United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland was an Irish-American engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the US Navy, the first Royal Navy submarine, Holland 1. Holland, the second of four siblings, all boys, was born in a coastguard cottage in Liscannor, County Clare, Ireland where his father, John, Sr. was a member of the coastguard service. His mother, a native Irish speaker from Liscannor, Máire Ní Scannláin, was John Holland's second wife, his first, Anne Foley Holland, believed to be a native of Kilkee, died in 1835; the area was Irish-speaking and Holland learned English properly only when he attended the local English-speaking St Macreehy's National School, from 1858, Irish Christian Brothers school in Ennistymon. Holland joined the Irish Christian Brothers in Limerick and taught in Limerick and many other centres in the country including North Monastery CBS in Cork City, St. Mary's CBS, Portlaoise, St Joseph's CBS and as the first Mathematics teacher in Colaiste Ris. Due to ill health, he left the Christian Brothers in 1873.
Holland emigrated to the United States in 1873. Working for an engineering firm, he returned to teaching again for a further six years in St. John's Catholic school in Paterson, New Jersey. While a teacher in Cork, Holland read an account of the battle between the ironclads Monitor and Merrimack during the American Civil War, he realised. He drew a design. After his arrival in the United States, Holland slipped and fell on an icy Boston street and broke a leg. While recuperating from the injury in a hospital, he used his time to refine his submarine designs and was encouraged by Isaac Whelan, a priest. In 1875, his first submarine designs were submitted for consideration by the US Navy, but turned down as unworkable; the Fenians, continued to fund Holland's research and development expenses at a level that allowed him to resign from his teaching post. In 1878 he demonstrated the Holland I prototype. In 1881, Fenian Ram was launched, but soon after and the Fenians parted company on bad terms over the issue of payment within the Fenian organisation, between the Fenians and Holland.
The submarine is now preserved at New Jersey. Holland continued to improve his designs and worked on several experimental boats, prior to his successful efforts with a built type, launched on 17 May 1897; this was the first submarine having power to run submerged for any considerable distance, the first to combine electric motors for submerged travel and gasoline engines for use on the surface. She was purchased by the US Navy, on 11 April 1900, after rigorous tests and was commissioned on 12 October 1900 as USS Holland. Six more of her type were built at the Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth, New Jersey; the company that emerged from under these developments was called The Electric Boat Company, founded on 7 February 1899. Isaac Leopold Rice became the company's first President with Elihu B. Frost acting as vice-president and chief financial officer; this company evolved into the major defence contractor General Dynamics. The USS Holland design was adopted by others, including the Royal Navy in developing the Holland-class submarine.
The Imperial Japanese Navy employed a modified version of the basic design for their first five submarines, although these submarines were at least 10 feet longer at about 63 feet. These submarines were developed at the Fore River Ship and Engine Company in Quincy, Massachusetts. Holland designed the Holland II and Holland III prototypes; the Royal Navy'Holland 1' is on display at the Submarine Museum, England. After spending 56 of his 73 years working with submersibles, John Philip Holland died on 12 August 1914 in Newark, New Jersey, he is interred at the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in New Jersey. A monument stands at the gates of Drogheda in commemoration of his work, it was unveiled in a ceremony on 14 June 2014 as part of the Irish Maritime Festival. The ceremony was attended by Drogheda Town Council as well as representatives of the US, British and Japanese governments. St. John's Catholic School, where Mr. Holland once taught, has been renamed and operates as John P. Holland Charter School in Paterson, New Jersey.
Holland I – A small unarmed submersible. Now on display at the Paterson Museum. Holland II – Built for Irish revolutionaries. Holland III – Scaled down version of Fenian Ram used for navigation tests. Holland IV – experimental submarine financed by US Army Lieutenant Edmund Zalinski. Holland V – Prototype used to demonstrate potential of submarines for naval warfare. Launched in 1897 and used as an experimental submarine by the US Navy. Returned to the Holland Company in 1903 and scrapped in 1917. Holland VI – First modern submarine in the United States Navy. Launched in 1897. Acquired by US Navy in 1900 and commissioned in 1900 as USS Holland. Decommissioned in 1905. HMS Holland 1 – First modern submarine in the Royal Navy. U. S. Patent 239,046 Screw Propeller U. S. Patent 337,000 Hydrocarbon Engine U. S. Patent 472,670 Submergible U. S. Patent 491,051 Submarine Gun U. S. Patent 492,960 Steering Apparatus U. S. Patent 522,177 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 537,113 Submerigible Boat U. S. Patent 681,221 Submarine Boat U.
