click links in text for more info


Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience", instead of shared or communal, that there is no external or objective truth. The success of this position is attributed to Descartes and his methodic doubt. Subjectivism accords primacy to subjective experience as fundamental of all law. In extreme forms like Solipsism, it may hold that the nature and existence of every object depends on someone's subjective awareness of it. One may consider the qualified empiricism of George Berkeley in this context, given his reliance on God as the prime mover of human perception. Thus, subjectivism. Subjectivism is a label used to denote the philosophical tenet that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience." The success of this position is attributed to Descartes and his methodic doubt. Subjectivism has been condemned by Christian theologians, which oppose to it the objective authority of the church, the Christian dogma, the revealed truth of the Bible.

Christian theologians, Karl Barth in particular, have condemned anthropocentrism as a form of subjectivism. Metaphysical subjectivism is the theory that reality is what we perceive to be real, that there is no underlying true reality that exists independently of perception. One can hold that it is consciousness rather than perception, reality; this is in contrast to metaphysical objectivism and philosophical realism, which assert that there is an underlying'objective' reality, perceived in different ways. This viewpoint should not be confused with the stance that "all is illusion" or that "there is no such thing as reality." Metaphysical subjectivists hold. They conceive, that the nature of reality as related to a given consciousness is dependent on that consciousness; this has its philosophical basis in the writings of Descartes, forms a cornerstone of Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy. More modest versions of metaphysical subjectivism have been explored. For example, I might hold that it is a fact that chocolate is tasty though I recognize that it is not tasty to everyone.

This would imply. Giovanni Merlo has developed a specific version of metaphysical subjectivism, under which subjective facts always concern mental properties. Caspar Hare's theory of egocentric presentism is another related example. One possible extension of subjectivist thought is that conscious experience is available to all objectively perceivable substrates. Upon viewing images produced by a camera on the rocking side of an erupting volcano, one might suppose that their relative motion followed from a subjective conscious within the volcano; these properties might be attributed to the camera or its various components as well. In this way, subjectivism morphs into a related doctrine, the belief that every objective entity has an inward or subjective aspect. Ethical subjectivism is the meta-ethical belief that ethical sentences reduce to factual statements about the attitudes and/or conventions of individual people, or that any ethical sentence implies an attitude held by someone; as such, it is a form of moral relativism in which the truth of moral claims is relative to the attitudes of individuals.

Consider the case this way — to a person imagining what it's like to be a cat and eating mice is natural and morally sound. To a person imagining they are a mouse, being hunted by cats is morally abhorrent. Though this is a loose metaphor, it serves to illustrate the view that each individual subject has their own understanding of right and wrong. An ethical subjectivist might propose, for example, that what it means for something to be morally right is just for it to be approved of. One implication of these beliefs is that, unlike the moral skeptic or the non-cognitivist, the subjectivist thinks that ethical sentences, while subjective, are nonetheless the kind of thing that can be true or false depending on situation. Broadly speaking, there are two views on Bayesian probability that interpret the probability concept in different ways. In probability, a subjectivist stand is the belief that probabilities are degrees-of-belief by rational agents in a certain proposition, which have no objective reality in and of themselves.

According to the subjectivist view, probability measures a "personal belief". For this kind of subjectivist, a phrase having to do with probability asserts the degree to which the subjective actor believes their assertion is true or false; as a consequence, a subjectivist has no problem with differing people giving different probabilities to an uncertain proposition, all being correct. Many modern machine learning methods are based on objectivist Bayesian principles. According to the objectivist view, the rules of Bayesian statistics can be justified by requirements of rationality and consistency and interpreted as an extension of logic. In attempting to justify subjective probability, Bruno de Finetti created the notion of philosophical coherence. According to his theory, a probability assertion is akin to a bet, a bet is coherent only if it does not expose the wagerer to loss if their opponent chooses wisely. To explain his meaning, de Finetti created a thought-experiment to illustrate the need for principles of coher

