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Subdivisions of Russia

Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions. Since 18 March 2014, the Russian Federation consisted of eighty-five federal subjects that are constituent members of the Federation. However, two of these federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol—are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. All federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, they do, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. There are 6 types of federal subjects—22 republics, 9 krais, 46 oblasts, 3 federal cities, 1 autonomous oblast, 4 autonomous okrugs. Autonomous okrugs are the only ones that have a peculiar status of being federal subjects in their own right, yet at the same time they are considered to be administrative divisions of other federal subjects. On 18 March 2014, as a part of the annexation of Crimea and following the establishment of the Republic of Crimea, a treaty was signed between Russia and the Republic of Crimea incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol as the constituent members of the Russian Federation.

According to the Treaty, the Republic of Crimea is accepted as a federal subject with the status of a republic while the City of Sevastopol has received federal city status. Neither the Republic of Crimea nor the city of Sevastopol are politically recognized as parts of Russia by international law and most countries. Prior to the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of Russia was regulated by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 17 August 1982 "On the Procedures of Dealing with the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the RSFSR"; the 1993 Constitution, did not identify the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions as the responsibility of the federal government nor as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the subjects. This was interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions became the responsibility of the federal subjects.

As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary from one federal subject to another. While the implementation details may be different, in general, the following types of high-level administrative divisions are recognized: administrative districts cities/towns and urban-type settlements of federal subject significance closed administrative-territorial formationsAutonomous okrugs and okrugs are intermediary units of administrative divisions, which include some of the federal subject's districts and cities/towns/urban-type settlements of federal subject significance. Autonomous okrugs, while being under the jurisdiction of another federal subject, are still constitutionally recognized as federal subjects on their own right. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is an exception in that it is not administratively subordinated to any other federal subject of Russia. Okrugs are former autonomous okrugs that lost their federal subject status due to a merger with another federal subject.

Typical lower-level administrative divisions include: selsoviets towns and urban-type settlements of the administrative district significance city districts In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of local self-government, guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by 1 January 2005, a law enforcing the reform provisions went in effect on 1 January 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division are as follows: Municipal district, a group of urban and rural settlements along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts. Urban settlement, a city/town or an urban-type settlement together with adjacent rural and/or urban localities Rural settlement, one or several rural localities Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district.

In practice, urban okrugs are formed within the boundaries of existing cities of federal subject significance. Intra-urban territory of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. In Moscow, these are called municipal formations. In Sevastopol, they are known as a town. Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories; the Federal Law was amended on 27 May 2014 to include new types of municipal divisions: Urban okrug with intra-urban divisions, an urban okrug divided into intra-urban districts at the lower level of the municipal hierarchy Intra-urban district, a municipal formation within an urban okrug with intra-urban divisions. This municipal formation type would be established within the borders of existing city districts. In June 2014, Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug became the first urban okrug to implement intra-urban divisions. All of the federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appoint

Church of the Resurrection, Rostov-on-Don

The Church of the Resurrection is an Armenian Apostolic church in the city of Rostov-on-Don, According to 2010 census data, Rostov-on-Don has a population of 41 550 Armenians, 3.4% of total city's population. The construction of the Church of the Resurrection began in October 2005. In 2011 it was finished and the church was consecrated on May 29, 2011 by Catholicos Karekin II; the church was built in the traditions of Armenian religious architecture. Its total height with the dome is about 40 meters; the building can accommodate about 300 parishioners. Walls inside and outside were stuffed with pink tuff, specially brought from Armenia; the altar and baptistery were made by Armenian masons of white marble with multi-layered carvings. The walls inside are not painted. On the ceiling there is a large chandelier. A gilded cross is erected on top of the building. In front of the church there are two khachkar stones on both sides of the front door. Khachkars were made of pink tuff and were installed in honor of friendship between Russian and Armenian peoples

Sawrey Gilpin

Sawrey Gilpin was an English animal painter and etcher who specialised in paintings of horses and dogs. He was made a Royal Academician. Gilpin was born in Carlisle in Cumbria, the seventh child of Captain John Bernard Gilpin, a soldier and amateur artist, Matilda Langstaffe, he was the younger brother of the Rev. William Gilpin, a clergyman and schoolmaster who wrote of several influential works on picturesque scenery; as a child Gilpin learnt to draw from his father. Having shown an early predilection for art, he was sent to London at the age of fourteen to study under the marine painter Samuel Scott in Covent Garden. Gilpin, preferred sketching the passing market carts and horses, it soon became evident that animals horses, were his speciality. Gilpin left Scott in 1758, devoted himself to animal painting from on; some of his sketches were shown to the Duke of Cumberland, much impressed by them, employed Gilpin to draw from his stud at Newmarket and at Windsor, where he was ranger of the Great Park.

He afforded the artist considerable material assistance in his profession. Gilpin lived at Knightsbridge in London for some years, he became one of the best painters of horses that the country had produced, was as successful in other areas of animal art. He sometimes attempted historical pictures on a larger scale in which horses were prominent, but with rather less success, he was purely an animal painter, required the assistance of others to paint landscapes and figures. Gilpin first exhibited with the Incorporated Society of Artists in 1762, continued to show pictures there of horses, up to 1783. In 1768, 1770-1, he exhibited a series of pictures illustrating "Gulliver's visit to the Houyhnhnms", one of, engraved in mezzotint by Valentine Green. In 1773 he became a director of the society, in 1774 president, he exhibited at the Royal London from 1786 until his death. He was elected an associate of the academy in 1795, Royal Academician in 1797. Gilpin married Elizabeth Broom. After his wife's death Gilpin lived in Bedfordshire with his friend Samuel Whitbread.

He returned to London and spent his last years with his daughters at Brompton, where he died on 8 March 1807. His pupils included George Garrard; the latter married his eldest daughter Matilda. Many of his pictures of horses and sporting scenes were engraved, notably The Death of the Fox, engraved by John Scott, he made some etchings of horses and cattle, made many illustrations for the works, both published and unpublished, of his brother William. His portrait is included in the series of drawings by George Dance, engraved by William Daniell, now in the National Portrait Gallery. There are works by Gilpin in the collections of the Courtauld Institute of Art, Tate Britain, the Royal Academy, in London and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Cross, David A. Sawrey Gilpin R. A.: Rival of Stubbs, Armitt Library Journal, vol. 1 1998 pp. 64–85 Gilbey, Sir Walter. Animal painters of England from the year 1650, volume 1 p190 ff. 20 paintings by or after Sawrey Gilpin at the Art UK site Sawrey Gilpin online Paintings by Gilpin in British public collections Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections