalist principles devised by Sukarno, as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state, it provides for a limited separation of executive and judicial powers. The governmental system has been described as "presidential with parliamentary characteristics." Following major upheavals in 1998 and the resignation of President Suharto, several political reforms were set in motion, via amendments to the Constitution, which resulted in changes to all branches of government as well as additional human rights provisions. The Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies in 1942, defeated the Dutch colonial regime, occupied it for the duration of World War II.
The territory fell under the jurisdiction of the Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group, based in Saigon, Vietnam. The Japanese divided the territory into three military government regions, based on the largest islands: "Sumatra" was under the Japanese 25th Army, "Java" under the Japanese 16th Army and "East Indonesia", including part of "Borneo" was under the Imperial Japanese Navy; as the Japanese military position became untenable after their defeat at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944, more and more native Indonesians were appointed to official positions in the occupation administration. On 1 March 1945, the 16th Army established the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence, for Java; the 25th Army established a BPUPK for Sumatra. No such organisation existed for the remainder of Indonesia; the BPUPK in Java, when established, consisted of 62 members, but there were 68 in the second session. It was chaired by Dr Radjiman Wedyodiningrat; the future president Sukarno and vice-president Mohammad Hatta were among its members.
It met in the building, used by the Dutch colonial quasi-parliament, the Volksraad in central Jakarta. It held two sessions, 29 May – 1 June and 10–17 July 1945; the first session discussed general matters, including the philosophy of the state for future independent Indonesia, Pancasila. The philosophy was formulated by nine members of the BPUPK: Soekarno, Yamin, Soebardjo, Wahid Hasjim, Agus Salim and Abikoesno; the outcome was something of a compromise, included an obligation for Muslims to follow Sharia, the so-called Piagam Jakarta which changed to the current version of Pancasila. The second session produced a provisional constitution made up of 37 articles, 4 transitory provision and 2 additional provision; the nation would be a republic. On 26 July 1945, the Allies called for the unconditional surrender of Japan in the Potsdam Declaration; the Japanese authorities, realising they would lose the war, began to make firm plans for Indonesian independence, more to spite the Dutch than anything else.
On 6 August, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. On 7 August, the Nanpo Gun headquarters announced that an Indonesian leader could enact a body called the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence; the dropping of a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, the Soviet invasion of Manchuria on 9 August prompted the Japanese to surrender unconditionally on 15 August 1945. Sukarno and Hatta declared independence on 17 August 1945, the PPKI met the following day. In the meeting chaired by Sukarno, the 27 members, including Hatta, Wachid Hasjim, Sam Ratulangi and Subardjo, began to discuss the proposed constitution article by article; the Committee made some fundamental changes, including the removal of 7 words from the text of Jakarta Charter which stated the obligation for Muslims to follow Sharia. The new charter became the preambule of the constitution, the clause stating that the president must be a Muslim was removed; the historical compromise was made possible in part by the influence of Mohamad Hatta and Tengku Mohamad Hasan.
The Committee officially adopted the Constitution. The 1945 Constitution remained in force until it was replaced by the Federal Constitution on 27 December 1949; this was in turn replaced by the Provisional Constitution on 17 August 1950. In 1955 elections were held for the People's Representative Council as well as for a Constitutional Assembly to draw up a definitive constitution. However, this became bogged down in disputes between nationalists and Islamists over the role of Islam in Indonesia. Sukarno became disillusioned by this stagnation and with the support of the military, who saw a much greater constitutional role for themselves, began to push for a return to the 1945 Constitution; this was put to the vote on 30 May 1958 and 2 June 1959, but the motion failed to gain the required two-thirds majority. On 5 July 1959 President Sukarno issued a decree dissolving the assembly and returning to the 1945 Constitution. Suharto, who became president in 1968, refused to countenance any changes to the Constitution despite the fact that Sukarno had viewed it as a provisional document.
In 1983, the
Supreme Court of Indonesia
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia is the independent judicial arm of the state. It sits above the other courts and is the final court of appeal, it can re-examine cases if new evidence emerges. The Supreme Court is independent as of the third amendment to the Constitution of Indonesia; the Supreme Court has oversight over district courts. There are about 68 high courts: 31 General Courts, 29 Religious Courts, 4 Administrative Courts and 4 Military Courts. There are around 250 district courts with additional district courts being created from time to time; the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal following appeals from the district courts to the high courts. The Supreme Court can re-examine cases if sufficient new evidence is found. Constitutional matters, fall within the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia, established in 2003. According to the Constitution, candidates for Supreme Court Justices are required to have integrity and be of good character as well as be experienced in law.