Alling Abbey

Alling Abbey was one of the last Benedictine monasteries to be built in Denmark. It was located at the eastern end of Alling Lake, north of Silkeborg. Alling Abbey, dedicated to Saint John, was built at the lower end of Alling Lake near the town of Svostrup sometime before 1250. There was a connection between the closure of Vejerslev Abbey in 1231 and the building of the abbey at Alling, filled with'unruly' monks from Vejerslev; the constructed abbey is mentioned first in 1250. The abbey was constructed in the familiar pattern. Three ranges adjoined St. John's Church forming a four-sided enclosure to separate the monks from the world; the east range contained dormitory. The north range was the refectory, work area scriptorium, cellars for storage; the west range housed the lay brothers who lived in the abbey and performed much of the worldly work required to keep the monastery operating. To the south was St. John's Church, with a single nave and angular apse, it had no tower. Since the abbey was isolated from any town, the church was used only by the monks or occasional travellers.

Women were not permitted, except on holy days. A canal was dug from Grønbæk to bring fresh water to the monastery and carry it off to Alling Lake. Over the centuries the abbey came into possession of many farms and owned the rights to most of the churches in the area. For most of the time the abbey had running disputes with the Bishops of Århus over income properties; the Danish Reformation in 1536 brought all religious institutions and their income properties to the crown. In 1538 Abbot Hans Lauridsen, the abbey's last, turned the keys over to Johannes Hŏcken, a secular nobleman to look after the king's interest in the property, he took off his habit and became the first Lutheran pastor at Svostrup Church. The monks were permitted to remain for a time until the abbey was closed sometime before 1540; the property was mortgaged to Johan Hŏcken in 1539 and 1543. The mortgage was redeemed by Jakob Berthelsen, bailiff of Silkeborg Castle in 1573 and the entire abbey was razed for the building materials that could be sold from the site.

The archives of the abbey were moved to Silkeborg Castle, inventoried in the late 16th century, disappeared. A few letters between abbots and other church leaders exist in the State Archive. Several excavations, the latest in 1989, identified the abbey's precise location, so that it has been mapped; the site has been protected as a national historic location since 1901. Portions of the foundation have been left exposed. Alling Kloster

Fitzroy Falls Dam

Fitzroy Falls Dam in New South Wales, Australia, is part of the Shoalhaven Scheme, completed in 1974. It consists of four separate earth and rockfill embankments located on the Yarrunga Creek upstream of Fitzroy Falls and about 16 kilometres southeast of Moss Vale; the main embankment of 760 cubic metres is 14 metres high and 1,530 metres in length. At 100% capacity, the dam wall holds back 9,950 megalitres of water, creating the impounded Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, which has a surface area of 522 hectares, drawn from a catchment area of 31 square kilometres; the spillway has a discharge capacity of 516 cubic metres per second. The 3,030-metre Wildes Meadow Canal connects the reservoir to the Burrawang Pumping Station; the 2,830-metre Burrawang Tunnel and 1,000-metre Canal join the pumping station to the Wingecarribee Reservoir. Another canal links the reservoir to the Bendeela Pondage via the Bendeela Pumping and Power Station; this allows the Fitzroy Falls dam to both act as a storage pond for hydroelectric power generation, to move water from the Tallowa Dam to the Wingecarribee and Warragamba catchments.

List of reservoirs and dams in Australia

China Earthquake Administration

The China Earthquake Administration, is mandated by the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protecting Against and Mitigating Earthquake Disasters of PRC to enforce the earthquake administration in the nation under the administration of State Council of the People's Republic of China. Some English text use the name Chinese Seismic Bureau. In older text, it was referred to by its former name, National Earthquake Bureau or National Seismic Bureau. CEA presently has nine bureaus, two of which directly under the control of the Chinese Communist Party. Administrative Office and Office of Policy Research Bureau of Development and Finance Bureau of Monitoring and Prediction Bureau of Earthquake Damage Protection Bureau of Earthquake Emergency Response and Relief Bureau of Personnel, Education and Technology and Bureau of International Cooperation Party Committee of Direct Subordinate Institutions Group of Discipline and Surveillance, a Delegation of the Central Committee of Discipline and Surveillance and Bureau of Surveillance Office of Welfare of Retired Personnel and Retired Party Officials As a country stricken by 2 of top 10 world's most fatal earthquakes before the creation of CEA, China's first seismic monitoring stations were set up under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

