File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, documents or electronic books. File sharing may be achieved in a number of ways. Common methods of storage and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking. Peer-to-peer file sharing is based on the peer-to-peer application architecture. Shared files on the computers of other users are indexed on directory servers. P2P technology was used by popular services like Limewire; the most popular protocol for P2P sharing is BitTorrent. Cloud-based file syncing and sharing services implement automated file transfers by updating files from a dedicated sharing directory on each user's networked devices. Files placed in this folder are accessible through a website and mobile app, can be shared with other users for viewing or collaboration; such services have become popular via consumer-oriented file hosting services such as Dropbox and Google Drive.
Rsync is a more traditional program released in 1996 which synchronizes files on a direct machine-to-machine basis. Data synchronization in general can use other approaches to share files, such as distributed filesystems, version control, or mirrors. Files were first exchanged on removable media. Computers were able to access remote files using filesystem mounting, bulletin board systems, FTP servers. Internet Relay Chat and Hotline enabled users to communicate remotely through chat and to exchange files; the mp3 encoding, standardized in 1991 and reduced the size of audio files, grew to widespread use in the late 1990s. In 1998, MP3.com and Audiogalaxy were established, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act was unanimously passed, the first mp3 player devices were launched. In June 1999, Napster was released as an unstructured centralized peer-to-peer system, requiring a central server for indexing and peer discovery, it is credited as being the first peer-to-peer file sharing system. Gnutella, eDonkey2000, Freenet were released in 2000, as MP3.com and Napster were facing litigation.
Gnutella, released in March, was the first decentralized file sharing network. In the gnutella network, all connecting software was considered equal, therefore the network had no central point of failure. In July, Freenet became the first anonymity network. In September the eDonkey2000 client and server software was released. In 2001, Kazaa and Poisoned for the Mac was released, its FastTrack network was distributed, though unlike gnutella, it assigned more traffic to'supernodes' to increase routing efficiency. The network was proprietary and encrypted, the Kazaa team made substantial efforts to keep other clients such as Morpheus off of the FastTrack network. In July 2001, Napster was sued by several recording companies and lost in A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.. In the case of Napster, it has been ruled that an online service provider could not use the "transitory network transmission" safe harbor in the DMCA if they had control of the network with a server. Shortly after its loss in court, Napster was shut down to comply with a court order.
This drove users to other P2P applications and file sharing continued its growth. The Audiogalaxy Satellite client grew in popularity, the LimeWire client and BitTorrent protocol were released; until its decline in 2004, Kazaa was the most popular file sharing program despite bundled malware and legal battles in the Netherlands and the United States. In 2002, a Tokyo district court ruling shut down File Rogue, the Recording Industry Association of America filed a lawsuit that shut down Audiogalaxy. From 2002 through 2003, a number of BitTorrent services were established, including Suprnova.org, isoHunt, TorrentSpy, The Pirate Bay. In 2002, the RIAA was filing lawsuits against Kazaa users; as a result of such lawsuits, many universities added file sharing regulations in their school administrative codes. With the shutdown of eDonkey in 2005, eMule became the dominant client of the eDonkey network. In 2006, police raids took down the Razorback2 eDonkey server and temporarily took down The Pirate Bay.“The File Sharing Act was launched by Chairman Towns in 2009, this act prohibited the use of applications that allowed individuals to share federal information amongst one another.
On the other hand, only specific file sharing application were made available to federal computers”. In 2009, the Pirate Bay trial ended in a guilty verdict for the primary founders of the tracker; the decision was appealed, leading to a second guilty verdict in November 2010. In October 2010, Limewire was forced to shut down following a court order in Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC but the gnutella network remains active through open source clients like Frostwire and gtk-gnutella. Furthermore, multi-protocol file sharing software such as MLDonkey and Shareaza adapted in order to support all the major file sharing protocols, so users no longer had to install and configure multiple file sharing programs. On January 19, 2012, the United States Department of Justice shut down the popular domain of Megaupload; the file sharing site has claimed to have over 50,000,000 people a day. Kim Dotcom was arrested with three associates in New Zealand on January 20, 2012 and is awaiting extradition; the case involving the downfall of the world's largest and most popular file sharing site was not well received, with hac
German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, to make them available to the public; the German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards; the cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt. Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas.
A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving. Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library; the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek. After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting January 1, 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director. In 1946 Dr. Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Professor Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.
The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources; the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation; as a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues identical in content were published annually. With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library; the "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.
The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek". In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration; the 210,000 works of printed music held by GEMA were transferred to DMA. One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945; the German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main.
Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets and other materials produced or in part by German-speaking exiles. In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the “Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany” collection of 30,000 pages, which were published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages; these collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most visited sites of the German National Library. In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons; the digitised versions are since available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused harsh criticism. The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the owners
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications use a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways; the library classification numbers can be considered identifiers for resources but are distinct from the International Standard Book Number or International Standard Serial Number system. Library classification is an aspect of information science, it is distinct from scientific classification in that it has as its goal to provide a useful ordering of documents rather than a theoretical organization of knowledge.
