Recreational drug use
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions and emotions of the user. When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it induces an intoxicating effect. Recreational drugs are in three categories: depressants. Many people use prescribed and illegal opioids along with opiates and benzodiazepines. In popular practice, recreational drug use is a tolerated social behaviour, rather than perceived as the serious medical condition of self-medication. However, heavy use of some drugs is stigmatized. Recreational drugs include alcohol. What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but includes methamphetamines, cocaine, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, MDMA and club drugs. In 2015, it was estimated that about 5% of people aged 15 to 65 had used illegal drugs at least once. Many researchers have explored the etiology of recreational drug use; some of the most common theories are: genetics, personality type, psychological problems, self-medication, age, instant gratification, basic human need, rebelliousness, a sense of belonging to a group and attachment issues, history of trauma, failure at school or work, socioeconomic stressors, peer pressure, juvenile delinquency, historical factors, or sociocultural influences.
There has not been agreement around any one single cause. Instead, experts tend to apply the biopsychosocial model. Any number of these factors are to influence an individual's drug use as they are not mutually exclusive. Regardless of genetics, mental health or traumatic experiences, social factors play a large role in exposure to and availability of certain types of drugs and patterns of drug use. According to addiction researcher Martin A. Plant, many people go through a period of self-redefinition before initiating recreational drug use, they tend to view using drugs as part of a general lifestyle that involves belonging to a subculture that they associate with heightened status and the challenging of social norms. Plant says, “From the user's point of view there are many positive reasons to become part of the milieu of drug taking; the reasons for drug use appear to have as much to do with needs for friendship and status as they do with unhappiness or poverty. Becoming a drug taker, to many people, is a positive affirmation rather than a negative experience.”
Anthropological research has suggested that humans "may have evolved to counter-exploit plant neurotoxins". The ability to use botanical chemicals to serve the function of endogenous neurotransmitters may have improved survival rates, conferring an evolutionary advantage. A restrictive prehistoric diet may have emphasised the apparent benefit of consuming psychoactive drugs, which had themselves evolved to imitate neurotransmitters. Chemical–ecological adaptations, the genetics of hepatic enzymes cytochrome P450, have led researchers to propose that "humans have shared a co-evolutionary relationship with psychotropic plant substances, millions of years old." Severity and type of risks that come with recreational drug use vary with the drug in question and the amount being used. There are many factors in the environment and within the user that interact with each drug differently. Overall, some studies suggest. However, studies which focus on a moderate level of alcohol consumption have concluded that there can be substantial health benefits from its use, such as decreased risk of cardiac disease and cognitive decline.
This claim has been disputed. Researcher David Nutt stated that these studies showing benefits for "moderate" alcohol consumption lacked control for the variable of what the subjects were drinking, beforehand. Experts in the UK have suggested that some drugs that may be causing less harm, to fewer users, include cannabis, psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, ecstasy; these drugs are not without their own particular risks. The concept of "responsible drug use" is that a person can use drugs recreationally or otherwise with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other aspects of one's life or other people's lives. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who have used drugs, experimentally or otherwise, with few detrimental effects on their lives. Responsible drug use becomes problematic only when the use of the substance interferes with the user's daily life. Responsible drug use advocates that users should not take drugs at the same time as activities such as driving, operating machinery, or other activities that are unsafe without a sober state.
Responsible drug use is emphasized as a primary prevention technique in harm-reduction drug policies. Harm-reduction policies were popularized in the late 1980s, although they began in the 1970s counter-culture, when cartoons explaining responsible drug use and the co
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, other substantial subjective changes in thoughts and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. A debate persists on criteria which would differentiate a substance which is'psychedelic' from one'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind"; the term'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, or "mind-revealing".'A hallucinogen' and'a psychedelic' may refer to the same substance.'Hallucinations' and'psychedelia' may both refer to the same aspects of subjective experience in a given instance.