Candidates are proposed to the House of Representatives by the Judicial Commission. If the House of Representatives approves them, their appointment is confirmed by the president; as of mid 2011, there was a total of 804 courts of various kinds in Indonesia. About 50 justices sat in the Supreme Court while other high and lower courts across Indonesia employed around 7,000 judges; the Supreme Court consists of 51 justices divided into 8 chambers. The chief justice and his or her deputy is elected by the Supreme Court justices from among the members of the court. Sometimes the process attracts public criticism. For example, in early 2012 rumours about vote buying were reported in the Jakarta press as speculation mounted about the arrangements underway for the selection of new chief justice to replace Harifin A. Tumpa. There was said to be "all-out competition" for the post of chief justice because of the influence that the position holds and it was rumoured that the competition might include payments.
In the election held on 8 February 2012, Muhammad Hatta Ali comfortably won the position of chief justice ahead of four other candidates. He was sworn in as chief justice by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono on 1 March 2012. Hatta first became a judge in 1982, he was appointed to the High Court in 2003 and to the Supreme Court in 2007. Wirjono Prodjodikoro, who held office from 1952 to 1966, has been the longest office-holder of the position of head justice. Like most of the Indonesian legal system, the Supreme Court is badly overloaded with demands on resources. One observer has noted that "the Supreme Court is drowning in an increasing flood of new cases each year". In 2010, for example, there were more than 22,000 cases before the court of which the court managed to rule on less than 14,000. In response to pressures of this kind, proposals for reform of the way that court business is conducted have been under consideration for some time. Current proposals indicate that a new chamber structure will be introduced to try to improve the operations of the court.
The plan is to introduce a system of five chambers which will deal with criminal, religious and military affairs. However, the changes are controversial; the funding for the Supreme Court allocated from the national government budget in 2010 was over Rp 6.0 trillion. One significant problem for the Indonesian legal system overall is that most Indonesian judges in lower courts are lowly paid; the official base salary of a judge, before some additional allowances, is below $US 300 per month. As a result, some judges are tempted to accept payments in the course of their duties; the low salaries paid to judges have been a source of much attention in Indonesia with judges urging the government and parliament to tackle the issue, threatening to go on strike over the matter. Poor performance and difficulties in lower courts leads to problems for the Supreme Court in the efforts by the Court to establish legal standards across the country; these problems receive considerable attention in Indonesia and there is much public discussion about the best ways to promote reform.
There are, at criticisms of the way that the court administers itself. In May 2014, for example, the Supreme Court justices collectively agreed to the use of the court budget for the hire of a special jet to take more than 180 justices to the Wakatobi diving resort in Southeast Sulawesi. Participants on the tour were housed in various hotels as the expense of the court. Judicial watchdog groups and others criticised the court although court officials defended the arrangement. One common criticism of the legal system in Indonesia is; when the law is clear, when courts issue clear rulings, enforcement is weak. In recent years, this criticism has been made of the operations of the Supreme Court in Indonesia as well of the operations of other parts of the Indonesian legal system; the issue is, in principle, a serious matter for the Supreme Court because enforcement of the rulings of the Supreme Court sets standards for the enforcement of rulings across much of the rest of the Indonesian legal system.
The central problem appears to be that the institutions and mechanisms for enforcement of the legal system, including the decision
Indonesian passport is a travel document issued by the Government of Indonesia to Indonesian citizens residing in Indonesia or overseas. The main governing body with regards to the issuance of such passport, possession and related matters is the Directorate General of Immigration under the Ministry of Law and Human Rights. Indonesia is one among many countries in the world that does not recognize multiple citizenship for its citizens and such citizens will automatically lose her/his Indonesian citizenship if another citizenship is acquired voluntarily. Special exceptions allow newly born citizens to hold dual nationalities until his/her eighteenth birthday after which a choice of either nationalities should be decided; the latest Indonesian passport has different national sceneries on each page. The latest version of Indonesian passport was first announced on 30 October 2014. Visible revisions include: Cover colour: Prior to 30 October 2014, ordinary Indonesian passports were issued with a dark green cover while the latest one is turquoise green.
Coat of arms: The coat of arms is now centered and larger than older editions Translation: Only'passport' appears bilingually while the phrase'Republik Indonesia' is not translated to'Republic of Indonesia'. Bearer's signature: The latest version contains the bearer's signature on page 48. Previous versions contained the bearer's signature on page 3. According to Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 31 Tahun 2013, ordinary passports consists of electronic and non-electronic versions. Effective from 26 January 2011, the Directorate General of Immigration introduced ordinary electronic passports for Indonesian citizens; the initial launch quota was set at 10,000 copies for the year 2011. Biometric passports were available only in three immigration offices: West Jakarta, Soekarno-Hatta, Central Jakarta, but availability has widened since the first quarter of 2014, with ordinary electronic passports being issued in all immigration offices in Jakarta and Batam. The electronic passports are available in 48 page versions.
