Tie-dye is a modern term invented in the mid-1960s in the United States for a set of ancient resist-dyeing techniques, for the products of these processes. The process of tie-dye consists of folding, pleating, or crumpling fabric or a garment and binding with string or rubber bands, followed by application of dye; the manipulations of the fabric prior to application of dye are called resists, as they or prevent the applied dye from coloring the fabric. More sophisticated tie-dyes involve additional steps, including an initial application of dye prior to the resist, multiple sequential dye and resist steps, the use of other types of resists and discharge. Unlike regular resist-dyeing techniques, tie-dye is characterized by the use of bright, saturated primary colors and bold patterns; these patterns, including the spiral and peace sign, the use of multiple bold colors, have become cliched since the peak popularity of tie-dye in the 1960s and 1970s. The vast majority of produced tie-dyes use these designs, many are mass-produced for wholesale distribution.
However, a new interest in more'sophisticated' tie-dye is emerging in the fashion industry, characterized by simple motifs, monochromatic color schemes, a focus on fashionable garments and fabrics other than cotton. A few artists continue to pursue tie-dye as an art form rather than a commodity. A variety of dyes are used in tie-dyeing, including household, fiber reactive and vat dyes. Most early tie-dyes were made with retail household dyes those made by Rit. In order to be effective on different fibers, these dyes are composed of several different dyes, thus are less effective, more to bleed and fade, than pure dyes designed for specific fibers; this is the basis for the famous'pink socks' phenomenon that occurs when fabrics dyed with mixed dyes are washed with other garments. Most tie-dyes are now dyed with Procion MX fiber reactive dyes, a class of dyes effective on cellulose fibers such as cotton, hemp and linen; this class of dyes reacts with fibers at alkaline pH, forming a permanent bond.
Soda ash is the most common agent used to raise the pH and initiate the reaction, is either added directly to the dye, or in a solution of water in which garments are soaked before dyeing. Procion dyes are safe and simple to use, are the same dyes used commercially to color cellulosic fabrics. Protein-based fibers such as silk and feathers, as well as the synthetic polyamide fiber, can be dyed with acid dyes; as may be expected from the name, acid dyes are effective at acidic pH, where they form ionic bonds with the fiber. Acid dyes are relatively safe and simple to use. Vat dyes, including indigo, are a third class of dyes that are effective on cellulosic fibers and silk. Vat dyes are insoluble in water in their unreduced form, the vat dye must be chemically reduced before they can be used to color fabric; this is accomplished by heating the dye in a basic solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate containing a reducing agent such as sodium hydrosulfite or thiourea dioxide. The fabric is immersed in the dye bath, after removal the vat dye oxidizes to its insoluble form, binding with high wash-fastness to the fiber.
However, vat dyes, indigo, must be treated after dyeing by'soaping' to prevent the dye from rubbing off. Vat dyes can be used to dye the fabric and to remove underlying fiber-reactive dye because of the bleaching action of the reducing bath; the extra complexity and safety issues restrict use of vat dyes in tie-dye to experts. Discharge agents are used to bleach color from the previously-dyed fabrics, can be used as a reverse tie-dye, where application of the agent results in loss of color rather than its application. Household bleach can be used to discharge fiber reactive dyes on bleach-resistant fibers such as cotton or hemp, though the results are variable, as some fiber reactive dyes are more resistant to bleach than others, it is important to bleach as long as required to obtain the desired shade, to neutralize the bleach with agents such as sodium bisulfite, to prevent damage to the fibers. Thiourea dioxide is another used discharge agent that can be used on cotton, wool, or silk. A thiourea dioxide discharge bath is made with hot water made mildly basic with sodium carbonate.
