A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west; the CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. The C. A. R. is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012. Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin, while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad. What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy.
Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, civil war resumed in 2012, still ongoing. Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, diamonds, cobalt and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017; as of 2015, according to the Human Development Index, the country had the lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 188 countries. It is estimated to be the unhealthiest country as well as the worst country in which to be young; the Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.
10,000 years ago, desertification forced hunter-gatherer societies south into the Sahel regions of northern Central Africa, where some groups settled. Farming began as part of the Neolithic Revolution. Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, before 3000 BC the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations; this Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants; the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the late Neolithic Era. Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR.
Bananas added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet. Production of copper, dried fish, textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. During the 16th and 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan and Nile River slave routes, their captives were enslaved and shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West and North Africa or South the Ubanqui and Congo rivers. In the mid 19th century, the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River. In 1875, the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR; the European invasion of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa. Europeans the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885.
France seized and colonized Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894. In 1911 at the Treaty of Fez, France ceded a nearly 300,000 km² portion of the Sangha and Lobaye basins to the German Empire which ceded a smaller area to France. After World War I France again annexed the territory. Modeled on King Leopold's Congo Free State, concessions were doled out to private companies that endeavored to strip the region's assets as and cheaply as possible before depositing a percentage of their profits into the French treasury; the concessionary companies forced local people to harvest rubber and other commodities without pay and held their families hostage until they met their quotas. Between 1890, a year after the French first arrived, 1940, the population declined by half due to diseases and exploitation by private companies. In 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was
History of the Central African Republic
The history of the Central African Republic is composed of four distinct periods. The earliest period of settlement began around 10,000 years ago when nomadic people first began to settle and fish in the region; the next period began around 1,000 to 3,000 years ago when several non-indigenous groups began to migrate into the region from other parts of the continent. The third period involved the colonial conquest and rule of the country by France and Germany which spanned from the late 1800s until 1960 when the Central African Republic became an independent state; the final period has been the era during which the Central African Republic has been an independent state. 10,000 years ago, desertification forced hunter-gatherer societies south into the Sahel regions of northern Central Africa, where some groups settled and began farming as part of the Neolithic Revolution. Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, later the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations.
Bananas added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants; the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the late Neolithic Era. Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR. Production of copper, dried fish, textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region.
The territory of modern Central African Republic is known to have been settled from at least the 7th century on by overlapping empires, including the Kanem-Bornu, Ouaddai and Dafour groups based on the Lake Chad region and along the Upper Nile. During the 16th and 17th centuries Muslim slave traders began to raid the region and their captives were shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West African coast; the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi river. Population migration in the 18th and 19th centuries brought new migrants into the area, including the Zande and Baya-Mandjia. In 1875, the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR. Europeans the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885.
The French consolidated their legal claim to the area through an 1887 convention with Congo Free State, which granted France possession of the right bank of the Oubangui River. Two years the French established an outpost at Bangui, in 1894, Oubangui-Chari became a French territory. However, the French did not consolidate their control over the area until 1903, after having defeated the forces of Rabih in the battle of Kousséri, established colonial administration throughout the territory. In 1906, the Oubangui-Chari territory was united with the Chad colony; the next thirty years were marked by small scale revolts against French rule and the development of a plantation-style economy. The largest of these revolts was the Kongo-Wara rebellion, when over 350,000 natives rebelled against the colonial administration; the European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa. Count Savorgnan de Brazza established the French Congo and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River from Brazzaville in an effort to expand France's claims to territory in Central Africa.
Belgium and the United Kingdom competed to establish their claims to territory in the region. In 1889, the French established a post on the Ubangi River at Bangui. In 1890–91, de Brazza sent expeditions up the Sangha River, in what is now south-western CAR, up the center of the Ubangi basin toward Lake Chad, eastward along the Ubangi River toward the Nile, with the intention of expanding the borders of the French Congo to link up the other French territories in Africa. In 1894, the French Congo's borders with Leopold II of Belgium's Congo Free State and German Cameroon were fixed by diplomatic agreements. In 1899, the French Congo's border with Sudan was fixed along the Congo-Nile divide; this situation left France without her much coveted outlet on the Nile. Once European negotiators had agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the costly occupation and development of the territory it had acquired; the reported financial successes of Leopold II's concessionary companies in the Congo Free State convinced the French government to grant 17 private companies large concessions in the Ubangi-Shari region in 1899.