The biometric chips are embedded within the back cover of the passports. In 2011 12,000 Indonesian citizens obtained biometric passports and starting from the 25th of January 2012, the Indonesian Immigration Authority launched computerized immigration gates at Soekarno Hatta International Airport, reducing queue time for biometric passport holders as they no longer need to check in manually at the immigration counter; the service is available both for departing passengers. The government plans to install computerized gates in airports throughout the country; as per second quarter of 2015, the electronic ordinary Indonesian passport is issued in the latest version, covered with turquoise green color. Indonesian e-passport holders can enjoy visa-free travel to Japan for up to 15 days per stay. Non-electronic passport holders do not enjoy this privilege and must have a visa whenever they want to travel to Japan. Visa-free privileges of other countries for Indonesian passport holders are valid for both passport types.
Issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for Indonesian subject, serving as diplomat and/or government person in order to travel for diplomatic purpose. Such passport covers the immediate family that would travel along with the main passport holder. Holding an Indonesian diplomatic passport does not guarantee a'diplomatic immunity' to its bearer although those who gain'diplomatic immunity' might be holding such passport. Holding such passport does not entitle the bearer to travel with the passport for non-diplomatic mission. Appropriate'non-diplomatic' visa or entry clearance should be obtained prior to travel to the destined country; the latest version of the Indonesian diplomatic passport is issued in a black colored-cover. Issued by Ministry of Foreign Affairs for Indonesian subject, serving as public servant on official travel; this type of passport is issued to the immediate family member of the main passport bearer. The Ministry of Religious Affairs issued hajj passports for the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca under Article 29 and Article 33 of the Immigration Act of 1992.
However, new government regulations in 2009 deleted the relevant portions of the legislation. As of Hajj 2009, all hajj pilgrims from Indonesia use ordinary passports; the use of ordinary passports is a requirement of the Saudi Arabian government. The passports contain a note from the issuing state, addressed to the authorities of all other states, identifying the bearer as a citizen of that state and requesting that he or she be allowed to pass and be treated according to international norms; the note is found on the first page of the passport, on the other side of the identity page. The note inside the latest version of Indonesian passports states: In Indonesian: Pemerintah Republik Indonesia memohon kepada semua pihak yang berkepentingan untuk mengizinkan kepada pemegang paspor ini berlalu secara leluasa dan memberikan bantuan dan perlindungan kepadanya. Paspor ini berlaku untuk seluruh negara dan wilayah kecuali ditentukan lain In English: The Government of the Republic of Indonesia requests to all whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass without let or hindrance and afford him/her such assistance and protection.
This passport is valid for all countries and areas unless otherwise end
Muhammad Jusuf Kalla is an Indonesian politician, Vice President of Indonesia since 2014, having served from 2004 to 2009. He was unsuccessful as Golkar's presidential candidate in the 2009 presidential election. Since 2009 Kalla has served as the Chairman of the Indonesian Red Cross Society. Before Kalla declared himself as the running mate for Joko Widodo in the 2014 presidential election, a 2012 poll placed his popularity among voters in the top three contenders for the presidency and ahead of his own party's nominee Aburizal Bakrie, he is the first person to hold two non-consecutive terms as Vice President of Indonesia. Jusuf Kalla was born on 15 May 1942 in the capital of the Bone Regency in South Sulawesi, his parents were Hadji Kalla, a local businessman and Athirah, a woman who sold Buginese silk for a living. He was the second of 10 children. After completing school, Kalla attended Hasanuddin University in Makassar. At university he became active in the Indonesian Student Action Front, a student organization which supported General Suharto in his bid to gain power from president Sukarno.
Kalla was elected as chair of South Sulawesi branch of KAMI. He showed interest in a political career, becoming a member of the Regional People's Representative Council and chairman of the Youth Division of Golkar when it was still organised under a Joint Secretariat format. In 1967 Kalla graduated from the Economics Faculty at Hasanuddin University; the economic situation was bleak at the time and his father, Hadji Kalla, considered shutting down the family business, NV Hadji Kalla. Instead, Kalla decided to take over the firm. Putting aside his political activities, in 1968 Kalla became CEO of NV Hadji Kalla while his father became chairman. In the beginning the business only had one employee and business was slow. Kalla's mother assisted by trading silk and running a small transportation business with three buses. Over time the business became quite successful. NV Hadji Kalla expanded from the export-import trading business into other sectors. In addition to being CEO of NV Hadji Kalla, Kalla was CEO of various subsidiaries of the firm.