The results of thiourea dioxide discharge differ from bleach discharge due to the nature of the reaction. Since thiourea dioxide only bleaches in the absence of oxygen, the fabric to be bleached retains oxygen, a fractal pattern of bleaching will be observed; this is in distinct contrast with household bleach discharge, where the bleaching agent penetrates fabric easily. For example, pleating fabric multiple times and clamping on a resist will yield a clear design after outlining the resist with household bleach, but discharge with reducing agents will only penetrate the resisted area. In general, discharge techniques using household bleach, are a accessible way to tie-dye without use of messy and expensive dyes, it is easy to put design on cloth using stencils and sprayed-on solutions of househol
The Armenian cochineal known as the Ararat cochineal or Ararat scale, is a scale insect indigenous to the Ararat plain and Aras River valley in the Armenian Highlands. It was used to produce an eponymous crimson carmine dyestuff known in Armenia as vordan karmir and in Persia as kirmiz; the species is critically endangered within Armenia. The Armenian cochineal scale insect, Porphyrophora hamelii, is in a different taxonomic family from the cochineal found in the Americas. Both insects produce red dyestuffs that are commonly called cochineal. Porphyrophora hamelii is one of the ancient natural sources of red dye in the Middle East and Europe, along with the insect dyes kermes and carmine from other Porphyrophora species such as the Polish cochineal, the plant dye madder, it is possible that Armenian cochineal dye was in use as early as 714 BC, when the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II was recorded as seizing red textiles as spoils of war from the kingdoms of Urartu and Kilhu. The Roman-era physician and pharmacologist Dioscorides, writing in the 1st century AD, noted that the best kokkos baphike, the kermes shrub and its "grain" that some ancient writers confused with Porphyrophora hamelii, came from Galatia and Armenia.
In the Early Middle Ages the Armenian historians Ghazar Parpetsi and Movses Khorenatsi wrote of a worm-produced dyestuff from the Ararat region. During the Middle Ages the Armenian cochineal dyestuff vordan karmir known in Persia as kirmiz, was celebrated in the Near East. Kirmiz is not to be confused with dyer's kermes, derived from another insect; the Armenian cities Artashat and Dvin were early centers of the production of kirmiz: during the 8th through 10th centuries Arab and Persian historians referred to Artashat as "the town of kirmiz". The Arabs and Persians regarded kirmiz as one of the most valuable commodities exported from Armenia; the Armenians themselves used vordan karmir to produce dyes for textiles and pigments for illuminated manuscripts and church frescos. Chemical analyses have identified the dye of Porphyrophora hamelii in Coptic textiles of the 3rd through 10th centuries, a cashmere cloth used in a kaftan from Sassanid Persia in the 6th or 7th century, silk liturgical gloves from 15th-century France, Ottoman fabrics such as velvets and lampas of the 15th through 17th centuries, a 16th-century velvet cap of maintenance that belonged to Henry VIII of England.
At the time of the Renaissance in Europe, Porphyrophora insects were so valuable that in Constantinople during the 1430s, one kilogram of Porphyrophora hamelii insects was worth more than 5 grams of gold. The crimson Porphyrophora-based dyes were prized in Europe for dyeing silk, as the scarlet dye kermes was more plentiful and more effective for dyeing woolen textiles, which are heavier than silk and require more dye, it has been estimated that on the order of a half million dried Porphyrophora hamelii insects were required to dye one kilogram of silk crimson during this period. On the comparison between Armenian and Polish cochineal, the author of a 15th-century treatise on silks in Florence wrote that "two pounds of the large will dye as much as one pound of small; the carmine dyestuff of Porphyrophora hamelii owes its red color entirely to carminic acid, making it difficult to distinguish chemically from the dyestuff of cochineal from the Americas. The dyestuff of Porphyrophora polonica can be distinguished by its small admixture of kermesic acid, the major constituent of kermes from Kermes vermilio.
In 1833 the German naturalist Johann Friedrich von Brandt suggested the scientific name Porphyrophora hamelii after the Russian physician and historian of German descent Iosif Khristianovich Gamel, who visited the Ararat plain in the early 1830s and wrote a report about the "cochineal" insects living there. Porphyrophora hamelii is a sexually dimorphic species; the adult female, from which carmine is extracted, is oval-shaped, soft-bodied, crimson in color, has large forelegs for digging. The females can be quite large for a Porphyrophora species: up to 10–12 mm long and 7 mm wide, it has been noted that one troy pound of cochineal insects requires 18,000–23,000 specimens of Porphyrophora hamelii, but 100,000–130,000 specimens of the sister species Porphyrophora polonica. The adult male Porphyrophora hamelii is a winged insect; the life cycle of Porphyrophora hamelii is subterranean. Newly hatched nymphs emerge from the ground in the springtime and crawl until they find the roots of certain grassy plants that grow in saline soil, such as Aeluropus littoralis and the common reed Phragmites australis.