In return for the right to exploit these lands by buying local products and selling European goods, the companies promised to pay rent to France and to promote
Central African CFA franc
The Central African CFA franc is the currency of six independent states in Central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. These six countries have a combined population of 48.0 million people, a combined GDP of US$88.2 billion. CFA stands for Coopération financière en Afrique centrale, it is issued by the BEAC, located in Yaoundé, for the members of the CEMAC. The franc is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes but no centime denominations have been issued. In several west African states, the West African CFA franc, of equal value to the Central African CFA franc, is in circulation; the CFA franc was introduced to the French colonies in Equatorial Africa in 1945, replacing the French Equatorial African franc. The Equatorial African colonies and territories using the CFA franc were Chad, French Cameroun, French Congo and Ubangi-Shari; the currency continued in use. Equatorial Guinea, the only former Spanish colony in the zone, adopted the CFA franc in 1984, replacing the Equatorial Guinean ekwele at a rate of 1 franc = 4 bipkwele.
In 1948, coins were issued for use in all the colonies in denominations of 2 francs. This was the last issue of a 2-franc coin for nearly 50 years. In 1958, 5-, 10- and 25-franc coins were added, which were used in French Cameroun; these bore the name Cameroun in addition to États de l'Afrique Equatoriale. In 1961, nickel 50-franc coins were introduced, followed by nickel 100-franc pieces in 1966. From 1971, the 100-franc coins were issued by the individual states. In 1976, cupro-nickel 500-franc coins were introduced. From 1985, these were issued by the individual states; that year saw the introduction of 5-, 25-, 50- and 100-franc coins for use in Equatorial Guinea. In 1996, centralized production of the 100-franc coin was resumed, with a single 500-franc coin reintroduced in 1998. In 2006, a steel 2-franc coin was introduced; when the CFA franc was introduced, notes issued by the Caisse Centrale de la France d'Outre-Mer in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 100 and 1000 francs were in circulation. In 1947, a new series of notes was introduced for use in French Equatorial Africa, although the notes did not bear the name of the colonies.
Notes were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 francs, followed by those of 500 francs in 1949, 5000 francs in 1952. In 1957, the Institut d'Emission de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française et du Cameroun took over paper money production, issuing all of the earlier denominations except for the 5000-franc bill. In 1961, the Banque Centrale des Etats de l'Afrique Equatoriale et du Cameroun took over banknote production, with notes below 100 francs ceasing to be issued; the name of the bank changed to Banque Centrale des Etats de l'Afrique Equatoriale in 1963. 10,000-franc notes were introduced in 1968, whilst the 100-franc notes were replaced by coins in 1971. In 1975, the bank name changed again to the Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale and the individual states began issuing notes in their own names, in denominations of 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 francs; this practice ended in 1993. Since the banknotes have been issued with only a letter prominently displayed to distinguish between the issues of the different states.
2000 franc notes were introduced in 1993. African Central Bank African and Malagasy Union Council of Arab Economic Unity Economic Community of West African States French Equatorial African franc West African CFA francGeneral: Monetary union Economy of Cameroon Economy of the Central African Republic Economy of Chad Economy of the Republic of the Congo Economy of Equatorial Guinea Economy of Gabon Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale Central African CFA franc Banknotes
Central African Republic conflict under the Djotodia administration
An internal conflict in the Central African Republic started on 13 April 2013, when the government of President Michel Djotodia took over. The fighting was between the government of the Central African Republic's former Séléka coalition of rebel groups, who are from the Muslim minority, the Christian anti-balaka coalition; the conflict was part of the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War. International organisations, such as the United Nations, had warned of a possible genocide. UNSC resolution 2122 authorised the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic to be deployed to the country, France to lead operations with additional troops sent to bolster its force in the country. Following a summit of Economic Community of Central African States, including the attendance of all the country's MPs, Djotodia resigned from the presidency on 10 January 2014; the National Transitional Council chose Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza as interim president on 20 January 2014.