S. Patent 681,222 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 683,400 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 684,429 Vi
Nautilus is the fictional submarine captained by Nemo featured in Jules Verne's novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and The Mysterious Island. Verne named the Nautilus after Robert Fulton's real-life submarine Nautilus. For the design of the Nautilus Verne was inspired by the French Navy submarine Plongeur, a model of which he had seen at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, three years before writing his novel. Nautilus is described by Verne as "a masterpiece containing masterpieces", it is commanded by Captain Nemo. Electricity provided by sodium/mercury batteries is the craft's primary power source for propulsion and other services. Nautilus is double-hulled, is further separated into water-tight compartments, its top speed is 93 km/h. Its displacement is 1,500.2 tonnes submerged. In Captain Nemo's own words: Nautilus uses floodable tanks in order to adjust buoyancy and so control its depth; the pumps that evacuate these tanks of water are so powerful that they produce large jets of water when the vessel emerges from the surface of the water.
This leads many early observers of Nautilus to believe that the vessel is some species of whale, or a sea monster not yet known to science. To submerge in a short time, Nautilus uses a technique called "hydroplaning", in which the vessel dives down at a steep angle. Nautilus supports a crew that farms food from the sea. Nautilus includes a galley for preparing these foods, which includes a machine that makes drinking water from seawater through distillation. Nautilus is not able to refresh its air supply, so Captain Nemo designed it to do this by surfacing and exchanging stale air for fresh, much like a whale. Nautilus is capable of extended voyages without otherwise restocking supplies, its maximum dive time is around five days. Much of the ship is decorated to standards of luxury that are unequalled in a seagoing vessel of the time; these include a library with boxed collections of valuable oceanic specimens that are unknown to science at the time, expensive paintings, several collections of jewels.
Nautilus features a lavish dining room and an organ that Captain Nemo uses to entertain himself in the evening. By comparison, Nemo's personal quarters are sparsely furnished, but do feature duplicates of the bridge instruments, so that the captain can keep track of the vessel without being present on the bridge; these amenities however, are only available to Nemo, Professor Aronnax, his companions. From her attacks on ships, using a ramming prow to puncture target vessels below the waterline, the world thinks it a sea monster, but identifies it as an underwater vessel capable of great destructive power, after Abraham Lincoln is attacked and Ned Land strikes the metallic surface of Nautilus with his harpoon, its parts are built to order in France, the United Kingdom, Krupp of Prussia, the United States, elsewhere. They are assembled by Nemo's men on a desert island. Nautilus most returned to this island and helped castaways in the novel The Mysterious Island. After Nemo dies on board, the volcanic island erupts, entombing the Captain and Nautilus for eternity.
Beside her original appearance in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and The Mysterious Island and Captain Nemo have appeared in numerous other works. In the 1954 film and The Return of Captain Nemo, it is suggested that Nautilus is powered by nuclear energy, that Nemo uses the same energy to destroy Vulcania, Nautilus's base island; this version appears in the video game Epic Mickey, under the name of Notilus. The comic book The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen and its film adaptation feature a much larger version of Nautilus; this version features a design evoking a squid attacking a whale. The version in the film adaptation has a more straightforward appearance of a long, thin silver submarine, albeit of massive proportions, equipped with a sharpened front end and missile launchers, narrow enough to comfortably travel through the canals of Venice. Nautilus can be seen at Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneysea, the one in Paris being a walk-through, while the Disneysea version is a static prop in a lagoon that can't be accessed by the public.
In Kevin J. Anderson's Captain Nemo: The Fantastic History of a Dark Genius, Nautilus appears as a real submarine cigar-shaped like the one from the novel, built by Nemo for the Ottoman Empire. In Warren Ellis's Planetary series, Elijah Snow hides himself aboard the Nautilus, captured by villains The Four. In the book Here, There Be Dragons by James A. Owen. Nemo and Nautilus, called the Yellow Dragon, both appear. In the MMORPG MapleStory, Nautilus is a submarine that looks like a whale with a skull attached to the front. In other words, it is the town of pirates. In Valhalla Rising, by Clive Cussler and Nautilus are discovered by a researcher and stored in a hidden cave as his private research lab, its propulsion in the novel is described as a Magneto-hydrodynamic drive. In Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water, a steampunk-themed anime set in 1889, Nautilus is an ancient Atlantean war machine, it is 150 metres in length and filled with scientific marvels, such as electricity, indoor plumbing and a "particle annihilation engine" as its power source.
