President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The position of president in the DRC has existed since the first constitution – known as The Fundamental Law – of 1960; however the powers of this position have varied over the years, from a limited shared role in the executive branch, with a prime minister, to a full-blown dictatorship. Under the current constitution, the President exists as the highest institution in a semi-presidential republic; the president is protected by the Republican Guard. The constitutional mandate of the president, Joseph Kabila, was due to expire on 20 December 2016 but was extended by him until the end of 2017 and he continued to remain in post until a presidential election was held in December 2018 when Félix Tshisekedi was elected and took office on 24 January 2019; the semi-presidential system established by the constitution is borrowed from the French constitution.
Although it is the prime minister and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual lawmaking, the president wields significant influence, both formally and from constitutional convention. The president holds the nation's most senior office, outranks all other politicians; the president's greatest power is his or her ability to choose the prime minister. However, the President must nominate the prime minister from among the parliamentary majority after consultation with the parliamentary majority, if an obvious majority exists, if it does not exist, must nominate a prime minister who has a once renewable 30 day exploratory mandate to form a coalition; the prime minister and cabinet must present their plan of action to the National Assembly, which must approve the government and the plan of action by an absolute majority. Only the National Assembly has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government; when the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation.
In that case, the president's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive prime minister and National Assembly, is not directly attributed to the post of president. Still, the constitutional convention is that the president directs foreign policy, though he must work on that matter with the Minister of Foreign Affairs; when the majority of the Assembly sides with him, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The prime minister is de a mere "fuse" – and can be replaced if the administration becomes unpopular. Among the formal powers of the president: The president ensures respect of the constitution and ensures the proper functioning of the public authorities and institutions as well as the continuity of the State, he guarantees the independence, territorial integrity, sovereignty of the nation and ensures the observance of international treaties. The president appoints the Prime Minister and, acting on the advice of the latter and removes the other members of the government.
The president convokes and presides at meetings of the Council of Ministers, promulgates the laws, issues ordinances The president invests the elected Governors and Vice-Governors of the Provinces with their powers. The president appoints and removes, on the proposal of the government and after deliberation by the Council of Ministers:Ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel; the president chairs the High Defense Council. The president confers national honors; the president may declare a state of emergency or a state of siege "When grave circumstances constitute a present threat to the independence or the integrity of the national territory or when they provoke the disruption of the proper functioning of the institutions." The president may declare war with the authorization of both chambers of parliament, after deliberation by the Council of Ministers, after hearing the opinion of the High Defense Council. The President may reduce sentences; the President appoints and accredits ambassadors to foreign countries and international organizations, receives ambassadors accredited to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The President defines national policy in coordination with the government and is responsible, in cooperation with the government, for defense and foreign affairs. The president has a limited form of suspensive veto: when presented with a law, he or she can request another reading of it by parliament, but only once per law. Article 72 of the Congolese constitution states that the President must be a natural-born citizen – or more accurately: French: citoyen d'origine – of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, at least 30 years of age. Additionally, the President must be free of any legal constraints on their civil and political rights. Article 10 of the same constitution defines citoyen d'origine as: "anyone belonging to the ethnic groups whose persons and territory constituted what became the Congo, at
Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Boma is a port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It had an estimated population of 162,521 in 2012. Boma was the capital city of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo from 1 May 1886 to 1926, when the capital was moved to Léopoldville; the port handles exports of tropical timber, bananas and palm products. Boma was founded as a slaving station and entrepôt by merchants of several European countries in the 16th century. Trade was chiefly in the hands of Dutch merchants, but British and Portuguese firms had factories there. No European power exercised sovereignty, though claims were from time to time put forward by Portugal. British explorer Henry Morton Stanley arrived here on 9 Aug. 1877, after crossing Africa from east to west. In 1884 the people of Boma were forced to'grant' a protectorate of their country to the International Association of the Congo, made up of European powers. In 1886 King Leopold of Belgium established the Congo Free State.
He ran the state as his personal fiefdom for several years, nearly enslaving many Congolese with a private military, abusing them to force rubber production. International outrage and action by the Belgian legislature resulted in the government taking over supervision of what was established as the colony of the Belgian Congo. Boma continued as the capital of the Belgian Congo until 1926. Léopoldville, since renamed as Kinshasa, was designated as the new capital.. Boma lies on the north bank of the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from Muanda, where the river flows into the Atlantic Ocean; the great width and depth of the river allow seagoing ships to reach Boma, the second-largest port of DR Congo, after Matadi. Between 1889 and 1984, the port was served by a 610 mm gauge railway line from Tshela. Antoine-Roger Bolamba and poet, was born here in 1913. Mpongo Lanu, popular Congolese singer, born in Boma 1956, d. 1990. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical dry.
The highest record temperature was 41 °C on February 25, 1976, while the lowest record temperature was 10 °C on October 21, 1976. Transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Media related to Boma, Congo-Kinshasa at Wikimedia Commons "" – via Digital Public Library of America. Boma Panorama
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
Kolwezi or Kolwesi is the capital city of Lualaba Province in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi. It is home to a railway to Lubumbashi; the population is 453,000. Kolwezi is an important mining centre for cobalt. There are uranium, oxide ores, lime deposits; the Musonoi mine is a set of open-cut pits near Kolwezi from which copper and other metals have been extracted since the 1940s. The nearby Lake Nzilo was created by damming the Lualaba River to provide a source of hydroelectric power and a reservoir of water for the mining activities; the city was created in 1937 to be the headquarters for the western mining group of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga. Near Kolwezi there is the static inverter plant of the HVDC Inga-Shaba. On Saturday,13 May 1978, ex – Katangese soldiers supported by Angola, occupied the city; the government of Zaire asked Belgium, France and the United States to restore order. The 2e REP, an elite paratroopers unit of the French Foreign Legion, were sent in to drive out the rebels and rescue any hostages.
The Belgian army deployed a force of some 750 Paracommando Regiment paratroopers and moved out just over 1,800 Europeans to other cities in the region. 700 Africans, including 250 rebels, 170 European hostages and 6 paratroopers died. Kolwezi has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate; the Kolwezi Airport serves the surrounding area. The airport is located about 6 km south of Kolwezi. University of Kolwezi Shaba I Shaba II Angolan Civil War "The French Foreign Legion in Kolwezi" By Roger Rousseau aux Editions Rexy ISBN 2-9526927-1-8
North Kivu is a province bordering Lake Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its capital is Goma. North Kivu borders the provinces of Ituri to the north, Tshopo to the northwest, Maniema to the southwest, South Kivu to the south. To the east, it borders the countries of Rwanda; the province consists of three cities—Goma and Beni—and six territories—Beni, Masisi, Rutshuru and Walikale. The province is home to the Virunga National Park, a World Heritage Site containing the endangered mountain gorillas; the region is politically unstable and since 1998 has been one of the flashpoints of the military conflicts in the region. North Kivu was a "sub-region" in the region of Kivu; the region was the scene of much fighting during the Second Congo War, the Kivu conflict. Laurent Nkunda was offered the rank of Brigadier General and command of the new Congo Government's FARDC Eighth Military Region, covering North Kivu, by DRC government decree 019/2003 of August 19, 2003. However, he refused to take up the post.
On May 26, 2004, General Obed Wibasira was named to the position. However, Wibasira was suspected of complicity with the soldiers in Goma who had triggered a mutiny in Bukavu in February 2004, on January 23, 2005, he was switched with Gabriel Amisi Kumba, at the time commander of the Fifth Military Region in Kasaï-Oriental. Gabriel Amisi Kumba was named as a Brigadier General. General Louis Ngizo, a former commander of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, was appointed a commander in November 2006; however he was of little influence compared to powerful military figures from Kinshasa, U. S. diplomats said in comments released via WikiLeaks. Brigadier General Vainqueur Mayala was transferred from command of the Ituri operational zone, promoted to Major General, appointed military region commander in May 2007. Ngizo left Goma on his next posting not being known at the time. During late 2008, the FARDC maintained its dismal record in combat against Laurent Nkunda's CNDP faction, losing the Rumangabo military camp to the rebels.
The dissident Mai-Mai 85th Brigade, commanded by Colonel Samy Matumo, controlled the cassiterite mine at Bisie, just north of Manoire in Walikale, in the south-east of North Kivu. The former RCD-K/ML has fighters in the province; the Effacer le tableau and Beni massacre occurred in the province. In October 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warned of an increasing number of internally displaced people in North Kivu related to the fighting there between the government army, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda rebels and renegade troops, including Laurent Nkunda's forces, a build-up of military supplies and forces, including the reported recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups across North Kivu; the UNHCR thought that there were over 370,000 people in North Kivu displaced since December 2006, is expanding its camps in the Mugunga area where over 80,000 IDPs were estimated. The brief capture of Goma, by M23 rebels caused "tens of thousands" of refugees.
The town of Sake was abandoned. List of governors of North Kivu Denis Tull, The reconfiguration of political order in Africa: a case study of North Kivu, Volume 13 of Hamburg African studies, Institut für Afrika-Kunde, GIGA-Hamburg, 2005, ISBN 3-928049-90-9, ISBN 978-3-928049-90-0, 342 pages Official website Map of North Kivu
Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo consists of two chambers: The Senate The National Assembly The most recent Parliament was inaugurated on January 28, 2019. Politics of the Democratic Republic of the Congo List of legislatures by country Parlement de la Republique Democratique du Congo, Official Site National Assembly Senate
Visa policy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Visitors to the Democratic Republic of the Congo must obtain a visa from one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo diplomatic missions unless they come from a visa exempt country, a country whose nationals can obtain a visa on arrival, or are arriving from a country with no embassy, in which case they can obtain a visa confirmation followed by a 7-day visa on arrival. In recent years, it is possible to arrange a tourist visa for visiting the Virunga National Park through the park itself. Visitors requiring a visa need to submit a legalised letter of invitation from a DRC person or organization. For tourists, a hotel booking confirmation is accepted in case the traveller has no contact in the DRC. Citizens of the following 4 countries can visit the Democratic Republic of the Congo without a visa for up to 90 days: Holders of diplomatic or service passports issued to nationals of Angola and South Africa do not require a visa for the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A visa exemption agreement was signed with United Arab Emirates in November 2018 and it is yet to come into force.
Citizens of the following 3 countries can visit the Democratic Republic of the Congo by obtaining a visa on arrival valid for up to 7 days: Other nationals arriving from a country with no DRC embassy can apply for a visa confirmation. A letter of request is sent via e-mail to the Direction Générale de Migration with a photocopy of the passport of the applicant and the inviting person/organization. A confirmation is sent to the applicant, used to obtain a visa on arrival, valid for 7 days and extendable in the DRC; as tourism is growing for Virunga National Park, the government has joined forces and allowed the Park to act as a facilitator in the visa process. Local tour operators can as facilitators in the process. Visa requirements for Democratic Republic of the Congo citizens