The term psychedelia carries an added reference to psychedelic substance culture, and'psychedelics' are considered by many to be the'traditional' or'classical hallucinogens' including DMT, Psilocybin, LSD.'A hallucinogen' in this sense broadly refers to any substance which causes changes in perception or hallucinations, while psychedelics carry a positive connotation of general perceptual enhancement. In contrast to Hollister's original criteria, adverse effects may predominate with some hallucinogens with this application of the term; the word psychedelic was coined to express the idea of a drug that makes manifest a hidden but real aspect of the mind. It is applied to any drug with perception-altering effects such as LSD and other ergotamine derivatives, DMT and other tryptamines including the alkaloids of Psilocybe spp. mescaline and other phenethylamines. The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogen", The classical hallucinogens are considered to be the representative psychedelics and LSD is considered the prototypical psychedelic.
In order to refer to the LSD-like psychedelics, scientific authors have used the term "classical hallucinogen" in the sense defined by Glennon: "The classical hallucinogens are agents that meet Hollister's original definition, but are agents that: bind at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors, are recognized by animals trained to discriminate 1--2-aminopropane from vehicle. Otherwise, when the term "psychedelic" is used to refer only to the LSD-like psychedelics, authors explicitly point that they intend "psychedelic" to be understood according to this more restrictive interpretation. One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception. In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions and thoughts from reaching the conscious mind; this effect has been described as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding, for the drug "expands" the realm of experience available to conscious awareness.
While possessing a unique mechanism of action, cannabis or marijuana has been regarded alongside the classic psychedelics. A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance, designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug while at the same time avoid being classified as illegal and/or avoid detection in standard drug tests. Many designer drugs and research chemicals are hallucinogenic in nature, such as those in the 2C and 25-NB families. Dissociatives produce analgesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses, they produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment, hence "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient seems disassociated from his environment." Dissociative symptoms include the disruption or compartmentalization of "...the integrated functions of consciousness, identity or perception."p. 523 Dissociation of sensory input can cause derealization, the perception of the outside world as being dream-like or unreal.
Other dissociative experiences include depersonalization, which includes feeling detached from one's body. Simeon offered "...common descriptions of depersonalisation experiences: watching oneself from a distance. However, dissociation is remarkably administered by salvinorin A's potent κ-opioid receptor agonism, though sometimes described as an atypical psychedelic; some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (w
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine known as ecstasy, is a psychoactive drug used as a recreational drug. The desired effects include altered sensations and increased energy and pleasure; when taken by mouth, effects begin after 30 -- last 3 -- 6 hours. Adverse effects include addiction, memory problems, difficulty sleeping, teeth grinding, blurred vision, a rapid heartbeat. Deaths have been reported due to dehydration. Following use people feel depressed and tired. MDMA acts by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline in parts of the brain, it belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. MDMA is illegal in most countries and, has no approved medical uses. Limited exceptions are sometimes made for research. Researchers are investigating whether MDMA may assist in treating severe, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder with phase 3 clinical trials to look at effectiveness and safety expected to begin in 2018.
In 2017 the FDA granted MDMA a breakthrough therapy designation for PTSD, meaning if studies show promise, a review for potential medical use could occur more quickly. MDMA was first made in 1912, it was used to improve psychotherapy beginning in the 1970s and became popular as a street drug in the 1980s. MDMA is associated with dance parties and electronic dance music, it is sold mixed with other substances such as ephedrine and methamphetamine. In 2016, about 21 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 used ecstasy; this was broadly similar to the percentage of people who use cocaine or amphetamines, but fewer than for cannabis or opioids. In the United States, as of 2017, about 7% of people have used MDMA at some point in their life and 0.9% have used in the last year. In general, MDMA users report feeling the onset of subjective effects within 30–60 minutes of MDMA consumption and reaching the peak effect at 75–120 minutes, which plateaus for about 3.5 hours. The desired short-term psychoactive effects of MDMA have been reported to include: Euphoria – a sense of general well-being and happiness Increased self-confidence and feelings of communication being easy or simple Entactogenic effects – increased empathy or feelings of closeness with others and oneself Relaxation and reduced anxiety Increased emotionality A sense of inner peace Mild hallucination Enhanced sensation, perception, or sexuality Altered sense of timeThe experience elicited by MDMA depends on the dose and user.