In the Japanese anime feature film Kaitei Daisensō: Ai no 20,000 M
Royal Navy Submarine Museum
The Royal Navy Submarine Museum at Gosport is a maritime museum tracing the international history of submarine development from the age of Alexander the Great to the present day, the history of the Royal Navy Submarine Service from the navy's first submarine, Holland 1, to the nuclear-powered Vanguard-class submarines. The museum is located close to the former shore establishment HMS Dolphin, the home of the Royal Navy Submarine Service from 1904 until 1999; the museum's collection originated as the Submarine Branch Collection in 1963, housed above St Ambrose Church in HMS Dolphin. Few were aware of the existence of the museum, those that were had limited access to the collection due to security considerations; the museum was recognised by the Ministry of Defence in 1967, along with the Fleet Air Arm Museum and the Royal Marines Museum. The museum's first full-time curator was appointed the following year; the museum was registered as a charity in 1970, has undergone significant development.
In 1978 the museum was moved outside HMS Dolphin. It was at this time that the Royal Navy’s training and static display submarine, HMS Alliance was donated to the museum. £410,000 was raised to pay for the submarine to be lifted out of the water and put in place at the museum. The new museum complex opened in August 1981 with HMS Alliance as the principal exhibit. Over the years since, more submarines and submarine memorabilia have been added to the collection. In 1983 the museum gained a new display building and members of the public were allowed into HMS Alliance. In 2001 the museum opened a climate-controlled building that houses Holland 1. Visitors to the museum can tour HMS Alliance with a submariner guide, explore the interactive science gallery, step on board the Royal Navy’s first submarine Holland I, or wander around the museum exhibits; these submarines may be viewed on site HMS Alliance, a post-war Amphion-class hunter-killer submarine, now raised out of the water on stilts Holland 1 – the Royal Navy's first submarine X24 – the only X-craft to see service in the Second World War and survive in an intact condition.
Biber – German World War II midget submarine. It was restored to working condition by apprentices from Fleet Support Limited in 2003 under the guidance of Ian Clark; the restoration featured on Channel 4’s salvage squad. LR3 – a deep-sea survey and rescue submersible. Maiale – An Italian human torpedo JIM suit – atmospheric diving suit Cutlet – an early ROV Turtle – a replica of the first submarine used in combat Entitled "From Pirate to Peacekeeper", these include: A large collection of submarines and torpedoes the periscopes of HMS Conqueror of Falklands War fame through which one can see Portsmouth Harbour Remembrance Corner, which commemorates those who devoted their lives to the Submarine Service Submariners' medals, including the Victoria Cross of Edward Courtney Boyle Children's activities Control Room trainer - Submarine command simulation Portsmouth Historic Dockyard with its historic ships and the National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth Explosion! Museum of Naval Firepower Submarine Force Library and Museum Naval Undersea Museum Official website
General Dynamics Corporation is an American aerospace and defense multinational corporation formed by mergers and divestitures. It is the world's fifth-largest defense contractor based on 2012 revenues; the company ranked No. 99 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. It is headquartered in Fairfax County, Virginia; the company has changed markedly in the post–Cold War era of defense consolidation. It has four main business segments: Marine Systems, Combat Systems, Information Systems Technology, Aerospace. General Dynamics' former Fort Worth Division manufactured the F-16 Fighting Falcon until 1993, one of the Western world's most-produced jet fighters. Production was sold to Lockheed Martin, but GD re-entered the airframe business in 1999 with its purchase of Gulfstream Aerospace. General Dynamics traces its ancestry to John Philip Holland's Holland Torpedo Boat Company; this company was responsible for developing the U. S. Navy's first modern submarines, built at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabethport, New Jersey.