A period of lawlessness prevailed during the early days of her presidency with people moving into religiously cleansed neighbourhoods as the UN warned of a genocide. Anti-Balaka attacks continued against Muslim civilians; the Central African Republic Bush War began with the rebellion by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in North-Eastern CAR, led by Michel Djotodia, after François Bozizé seized power in 2003. This escalated into major fighting during 2004. During this conflict, the UFDR rebel forces fought the CAR government concurrently with several other rebel groups that were located in other parts of the country, including the Groupe d'action patriotique pour la libération de Centrafrique, the Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace, the People's Army for the Restoration of Democracy, the Movement of Central African Liberators for Justice, the Front démocratique Centrafricain. On 13 April 2007, a peace agreement between the UFDR was signed in Birao. Further negotiations resulted in an agreement in 2008 for reconciliation, a unity government, local elections in 2009 and parliamentary and presidential elections in 2010.
The new unity government that resulted was formed in January 2009. In 2012, the Séléka alliance conflict began against the government of François Bozizé. Though there were intermittent halts in the fighting, the group took over the capital and Bozizé fled the country. CEEAC brokered an agreement forming the National Transitional Council. Since the Bozizé government was ousted, the writ of the state has been effected with a prevalence of "insecurity" as a result of the proliferation of armed groups. Though state institutions were considered weak by Western norms, they disintegrated following looting and the destruction of most of the country's administrative and judicial infrastructure. Séléka's leadership failed to have effective control over the various armed forces within its coalition, despite being dissolved on 13 September, its former constituents are still able to carry on. Furthermore, fighting between various armed forces has affected many parts of the country. Militarisation has been at further risk over the emergence of militias opposed to Séléka.
Since the new government came to power fighting has continued throughout the country with a law and order problem and other instances of violence such as sexual violence. There has been ethno-religious fighting between the Muslim and Christian communities. Further there have been concerns of Islamists setting up a base in the country, including Boko Haram who are present in neighbouring Cameroon; the increasing violence was from reprisal attacks on civilians from Séléka's Muslim fighters and Christian militias called "anti-balaka", meaning'anti-machete' or'anti-sword'. As many Christians had sedentary lifestyles and many Muslims were nomadic, claims to the land were yet another dimension of the tensions. According to Human Rights Watch, Séléka gunmen killed at least 40 civilians, intentionally destroyed 34 villages or towns from February 11 to June 2, 2013. Witnesses said the attackers were Séléka fighters in uniform, sometimes in cooperation with armed Mbarara – nomadic pastoralists who move their cattle between Chad and the Central African Republic – who traveled on horseback or motorcycle.
The Séléka fired on civilians while they were fleeing. In August 2013, the UN Security Council warned that the Central African Republic poses a "serious threat" to regional stability following the rebel takeover in March and there had been "a total breakdown in law and order". More than 200,000 people fled their homes and many are living rough in the bush, said UN humanitarian chief Valerie Amos, who had visited the country. Save the Children spokesman Mark Kaye reported that the country's healthcare system was in ruins after being looted: "All the pharmacies have been hit. There are no medications, no drugs, equipment has been stolen. I've been to hospitals where the mattresses have been stolen."In August 2013, the deposed President Francois Bozize told French media he intended to return to power and see the rebels ousted, had formed the Front for the Return of Constitutional Order in the CAR, a group aiming to bring the world's attention to actions of Séléka and their report
Bangui is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic. As of 2012 it had an estimated population of 734,350, it was established as a French outpost in 1889 and named after its location on the northern bank of the Ubangi River. The majority of the population of the Central African Republic lives in the western parts of the country, in Bangui and the surrounding area; the city forms an autonomous commune of the Central African Republic, surrounded by the Ombella-M'Poko prefecture. With an area of 67 square kilometres, the commune is the smallest high-level administrative division in the country, but the highest in terms of population; the city consists of 16 groups and 205 neighbourhoods. As the capital of the Central African Republic, Bangui acts as an administrative and commercial centre, it is served by the Bangui M'Poko International Airport. The National Assembly, government buildings, foreign enterprises and embassies, hotels, main markets and the Ngaragba Central Prison are all located here.