In 1977, Kalla graduated from INSEAD, an international business school in Fontainebleau, south of Paris. "NV Hadji Kalla" is now known as the Kalla Group and is one of the leading business groups in Indonesia in Eastern Indonesia. Aside from his business career, Kalla has been active in numerous well-known organizations. From 1979 to 1989, he was chairman of the Indonesian Economics Graduates Association in Makassar and continues to be an adviser for ISEI. Kalla was extensively involved with the Chamber of Industry. From 1985 to 1998 he was chairman for KADIN in South Sulawesi and was coordinator for KADIN in eastern Indonesia. In addition, Kalla is on the board of trustees for three universities in Makassar. Kalla has contributed by building the Al Markaz Mosque and becoming chairman of its Islamic centre. Kalla is seen in The Act of Killing film praising Pancasila Youth and encouraging them to commit violence. Kalla returned to active politics in 1987 when he was appointed to the People's Consultative Assembly as a regional representative for South Sulawesi.
He was re-appointed to the MPR in 1992, 1997, 1999. When Kyai Haji Abdurrahman Wahid was elected as President by the MPR in 1999, Kalla was included in the cabinet and became Minister of Industry and Trade, he had only been a minister for six months when in April 2000 Wahid removed him along with the Minister of State-Owned Enterprises. Wahid accused both Kalla and minister Laksamana of corruption, although he never produced evidence to support the charge, Kalla denied the allegations. In July 2001, at a special session of the MPR, President Gus Dur was dismissed from office. Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri took over the presidency and included Kalla in her cabinet, appointing him to the senior post of Coordinating Minister of People's Welfare. Although it was not part of his ministerial brief, Kalla helped solve the inter-religious conflict in Poso on his native island of Sulawesi. Kalla facilitated the negotiation which resulted in the signing of the Malino II Accord on 20 December 2001 and an end to the conflict which had gone on for three years.
Two months Kalla helped solve another conflict in Sulawesi. On 12 February 2002, together with Coordinating Minister of Politics and Society Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, managed to solve a similar conflict on Ambon and Molucca through a second Malino Declaration. Now a popular figure for assisting with the peace process in Sulawesi, Kalla considered putting himself forward as a candidate in the 2004 presidential elections. In August 2003 he announced his candidacy and enlisted as a participant in Golkar's 2004 Convention which would choose the Golkar candidate for president; as the months went by, Kalla came to be seen more as a vice presidential candidate. He was expected to partner a Javanese presidential candidate and his non-Javanese background was seen as a means of attracting non-Javanese votes which a Javanese candidate might have trouble getting. Just days before the Golkar national convention, Kalla decided to withdraw from running under the Golkar banner. Rather, he accepted the offer from the Democratic Party's Yudhoyono to become his running mate.
The pair received the support of the Crescent Star Party, the Indonesian Justice and Unity Party, Reform Star Party. On 5 July 2004 the pr
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi is an Indonesian diplomat and the Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Working Cabinet. She is the first female minister appointed to the post, she was the Indonesian Ambassador to the Netherlands from 2012 to 2014, as well as Ambassador to Iceland and Norway from 2005 to 2008. Born in Semarang, Marsudi graduated from SMA 3 Semarang and continued her study in International Relations, to which she graduated from Gadjah Mada University in 1985, she pursued a Master's degree in International European Law & Policy at The Hague University of Applied Science and followed the Foreign Ministry training program at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael. Retno joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from university. Between 1997 and 2001, Marsudi served as First Secretary for Economic Affairs at the Indonesian Embassy in The Hague, Netherlands. In 2001, she was appointed as Director of America Affairs. Marsudi was promoted to Director of West Europe Affairs in 2003.
In 2005, she was appointed as the Indonesian Ambassador to Iceland. During her tenure, she was awarded the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit in December 2011, the first Indonesian to receive the award, she briefly took up study of human rights at the University of Oslo. Marsudi was appointed Director General for European and American Affairs. Marsudi was appointed as Indonesian Ambassador to the Netherlands in 2012, she has led various multilateral negotiations and bilateral consultations with the EU, ASEM, FEALAC. On 27 October 2014, she was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs by President Joko Widodo in his Working Cabinet. Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers List of female foreign ministers