The variability of the induced altered state by MDMA is lower compared to other psychedelics. For example, MDMA used at parties is associated with high motor activity, reduced sense of self-identity as well as poor awareness of the background surroundings. Use of MDMA individually or in a small groups in a quiet environment and when concentrating, is associated with increased lucidity, capability of concentration, sensitivity of aesthetic aspects of the background and emotions, as well as greater capability of communication with others. In psychotherapeutic settings MDMA effects have been described by infantile ideas, alternating phases of mood, sometimes memories and moods connected with childhood experiences. Sometimes MDMA is labelled as an "empathogenic" drug, because of its empathy-producing effects. Results of different studies show its effects of powerful empathy with others; when testing the MDMA for medium and high dosage ranges it showed increase on hedonic as well as arousal continuum.
The effect of MDMA increasing sociability is consistent, however effects on empathy have been more mixed. MDMA is considered the drug of choice within the rave culture and is used at clubs and house parties. In the rave environment, the sensory effects from the music and lighting are highly synergistic with the drug; the psychedelic amphetamine quality of MDMA offers multiple reasons for its appeal to users in the rave setting. Some users enjoy the feeling of mass communion from the inhibition-reducing effects of the drug, while others use it as party fuel because of the drug's stimulatory effects. MDMA is used less than other stimulants less than once per week. MDMA is sometimes taken in conjunction with other psychoactive drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, ketamine, an act called "candy-flipping"; as of 2017, MDMA has no accepted medical indications. Before it was banned, it saw limited use in therapy. A small number of therapists continue to use MDMA in therapy despite its illegal status.
Small doses of MDMA are used as an entheogen to enhance prayer or meditation by some religious practitioners. MDMA has been used as an adjunct to New Age spiritual practices. MDMA has become known as ecstasy referring to its tablet form, although this term may include the presence of possible adulterants or dilutants; the UK term "mandy" and the US term "molly" colloquially refer to MDMA in a crystalline powder form, thought to be free of adulterants. MDMA is sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt, either as loose crystals or in gelcaps. In part due to the global supply shortage of sassafras oil, substances that are sold as molly contain no MDMA and instead contain methylone, ethylone, MDPV, mephedrone, or any other of the group of compounds known as bath salts. Powdered MDMA ranges from pure MDMA to crushed tablets with 30–40% purity. MDMA tablets have low purity due to bulking agents that are added to dilute the drug and increase profits and binding agents. Tablets sold as ecstasy sometimes contain 3,4-m
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Phenethylamine is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans. Phenethylamine functions as a monoaminergic neuromodulator, to a lesser extent, a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system, it is biosynthesized from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation via the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. In addition to its presence in mammals, phenethylamine is found in many other organisms and foods, such as chocolate after microbial fermentation, it is sold as a dietary supplement for purported weight loss-related therapeutic benefits. This means that for significant concentrations to reach the brain, the dosage must be higher than for other methods of administration. Phenethylamines, or more properly, substituted phenethylamines, are the group of phenethylamine derivatives that contain phenethylamine as a "backbone"; the class of substituted phenethylamines includes all substituted amphetamines, substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines, contains many drugs which act as empathogens, psychedelics, bronchodilators, and/or antidepressants, among others.
Phenethylamine is produced by a wide range of species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, including humans. Phenethylamine is a primary amine, the amino-group being attached to a benzene ring through a two-carbon, or ethyl group, it is a colourless liquid at room temperature that has a fishy odor, is soluble in water and ether. Its density is 0.964 g/ml and its boiling point is 195 °C. Upon exposure to air, it combines with carbon dioxide to form a solid carbonate salt. Phenethylamine is basic, pKb = 4.17, as measured using the HCl salt, forms a stable crystalline hydrochloride salt with a melting point of 217 °C. Substituted phenethylamines are a chemical class of organic compounds based upon the phenethylamine structure. Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs, which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants, entactogens, appetite suppressants, nasal decongestants and bronchodilators, antiparkinson agents, vasopressors, among others.