Bangui manufactures textiles, food products, beer and soap. Its Notre-Dame Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangui; the city is home to the University of Bangui, inaugurated in 1970. Bangui has been the scene of intense rebel activity and destruction during decades of political upheaval, including the recent rebellion; as a result of political unrest, the city was named in 1996 as one of the most dangerous in the world. Archaeological studies in and around Bangui have yielded at least 26 ancient Iron Age sites that contain many metallurgical tools and objects, illuminating the pre-European history of the city and surrounding area; the archaeological sites were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on 11 April 2006 in the Cultural category. The site closest to Bangui is Pendere-Sengue, 800 metres from Independence Avenue, where archaeologists and conservation agencies have carried out studies, it is a paleo-metallurgical site where several thousand shards of ceramics, iron tools, an iron spatula weighing 9 kilograms have been unearthed.
Its dating, compared with similar sites in Nigeria and Sudan, could be close to the 9th century BC. Bangui was founded by Albert Dolisie and Alfred Uzac on 26 June 1889, in what was the upper reaches of the French Congo, the present-day Congo; the original site was 6 miles south of the Ubangi rapids. Its territory was organized first into the territory of the Upper Ubangi and as the separate colony of Ubangi-Shari; the initial capitals of these areas were at les Abiras and Fort de Possel further upstream, but the rapids at Bangui blocked them from direct communication along the river and caused the settlement there to grow in importance until, in 1906, it was chosen as the new headquarters for the French administration. Bangui retained its importance as a military and administrative centre when the colony was folded into French Equatorial Africa and under both Vichy and Free French control during World War II; the French operated a radio transmitter in Bangui, described in 1932 as "the most remote radio station in Africa".
The colony of Ubangi-Shari received its autonomy in 1958 as the Central African Republic and this became independent from France in 1960. In 1970, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa inaugurated the University of Bangui, he established the national airline Air Centrafrique the following year and ordered the construction of two new luxury hotels in Bangui. With tensions mounting between Bangui and Paris as a result of Bokassa's uncontrollable expenditures, western banks refused to lend him any more money. Relations with the French worsened still further in April 1974, when Brigette Miroux's body was discovered in a hotel room in Bangui, it was reported in the French media that she had been Bokassa's mistress and that he was responsible for her murder. As a result, Bokassa banned imports of French newspapers and assumed control of the Agence France-Presse office in Bangui. By 1975, Bangui had a population of 300,723. In March 1981, widespread violence took place in Bangui following elections, after Operation Caban led the French to drop Bokassa, replaced him with David Dacko.
Opponents of the President were forced to flee the country. After returning voluntarily to Bangui in the autumn of 1986, Bokassa went on trial. Faced with the death penalty, in February 1988 he was instead sentenced to life imprisonment, his successor was General André Kolingba, army chief of staff of Decko’s army, who took over control from the local French military on 1 September 1981 under the pretext that the country was heading towards civil war. Although he attempted to combat corruption and control the national economy, he was unable to achieve his reforms. By the middle of the 1980s the country’s economic situation had deteriorated as 80% of the revenue went towards meeting the salaries of the staff. Under pressure from France and other western countries, Kolingba restored democracy in the country in 1991 with a multiparty government but elections could be held only three years in August 1994. During the elections, Ange-Félix Patassé was elected to the post of president. Since he was from northern CAR, the southern group of Kolingba started a rebellion during 1996.
In May 1996, about 200 soldiers of the Central African Republic mutinied in Ban