The nymphs continue to feed on these roots throughout the spring and summer, forming protective pearl-like cysts in the process. From mid-September to mid-October adults emerge from the ground between 5 a.m. and 10 a.m
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic "ion exchangers". Typical ion exchangers are ion-exchange resins, montmorillonite and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers, which exchange positively charged ions, or anion exchangers, which exchange negatively charged ions. There are amphoteric exchangers that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously. However, the simultaneous exchange of cations and anions can be more efficiently performed in mixed beds, which contain a mixture of anion- and cation-exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through several different ion-exchange materials. Ion exchanges can be unselective or have binding preferences for certain ions or classes of ions, depending on their chemical structure.
This can be dependent on the size of their charge, or their structure. Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are: H+ and OH−. Singly charged monatomic ions like Na+, K+, Cl−. Doubly charged monatomic ions like Ca2+ and Mg2+. Polyatomic inorganic ions like SO42− and PO43−. Organic bases molecules containing the amine functional group −NR2H+. Organic acids molecules containing −COO− functional groups. Biomolecules that can be ionized: amino acids, proteins, etc. Along with absorption and adsorption, ion exchange is a form of sorption. Ion exchange is a reversible process, the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions. Ion exchange is used in the food and beverage industry, metals finishing, chemical and pharmaceutical technology and sweetener production, ground- and potable-water treatment, nuclear and industrial water treatment, semiconductor and many other industries.. A typical example of application is preparation of high-purity water for power engineering and nuclear industries.
Ion exchange is a method used in household to produce soft water. This is accomplished by exchanging calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ cations against Na+ or H+ cations. Another application for ion exchange in domestic water treatment is the removal of nitrate and natural organic matter. Industrial and analytical ion-exchange chromatography is another area to be mentioned. Ion-exchange chromatography is a chromatographical method, used for chemical analysis and separation of ions. For example, in biochemistry it is used to separate charged molecules such as proteins. An important area of the application is extraction and purification of biologically produced substances such as proteins and DNA/RNA. Ion-exchange processes are used to separate and purify metals, including separating uranium from plutonium and the other actinides, including thorium and americium; this process is used to separate the lanthanides, such as lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and ytterbium, from each other. The separation of neodymium and praseodymium was a difficult one, those were thought to be just one element didymium - but, an alloy of the two.
There are two series of rare-earth metals, the lanthanides and the actinides, both of whose families all have similar chemical and physical properties. Using methods developed by Frank Spedding in the 1940s, ion exchange processes were the only practical way to separate them in large quantities, until the development of the "solvent extraction" techniques that can be scaled up enormously.. A important case of ion-exchange is the PUREX process, used to separate the plutonium-239 and the uranium from americium, neptunium, the radioactive fission products that come from nuclear reactors, thus the waste products can be separated out for disposal. Next, the plutonium and uranium are available for making nuclear-energy materials, such as new reactor fuel and nuclear weapons; the ion-exchange process is used to separate other sets of similar chemical elements, such as zirconium and hafnium, very important for the nuclear industry. Physically, zirconium is transparent to free neutrons, used in building nuclear reactors, but hafnium is a strong absorber of neutrons, used in reactor control rods.