Many of these psychoactive compounds exert their pharmacological effects by modulating monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Numerous endogenous compounds – including hormones, monoamine neurotransmitters, many trace amines – are substituted phenethylamines. Several notable recreational drugs, such as MDMA, cathinones, are members of the class. All of the substituted amphetamines are phenethylamines, as well. Pharmaceutical drugs that are substituted phenethylamines include phenelzine and fanetizole, among many others. One method for preparing β-phenethylamine, set forth in J. C. Robinson and H. R. Snyder's Organic Syntheses, involves the reduction of benzyl cyanide with hydrogen in liquid ammonia, in the presence of a Raney-Nickel catalyst, at a temperature of 130 °C and a pressure of 13.8 MPa. Alternative syntheses are outlined in the footnotes to this preparation. A much more convenient method for the synthesis of β-phenethylamine is the reduction of ω-nitrostyrene by lithium aluminum hydride in ether, whose successful execution was first reported by R. F. Nystrom and W. G. Brown in 1948.
Phenethylamine can be produced via the cathodic reduction of benzyl cyanide in a divided cell. Assembling phenethylamine structures for synthesis of compounds such as epinephrine, amphetamines and dopamine by adding the beta-aminoethyl side chain to the phenyl ring is possible; this can be done via Friedel-Crafts acylation with N-protected acyl chlorides when the arene is activated, or by Heck reaction of the phenyl with N-vinyloxazolone, followed by hydrogenation, or by cross-coupling with beta-amino organozinc reagents, or reacting a brominated arene with beta-aminoethyl organolithium reagents, or by Suzuki cross-coupling. Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found abnormally low urinary phenethylamine concentrations in ADHD individuals when compared with controls. In treatment-responsive individuals and methylphenidate increase urinary phenethylamine concentration. An ADHD biomarker review indicated that urinary phenethylamine levels could be a diagnostic biomarker for ADHD.
Skydiving induces a marked increase in urinary phenethylamine concentrations. Thi
Not to be confused with malondialdehyde, a different chemical, abbreviated as MDA. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, is an empathogen-entactogen and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family, encountered as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent. Due to its euphoriant and hallucinogenic effects, the drug is a controlled substance and its possession and sale are illegal in most countries. MDA is sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family. Although illegal, MDA is bought and used as a recreational'love drug', due to its enhancement of mood and empathy. A recreational dose of MDA is sometimes cited as being between 100 and 160 mg. MDA produces serotonergic neurotoxic effects, thought to be activated by initial metabolism of MDA. In addition, MDA activates a response of the neuroglia. Symptoms of acute toxicity may include agitation, increased blood pressure and heart rate, dramatic increase in body temperature and death.
Death is caused by cardiac effects and subsequent hemorrhaging in the brain. MDA is a substrate of the serotonin, norepinephrine and vesicular monoamine transporters, as well as a TAAR1 agonist, for these reasons acts as a reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of serotonin and dopamine, it is an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C receptors and shows affinity for the α2A-, α2B-, α2C-adrenergic receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. The -optical isomer of MDA is more potent than the -optical isomer as a psychostimulant, possessing greater affinity for the three monoamine transporters. In terms of the subjective and behavioral effects of MDA, it is thought that serotonin release is required for its empathogen-entactogen effects, release of dopamine and norepinephrine is responsible for its psychostimulant effects, dopamine release is necessary for its euphoriant effects, direct agonism of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is causative of its psychedelic effects; the duration of the drug has been reported as about 6 to 8 hours.
MDA is a substituted methylenedioxylated amphetamine derivative. In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine, the 3,4-methylenedioxy derivative of amphetamine, the N-demethyl derivative of MDMA. In addition to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA is known by other chemical synonyms such as the following: α-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-β-phenylethylamine 1--2-propanamine 1--2-propanamine MDA is synthesized from essential oils such as safrole or piperonal. Common approaches from these precursors include: Reaction of safrole's alkene functional group with a halogen containing mineral acid followed by amine alkylation. Wacker oxidation of safrole to yield 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one followed by reductive amination or via reduction of its oxime. Henry reaction of piperonal with nitroethane followed by nitro compound reduction. Darzens reaction on heliotropin was done by J. Elks, et al; this gives MDP2P, subjected to a Leuckart reaction.