The revolutionary submarine boat Holland VI was built there, its keel being laid down in 1896. Crescent's superintendent and naval architect Arthur Leopold Busch supervised the construction of this submarine, launched on 17 May 1897, it was purchased by the navy and renamed USS Holland. The Holland was commissioned on 12 October 1900 and became the United States Navy's first submarine known as SS-1; the Navy placed an order for more submarines, which were developed in rapid succession and were assembled at two different locations on both coasts. These submarines were known as the A-Class or Adder Class and became America's first fleet of underwater craft at the beginning of the 20th century. Holland grew short on funds due to the lengthy and expensive process of introducing the world's first practical submarines, he had to part with his company and sell his interest to financier Isaac Leopold Rice, who renamed the firm the Electric Boat Company on 7 February 1899. Holland lost control of the company and found himself earning a salary of $90 a week as chief engineer, while the company that he founded was selling submarines for $300,000 each.
Holland resigned from the company effective April 1904, Rice became Electric Boat's first president, remaining there from that time until 1915 when he stepped down just prior to his death on 2 November 1915. Electric Boat gained a reputation for unscrupulous arms dealing in 1904–05 when it sold submarines to Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy and Russia's Imperial Russian Navy, who were at war with one another. Holland submarines were sold to the British Royal Navy through the English armaments company Vickers, to the Dutch to serve in the Royal Netherlands Navy. Electric Boat was cash-flush but lacking in work following World War II, with its workforce shrinking from 13,000 to 4,000 by 1946. President and chief executive officer John Jay Hopkins started looking for companies that would fit into Electric Boat's market in hopes of diversifying. Canadair was owned by the Canadian government and was suffering from the same post-war malaise as Electric Boat, it was up for sale, Hopkins bought the company for $10 million in 1946.
The factory alone was worth more than $22 million, according to the Canadian government's calculations, excluding the value of the remaining contracts for planes or spare parts. However, Canadair's production line and inventory systems were in disorder when Electric Boat purchased the company. Hopkins hired Canadian-born mass-production specialist H. Oliver West to take over the president's role and return Canadair to profitability. Shortly after the takeover, Canadair began delivering its new Canadair North Star and was able to deliver aircraft to Trans-Canada Airlines, Canadian Pacific Airlines, British Overseas Airways Corporation well in advance of their contracted delivery times. Defense spending increased with the onset of the Cold War, Canadair went on to win many Canadian military contracts for the Royal Canadian Air Force and became a major aerospace company; these included Canadair T-33 trainer, the Canadair Argus long-range maritime reconnaissance and transport aircraft, the Canadair F-86 Sabre.
Between 1950 and 1958, 1,815 Sabres were built. Canadair produced 200 CF-104 Starfighter supersonic fighter aircraft, a license-built version of the Lockheed F-104. In 1976, General Dynamics sold Canadair to the Canadian Government for $38 million, the company was acquired by Bombardier Inc. in 1986. Aircraft production became important at Canadair, Hopkins argued that the name "Electric Boat" was no longer appropriate—so Electric Boat was reorganized as General Dynamics on 24 April 1952. General Dynamics purchased Convair from the Atlas Group in March 1953; the sale was approved by government oversight with the provision that GD would continue to operate out of Air Force Plant 4 in Fort Worth, Texas. This factory was set up in order to spread out strategic aircraft production and rented to Convair during the war to produce B-24 Liberator bombers. Over time, the Fort Worth plant became Convair's major production center. General Dynamics purchased Liquid Carbonic Corporation in September 1957 and controlled it as a wholly owned subsidiary until being forced by a Federal antitrust ruling to spin it off to shareholders in January 1969.
Liquid Carbonic was bought that same month by the Houston Natural Gas Company. Convair worked as an independent division under the General Dynamics umbrella. Over the next decade, the company introduced the F-106 Delta Dart Interceptor, the B-58 Hustler, the Convair 880 and 990 airliners. Convair introduced the Atlas missile
Naval Submarine Base New London
Naval Submarine Base New London is the United States Navy's primary East Coast submarine base known as the "Home of the Submarine Force". It is located in Connecticut. In 1868, the State of Connecticut gave the Navy 112 acres of land along the Thames River in Groton to build a Naval Station. Due to a lack of federal funding, it was not until 1872 that two brick buildings and a "T" shaped pier were constructed and declared a Navy Yard. In 1898, the United States Congress approved a coaling station be built at the Yard for refueling small naval ships traveling through the waters of New England; the Navy Yard was first used for laying up inactive ships. The Congressional appropriations were small and the Navy had little need for the Yard, closed from 1898 to 1900 and its personnel reassigned; this new yard was used as a coaling station by Atlantic Fleet small craft. It is located in the towns of Ledyard. By 1912, oil replaced coal in warships and again the Yard was scheduled for closure and the land relinquished by the Navy.