Although it has the practical purpose of creating a physical ordering of documents, it does attempt to adhere to accepted scientific knowledge. Library classification is distinct from the application of subject headings in that classification organizes knowledge into a systematic order, while subject headings provide access to intellectual materials through vocabulary terms that may or may not be organized as a knowledge system; the characteristics that a bibliographic classification demands for the sake of reaching these purposes are: a useful sequence of subjects at all levels, a concise memorable notation, a host of techniques and devices of number synthesis Library classifications were preceded by classifications used by bibliographers such as Conrad Gessner. The earliest library classification schemes organized books in broad subject categories; the earliest known library classification scheme is the Pinakes by Callimachus, a scholar at the Library of Alexandria during the Third Century BCE.
During the Renaissance and Reformation era, "Libraries were organized according to the whims or knowledge of individuals in charge." This changed the format. Some collections were classified by language and others by. After the printing revolution in the sixteenth century, the increase in available printed materials made such broad classification unworkable, more granular classifications for library materials had to be developed in the nineteenth century. Although libraries created order within their collections from as early as the fifth century B. C. the Paris Bookseller's classification, developed in 1842 by Jacques Charles Brunet, is seen as the first of the modern book classifications. Brunet provided five major classes: theology, jurisprudence and arts, belles-lettres, history. There are many standard systems of library classification in use, many more have been proposed over the years. However, in general, classification systems can be divided into three types depending on how they are used: Universal schemes which cover all subjects, for example the Dewey Decimal Classification, Universal Decimal Classification and Library of Congress Classification Specific classification schemes which cover particular subjects or types of materials, for example Iconclass, British Catalogue of Music Classification, Dickinson classification, or the NLM Classification for medicine.
National schemes which are specially created for certain countries, for example the Swedish library classification system, SAB. In terms of functionality, classification systems are described as: enumerative: subject headings are listed alphabetically, with numbers assigned to each heading in alphabetical order. Hierarchical: subjects are divided hierarchically, from most general to most specific. Faceted or analytico-synthetic: subjects are divided into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets. There are few enumerative systems or faceted systems; the most common classification systems, LCC and DDC, are enumerative, though with some hierarchical and faceted elements at the broadest and most general level. The first true faceted system was the colon classification of S. R. Ranganathan. Classification types denote the classification or categorization according to the form or characteristics or qualities of a classification scheme or schemes. Method and system has similar meaning. Method or methods or system means the classification schemes like Dewey Decimal Classification or Universal Decimal Classification.
The types of classification is for identifying and understanding or education or research purposes while classification method means those classification schemes like DDC, UDC. The most common systems in English-speaking countries are: Dewey Decimal Classification Library of Congress Classification Colon classification Universal Decimal Classification Other systems include: Harvard-Yenching Classification, an English classification system for Chinese language materials V-LIB 1.2 (2008 Vartavan Library Classification for over 700 fields of knowledge sold under license in the UK by Rosecastle Ltd London Education Classification used at the UCL Institute of Education Garside Classification Scheme used in most libraries of University College London Bliss bibliographic classification used in some British libraries A system of book classification for Chinese libraries library classification for user New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries Nippon Decimal Classification Chinese Library Classification Korean Decimal Classification (KDC
Corporate Bodies Authority File
The Corporate Bodies Authority File or GKD is a German authority control for the organisation of corporation names from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries. Like the Subject Headings Authority File and the Name Authority File, the GKD is looked after and updated by the German National Library, the Bavarian State Library, the Berlin State Library and, since 1997, the Austrian National Library, several library networks taking part; the responsible editor is the State Library in Berlin. The Common Corporate File was created in the 1970s from the catalogue data of the Journal Database. In April 2004 it contained more than 915,000 records. Since April 2012 GKD, SWD and PND are part of the Integrated Authority File; as with the SWD and PND, the "Rules for Alphabetical Cataloguing" are used. They stipulate, amongst other things; these include, inter alia, local authorities and associations such as firms and clubs, but congresses and exhibitions. In addition to names of individual corporations, GKD data files contain links to parent bodies as well as earlier and names.
GKD records are uniquely identified by the GKD number. The GKD number consists of digits, the last being a check digit, which can be'X'; the number ranges are divided into quotas by library network, so that, for newer records, it can be determined in which network they were created. The GKD, like the PND and SWD, is available to information systems in libraries and other areas via the DDB file on a standard CD-ROM or through a Z39.50 interface - but only for a fee. For access to authority records, there is a separate Machine Exchange Format for Libraries or MAB GKD. Microfiches were used; the search for individual corporations enabled by the GKD is part of many catalogues. A link to the name authorities of the Library of Congress is provided. A link to Wikipedia is still in the planning stage. ID Number 2144828-0 Entry Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft <Berlin> Remarks Quelle: telM an DBL Abbreviation IfB Corporation dates 1. Oktober 1994 - First reference Universität <Berlin, Humboldt-Universität> / Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft Second reference Universität <Berlin, Humboldt-Universität> / Philosophische Fakultät <1> / Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft Former name Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft und Wissenschaftliche Information <Berlin> State code XA-DEThe example is not given directly in internal PICA+ or MAB format.
GKD records can refer to one another using "belonging to" fields. The following example contains an extract: Information pages of the DNB about the GKD Information pages at the ZDB Search for GKD records Search for GKD records