A national Office of Earthquake Matters was created under joint administration of the National Science and Technology Commission and Chinese Academy of Sciences after the 1966 Xingtai earthquake. A Central Task Force of Earthquakes under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was created the day after a M7.4 earthquake struck Bohai Bay on July 18, 1969. In 1971, the State Council decided to create the National Earthquake Bureau, predecessor to CEA, to replace the "Central Task Force"; the State Council delegated administration of the CNEB to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. CNEB became directly administrated by the State Councile in 1975. Following the recommendation from the CNEB, each province, autonomous regions and centrally administrated municipalities in PRC has established its own earthquake bureau since 1977. In 1985, these local bureaus were placed under dual leadership of the local government and the national bureau. CNEB was renamed CEA in 1998. Tectonic summary of Qinghai Province "Portal of China Earthquake Administration".

Official CEA Web site

Stuart Gray (footballer, born 1973)

Stuart Edward Gray is a football player and actor. Gray represented Celtic and Reading as a full-back and won seven Scotland under-21 international caps, he comes from a footballing family as his father Eddie, uncle Frank and cousin Andy have all represented Scotland. In the 2009 film The Damned United, Gray portrayed his father Eddie Gray. Stuart was signed to Celtic as a schoolboy S-Former in 1989 and followed the route of many on to the groundstaff at 16 in 1990, he played Youth and Reserve team football and was released to play for Giffnock Park North AFC. He ended the 91/92 season close to a first team won a new two-year contract; the next season marked his debut with one appearance against Aberdeen 92/93 but a groin strain in October put pay to his time in 92/93. In the 93/94 season he lost his edge playing with the Premier Reserves and asked for a loan move south of the border, he spent some time on loan with Bournemouth in February before returning to more Reserve team action. At the end of the season he went to Canada on the post-season tournament with the senior team.

Out of contract at the start of the 94/95 season, he was wanted by Sunderland and Blackburn Rovers and signing month-to-month deals. He signed a new deal on 27 January 1995 with the stated intention of leaving if he did not get more first team football, he was on the verge of the full-time first team inclusion. In the 95/96 season he won starting appearances in the latter part of the season but an ankle ligament injury proved troubling and curtailed full involvement; the 96/97 Season was troubled by a knee injury and he ended playing most of the season with the Reserves. Out of contract again his future looked uncertain. A deal to take him to Lille fell through in the close season and he began the 97/98 season on month-to-month deals. In October he was loaned to Greenock Morton until January 1998, being recalled from Greenock to play against them in the Scottish Cup tie on 24 January, he played a few more Reserve games before being sold to Tommy Burns at Reading on 26 March 1998. He was loaned to Rushden & Diamonds and joined them full-time in January 2001 and released at the end of the 04/05 season.

He joined Oxford United making 10 appearances with them. He has since been associated with non-league side Guiseley and he coaches the reserve team there along with Vince Brockie. Stuart Gray at Soccerbase Stuart Gray on IMDb

Linda Metheny

Linda Joan Metheny-Mulvihill is a retired American artistic gymnast. She won seven gold, three silver and one bronze medal at the Pan American Games in 1967 and 1971, served as the flag bearer for the American team in 1971, she competed at the 1964, 1968 and 1972 Olympics with the best individual result of fourth place on the balance beam in 1968. Domestically she won at least 18 individual national titles. In 1985 she was inducted into the U. S. Gymnastic Hall of Fame. Metheny started competing in 1962, between 1964 and 1973 was a member of the national team. After the 1964 Olympics she enrolled to the University of Illinois as their only female gymnast. After retiring from competitions she became a gymnastics coach, working together with her husband Dick Mulvihill, an international referee, she judged at the World Cup in 2000, at the world championships in 1994, 1995, 2002 and 2003, at the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2000. Together with her husband she runs the National Academy of Artistic Gymnastics in Eugene, since 1973.

Linda Metheny at the International Olympic Committee