The Navy Yard was spared permanent closure in 1912 by an impassioned plea from local Congressman Edwin W. Higgins of Norwich, worried about the loss of Federal spending in the region. Within six years, the Federal government would spend over a million dollars at the Yard. On 13 October 1915, the monitor Ozark, a submarine tender, four submarines arrived in Groton. With the war effort in Europe and the Atlantic in full swing, additional submarines and support craft arrived the following year and the facility was named as the Navy's first Submarine Base; the first commander of the Yard was retired Commodore Timothy A. Hunt, recalled up to service. Living in New Haven, Commodore Hunt used the Central Hotel on State Street, New London when in town to attend to Yard duties on an "as needed" basis. Despite being physically located in the Town of Groton, the name New London became associated with the Navy Yard because the base had its main offices and housing in New London. Following World War I, the Navy established schools and training facilities at the base.
The first diesel-powered US submarine, USS E-1, was commissioned in Groton on February 14, 1912, Lieutenant Chester W. Nimitz in command. On June 21, 1916, the Navy Yard changed forever as Commander Yates Stirling, Jr. assumed the command of the newly designated Submarine Base, the New London Submarine Flotilla, the Submarine School. The Base property expanded during the latter part of World War I. Congress approved over a million dollars for Base facilities expansion. By the end of the war, 81 buildings had been built to support 20 submarines. With victory in hand, the land expansion of the Base was slowed through much of the 1920s. However, the Great Depression of the 1930s saw an expansion and enhancement of the physical plant of the Base. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created a series of Federal Government employment programs that contributed to the Submarine Base. Over 26 high quality warehouses and workshops were built at the base under these Federal job-spending programs; the second largest expansion of Submarine Base New London occurred during World War II, when it grew from 112 acres to 497 acres.
The Submarine Force leaped in size, the Base accommodated thousands of men to service the growing combat fleet. After World War II the Submarine Force was reduced and many submarines were sent into storage. Most of the World War II fleet was sold for scrap metal during the early 1960s. From 1930 to 1994 the most recognizable structure on the base was the 100-foot-tall Escape Training Tank. Generations of submariners learned to escape in up to 80 feet of water using buoyant ascent, were trained in the use of the Momsen lung or Steinke hood. In 2007 the Escape Training Tank was replaced by the Submarine Escape Trainer, which has two types of escape trunks in up to 40 feet of water; the Steinke hood was replaced by the Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment in the 2000s. On January 21, 1954 the first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus, was launched from Groton. Nautilus became the first vessel to transit the North Pole during a historic trip across the Arctic in 1958. Nautilus spent most of her career assigned to Submarine Squadron 10 located at State Pier in New London.
It was retired from service in 1980. In 1982 Nautilus was designated a National Historic Landmark in Groton, it is permanently moored south of the main gate, attached to the U. S. Submarine Force Museum. Self-guided tours are available to the public every day except Tuesday; the museum's collections include more than 33,000 artifacts, 20,000 significant documents and 30,000 photographs. As homeport to sixteen attack submarines and neighbor to a major submarine construction yard, General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division, all Officer and Enlisted submariners with the exception of nuclear trained Electronics Technicians, Electrician's Mates, Machinist's Mates, are stationed at Groton for training. Enlisted sailors attending sub school will first go through Basic Enlisted Sub School, an 8-week program that teaches the rigors of undersea life. BESS includes training in shoring, patching leaks and ruptured pipes and boat handling techniques. After BESS, sailors will either go to follow-on schools. Schools include an A school, depending on their rating.
The A Schools housed at NAVSUBASE NLON are SECF, SCERF, ITS, AUXPAC, TM "A". SECF is the combined "A" School for Sonar Technician Submarines, Navigation Electronics Technician, Firecontrol Technicians. SCERF is the Submarine Communications Electronic Rating Field