Thus, ion-exchange is used in the treatment of radioactive waste. Ion-exchange resins in the form of thin membranes are used in chloralkali process, fuel cells, vanadium redox batteries. Ion exchange can be used to remove hardness from water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions in an ion-exchange column. Liquid-phase ion-exchange desalination has been demonstrated. In this technique anions and cations in salt water are exchanged for carbonate anions and calcium cations using electrophoresis. Calcium and carbonate ions react to form calcium carbonate, which precipitates, leaving behind fresh water; the desalination occurs at ambient temperature and pressure and requires no membranes or solid ion exchangers. The theoretical energy efficiency of this method is on par with reverse osmosis. In soil science, cation-exchange capacity is the ion-exchange capacity of s
Katazome is a Japanese method of dyeing fabrics using a resist paste applied through a stencil. With this kind of resist dyeing, a rice flour mixture is applied using a brush or a tool such as a palette knife. Pigment is added by immersion or both. Where the paste mixture covers and permeates the cloth, dye applied will not penetrate. Katazome on thin fabrics shows a pattern through to the back. Futon covers made from multiple panels of fabric, if the stencils are properly placed and the panels joined exhibit a pleasing over-all pattern in addition to the elements cut into the stencil. One attraction of katazome was that it provided an inexpensive way for over-all patterns similar to expensive woven brocades to be achieved on cotton; as with many everyday crafts of Japan it developed into a respected art form of its own. Besides cotton, katazome has been used to decorate linen and fabrics that are all or synthetic. Shibori, another Japanese method of resist dyeing. Serizawa Keisuke Mika Toba What is Katazome?
Paste Resist Recipe About Katazome Katazome
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus known as the "saffron crocus". The vivid crimson stigmata and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron was long among the world's most costly spices by weight. Although some doubts remain on its origin, it is believed; however and Mesopotamia have been suggested as the possible region of origin of this plant. C. sativus is a triploid form of Crocus cartwrightianus. Saffron crocus propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was brought to parts of North Africa, North America, Oceania. Saffron's taste and iodoform- or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal, it contains a carotenoid pigment, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. Its recorded history is attested in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical treatise compiled under Ashurbanipal, it has been traded and used for over four millennia. Iran now accounts for 90% of the world production of saffron.
A degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the English word "saffron". It might stem from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which comes from the Latin word safranum, from the Arabic za'farān, which comes from the Persian word zarparan meaning "flower with golden petals"; the domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. It descends from the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus, known as "wild saffron" and originated in Crete or Central Asia. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources. As a genetically monomorphic clone, it propagated throughout much of Eurasia, it is a sterile triploid form, which means that three homologous sets of chromosomes compose each specimen's genetic complement. Being sterile, the purple flowers of C. sativus fail to produce viable seeds. A corm survives for one season, producing via this vegetative division up to ten "cormlets" that can grow into new plants in the next season.
The compact corms are small, brown globules that can measure as large as 5 cm in diameter, have a flat base, are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibres. Corms bear vertical fibres and net-like, that grow up to 5 cm above the plant's neck; the plant sprouts 5 -- 11 non-photosynthetic leaves known as cataphylls. These membrane-like structures cover and protect the crocus's 5 to 11 true leaves as they bud and develop; the latter are thin and blade-like green foliage leaves, which are 1–3 mm, in diameter, which either expand after the flowers have opened or do so with their blooming. C. sativus cataphylls are suspected by some to manifest prior to blooming when the plant is irrigated early in the growing season. Its floral axes, or flower-bearing structures, bear bracteoles, or specialised leaves, that sprout from the flower stems. After aestivating in spring, the plant sends up each up to 40 cm in length. Only in October, after most other flowering plants have released their seeds, do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.
The flowers possess a honey-like fragrance. Upon flowering, the plants are 20 -- 30 cm in bear up to four flowers. A three-pronged style 25–30 mm in length, emerges from each flower; each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma. The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild descends from Crocus cartwrightianus, it is a triploid, "self-incompatible" and male sterile. Crocus sativus thrives in the Mediterranean maquis, an ecotype superficially resembling the North American chaparral, similar climates where hot and dry summer breezes sweep semi-arid lands, it can nonetheless survive cold winters, tolerating frosts as low as −10 °C and short periods of snow cover. Irrigation is required if grown outside of moist environments such as Kashmir, where annual rainfall averages 1,000–1,500 mm. What makes this possible is the timing of the local wet seasons. Rain preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm the crops, rabbits and birds cause damage by digging up corms.