MDA may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Some drug abuse screening programs rely on saliva, or sweat as specimens. Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but chromatographic techniques can distinguish and separately measure each of these substances; the concentrations of MDA in the blood or urine of a person who has taken only MDMA are, in general, less than 10% those of the parent drug. MDA constitutes part of the core structure of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist protokylol. MDA was first synthesized by C. Mannich and W. Jacobsohn in 1910, it was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who licensed the drug to Smith, Kline & French. MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease.
From 1949 to 1957, more than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as an antidepressant and/or anorectic by Smith, Kline & French. The United States Army experimented with the drug, code named EA-1298, while working to develop a truth drug or incapacitating agent. Harold Blauer died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected, without his knowledge nor consent, with 450 mg of the drug as part of Project MKUltra. MDA was patented as a cough suppressant by H. D. Brown in 1958, as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French in 1960, as an anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine" in 1961. MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1963 to 1964, it was inexpensive and available as a research chemical from several scientific supply houses. Several researchers, including Claudio Naranjo and Richard Yensen, have explored MDA in the field of psychotherapy; when MDA was under development as a potential pharmaceutical drug, it was given the international nonproprietary name of tenamfetamine. MDA is schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons
Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families. It functions both as a hormone and a neurotransmitter, plays several important roles in the brain and body, it is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine is synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons to send signals to other nerve cells; the brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release. Other brain dopamine pathways are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of various hormones; these pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system, neuromodulatory.
In popular culture and media, dopamine is seen as the main chemical of pleasure, but the current opinion in pharmacology is that dopamine instead confers motivational salience. Outside the central nervous system, dopamine functions as a local paracrine messenger. In blood vessels, it acts as a vasodilator. With the exception of the blood vessels, dopamine in each of these peripheral systems is synthesized locally and exerts its effects near the cells that release it. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system, some of the key medications used to treat them work by altering the effects of dopamine. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra, its metabolic precursor L-DOPA can be manufactured. There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, most antipsychotic drugs used to treat this are dopamine antagonists which reduce dopamine activity.
Similar dopamine antagonist drugs are some of the most effective anti-nausea agents. Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with decreased dopamine activity. Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD. Dopamine itself is available as a manufactured medication for intravenous injection: although it cannot reach the brain from the bloodstream, its peripheral effects make it useful in the treatment of heart failure or shock in newborn babies. A dopamine molecule consists of a catechol structure with one amine group attached via an ethyl chain; as such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. The presence of a benzene ring with this amine attachment makes it a substituted phenethylamine, a family that includes numerous psychoactive drugs. Like most amines, dopamine is an organic base; as a base, it is protonated in acidic environments.
The protonated form is water-soluble and stable, but can become oxidized if exposed to oxygen or other oxidants. In basic environments, dopamine is not protonated. In this free base form, it is less water-soluble and more reactive; because of the increased stability and water-solubility of the protonated form, dopamine is supplied for chemical or pharmaceutical use as dopamine hydrochloride—that is, the hydrochloride salt, created when dopamine is combined with hydrochloric acid. In dry form, dopamine hydrochloride is a fine colorless powder. Dopamine is synthesized in a restricted set of cell types neurons and cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands; the primary and minor metabolic pathways are: Primary: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → DopamineThe direct precursor of dopamine, L-DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.
These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. Although dopamine is found in many types of food, it is incapable of crossing the blood–brain barrier that surrounds and protects the brain, it must therefore be synthesized inside the brain to perform its neuronal activity. L-Phenylalanine is converted into L-tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, with molecular oxygen and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors. L-Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O2, iron as cofactors. L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, with pyridoxal phosphate as the cofactor. Dopamine itself is used as precursor in the synthesis o