Nematodes, leaf rusts, corm rot pose other threats. Yet Bacillus subtilis inoculation may provide some benefit to growers by speeding corm growth and increasing stigma biomass yield; the plants fare poorly in shady conditions. Fields that slope towards the sunlight are optimal. Planting is done in June in the Northern Hemisphere, where corms are lodged 7–15 cm deep. Planting
Ikat is a dyeing technique used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric. In ikat the resist is formed by binding individual yarns or bundles of yarns with a tight wrapping applied in the desired pattern; the yarns are dyed. The bindings may be altered to create a new pattern and the yarns dyed again with another colour; this process may be repeated multiple times to produce multicolored patterns. When the dyeing is finished all the bindings are removed and the yarns are woven into cloth. In other resist-dyeing techniques such as tie-dye and batik the resist is applied to the woven cloth, whereas in ikat the resist is applied to the yarns before they are woven into cloth; because the surface design is created in the yarns rather than on the finished cloth, in ikat both fabric faces are patterned. A characteristic of ikat textiles is an apparent "blurriness" to the design; the blurriness is a result of the extreme difficulty the weaver has lining up the dyed yarns so that the pattern comes out in the finished cloth.
The blurriness can be reduced by the skill of the craftsperson. Ikats with little blurriness, multiple colours and complicated patterns are more difficult to create and therefore more expensive. However, the blurriness, so characteristic of ikat is prized by textile collectors. Ikat is produced in many traditional textile centres around the world, from India to Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Japan and Latin America. Double ikats—in which both the warp and weft yarns are tied and dyed before being woven into a single textile—are rare because of the intensive skilled labour required to produce them, they are produced in Okinawa islands of Japan, the village of Tenganan in Indonesia, the villages of Puttapaka and Bhoodan Pochampally in Telangana in India. In fact, many other parts of India have their indigenous Ikat weaving techniques. Orissa’s Sambalpuri Ikat is quite different from the sharp Ikat patterns, woven in Patan of Gujarat; the latter, known as Patan Patola, is one of the rarest forms of double Ikat, which takes a lot of time and effort in dyeing and weaving.
A different form of Patola ikat is made in Gujarat. Telia Rumal made in Andhra, Pasapalli from Odisha and Puttapaka from Telangana are other Indian Ikats. In warp ikat it is only the warp yarns; the weft yarns are dyed a solid colour. The ikat pattern is visible in the warp yarns wound onto the loom before the weft is woven in. Warp ikat is, amongst others, produced in Indonesia. In weft ikat it is the weft yarn that carries the dyed patterns. Therefore, the pattern only appears as the weaving proceeds. Weft ikats are much slower to weave than warp ikat because the weft yarns must be adjusted after each passing of the shuttle to maintain the clarity of the design. Double Ikat is a technique in which the weft are resist-dyed prior to weaving, it is the most difficult to make and the most expensive. Double ikat is only produced in three countries: India and Indonesia; the double ikat made in Patan, Gujarat in India is the most complicated. Called "patola," it is made using many colours, it may be patterned with a small motif, repeated many times across the length of a six-meter sari.
Sometimes the Patan double ikat is pictorial with no repeats across its length. That is, each small design element in each colour was individually tied in the warp and weft yarns. It's an extraordinary achievement in the textile arts; these much sought after textiles were traded by the Dutch East Indies company for exclusive spice trading rights with the sultanates of Indonesia. The double ikat woven in the small Bali Aga village, Tenganan in east Bali in Indonesia reflects the influence of these prized textiles; some of the Tenganan double ikat motifs are taken directly from the patola tradition. In India double ikat is woven in Puttapaka, Nalgonda District and is called Puttapaka Saree. In Japan, double ikat is woven in the Okinawa islands. Pasapalli Ikat is one of the Ikkat saree and Pasapalli ikat saree made in Odisha; the word Pasapalli comes from ` Pasa'. Each pasapalli ikat saree or material -, made with the same technique as the Sambalpuri Ikat - has some or the other form of this chequered design.
Ikat is an Indonesian language word, which depending on context, can be the nouns: cord, thread and the finished ikat fabric as well as the verbs "to tie" or "to bind". It has a direct etymological relation to Javanese language of the same word. Thus, the name of the finished ikat woven fabric originates from the tali being ikat before they are being put in celupan berjalin resulting in a berjalin ikat- reduced to ikat; the introduction of the term ikat into European language is attributed to Rouffaer. Ikat is now a generic English loanword used to describe the process and the cloth itself regardless of where the fabric was produced or how it is patterned. In Indonesian the plural of ikat remains ikat. However, in English a suffix plural's' is added, as in ikats; this is true in other some other languages. All are correct. Ikat is a weaving style common to many world cultures, it is one of the oldest forms of textile decoration. However, it is most prevalent in Indonesia and Japan. In South America and North Ameri
Turmeric is a flowering plant of the ginger family, the roots of which are used in cooking. The plant is rhizomatous and perennial, is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered each year for their rhizomes, some for propagation in the following season and some for consumption; when not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines for curries, as well as for dyeing. Turmeric powder has a warm, black pepper-like flavor and earthy, mustard-like aroma. Although long used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is known as haridra, no high-quality clinical evidence exists for use of turmeric or its constituent, curcumin, as a therapy. Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and the animistic rituals of Austronesian peoples.
It was first used as a dye, later for its supposed properties in folk medicine. Although the precise origin of turmeric is not known, it appears to have originated from tropical Southeast Asia, it is most associated with India today. The greatest diversity of Curcuma species by number alone is at around 40 to 45 species. Thailand is much smaller than India. Other countries in tropical Asia have numerous wild species of Curcuma. Recent studies have shown that the taxonomy of Curcuma longa is problematic, with only the specimens from South India being identifiable as C. longa. The phylogeny, relationships and interspecific variation, identity of other species and cultivars in other parts of the world still need to be established and validated. Various species utilized and sold as "turmeric" in other parts of Asia have been shown to belong to several physically similar taxa, with overlapping local names. Furthermore, in the case of the use and spread of turmeric by the Austronesian peoples into Oceania and Madagascar, there is strong linguistic and circumstantial evidence that it pre-dated contact with India.
The populations in Polynesia and Micronesia, in particular, never came into contact with India, but use turmeric for both food and dye. Thus independent domestication events are likely; the origin of the name is Indian. It derives from Middle English or Early Modern English as turmeryte or tarmaret, it may be of terra merita. The name of the genus, Curcuma, is derived from the Sanskrit kuṅkuma, referring to both turmeric and saffron, used in India since ancient times. Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant. Branched, yellow to orange, aromatic rhizomes are found; the leaves are arranged in two rows. They are divided into leaf sheath and leaf blade. From the leaf sheaths, a false stem is formed; the petiole is 50 to 115 cm long. The simple leaf blades are 76 to 115 cm long and up to 230 cm, they are oblong to elliptical, narrowing at the tip. At the top of the inflorescence, stem bracts are present on; the hermaphrodite flowers are threefold. The three sepals are 0.8 to 1.2 cm long and white, have fluffy hairs.
The three bright-yellow petals are fused into a corolla tube up to 3 cm long. The three corolla lobes have a length of 1.0 to 1.5 cm and are triangular with soft-spiny upper ends. While the average corolla lobe is larger than the two lateral, only the median stamen of the inner circle is fertile; the dust bag is spurred at its base. All other stamens are converted to staminodes; the outer staminodes are shorter than the labellum. The labellum is yellowish, with a yellow ribbon in its center and it is obovate, with a length from 1.2 to 2.0 cm. Three carpels are under a constant, trilobed ovary adherent, sparsely hairy; the fruit capsule opens with three compartments. In East Asia, the flowering time is in August. Terminally on the false stem is an inflorescence; the bracts are ovate to oblong with a blunt upper end with a length of 3 to 5 cm. Turmeric powder is about 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, 1–6% curcuminoids.
Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, a class including numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin constitutes up to 3.14% of assayed commercial samples of turmeric powder. Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone and zingiberene are major constituents. Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent bitter flavor to foods, it is used in savory dishes, but is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf closing and steaming it in a special u