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Subterranean Toledo

Underneath the historic town of Toledo, Spain there is an underground city made up of wells, Roman and Judaic baths, as well as centuries-old cemeteries. Little known, the underground structures have become a focus of tourist interest. In recent years and more people have been showing interest in this often-forgotten history, now there are at least three separate professional tour groups giving tourists a closer look at Toledo’s rich underground history. Restaurants will offer a peek into the Roman ruins underneath their building’s floor as Mercado de San Agustin will do through the help of glass floors, or there are restaurants such as La Cave, that serve meals in the cellars of their building by an ancient Roman cistern. In fact, the interest in Toledo’s subterranean history reached such a high point that a band named Subterráneo made a song named "Toledo" in 1987. There are wells all over Toledo – whether it is a still functioning water source tucked away in the corner of an outdoor patio in the center of an apartment complex or house, as is common in the old part of the city, or whether it is the ruins of an ancient well that ran dry hundreds of years ago.

Where there is a well, one may find an aljibe, a now-Spanish word that came from the Arabic word for cistern. One of the most-visited aljibes in Toledo is the one within the Alcázar of Toledo, but a close second may be the aljibe alongside the well of El Salvador; the best known cave in Toledo is the Cave of Hercules. There are several legends surrounding this cave, but by far the most recognized is the story of how Don Rodrigo in part caused the fall of Spain to the Moors by completing Hercules’ prophecy and opening the cave; because caves are somewhat occurring in Toledo, there are many more around the city, some which tourists can visit, others are not open to the public, or inaccessible to all. Some private residences within the old town have historic caves that are sometimes available to the public, many times in neighborhoods such as Las Covachuelas residents have caves underneath their homes. Another large part of the Toledo underground is the Roman and Judaic baths. Included on the list of known historic baths in Toledo are: the Baños del Ángel, the baños de Tenerías, the Baños del Caballel, the Baños del Cenizal which are all Arabic baths one can visit.

There is the beautifully reconstructed Roman baths of the Plaza de Amador de los Ríos, underneath a house in the Jewish Quarter there is thought to be a mikveh, for purification baths – for which running water was needed. More common than wells and caves in Toledo are its cemeteries, so much so that a common phrase to hear is that "In Toledo, there are more dead people than alive". To begin, there was the "cementerio general de la Vega Baja”, built in part to accommodate for the massive increase in the death toll from cholera; the cemetery took in new graves from 1836 to 1893, at which time families had to move deceased loved ones’ graves to the cemetery of Our Lady of the Sagrario, when the city announced they would be demolishing the deteriorating cemetery. There are several smaller church and hospital-specific cemeteries around the city. Outside of the old Hospital de la Misericordia there is a cemetery that began as a burial place for all who died at the hospital, but when cholera hit Toledo, it became a cemetery for the nuns who lived and died there.

A more famous hospital, the Hospital de Tavera, contains the crypt and impressive marble sculpture of the Cardenal Tavera, who built the hospital. This sculpture has been seen and written about by many, including Luis Buñuel in his film Tristana and Becquer has described and drawn the famous grave. Another crypt exists in the Iglesia de San Roman, within lies skeletons and some well-remained mummies, another mummy, that of King Sancho IV was found in 1947 in the Cathedral of Toledo. In 2008, a undiscovered Jewish cemetery was found during a routine archeological excavation that always takes place before new construction begins. In the article, "Toledo Cathedral MS Reservado 23: A Lost Manuscript Rediscovered", author and musicologist Robert J. Snow describes his discovery of a manuscript thought to be lost, in an underground vault beneath the cathedral of Toledo. Snow describes the vaults as "a group of three or four subterranean rooms to which one descends through a small door located to the right of the door leading from the church into the hall where the Cathedral".

Although the presence of the underground rooms was known, the discovery of new music manuscripts in the subterranean rooms of the Cathedral suggests that further discoveries remain to be made beneath the city. Wells of Toledo

Darby House (Baldwin, Louisiana)

The Massé/Darby House is a plantation house fronting on Highway 182 in Baldwin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana; the builder and precise date of construction of the house, called Darby House on the National Register of Historic Places is presently unverified. An undocumented newspaper article in possession of the current owner of the house dates the Darby House to 1782 and names the builder as Andre Massé, according to "... records of the present owner, Mr. D. L. Johnson... ". Another article from the Eunice News by Marie Johnson, 5 October 1976, gives a building date of 1764-1776; these two articles, although discrepant, are noteworthy in that the Johnson family owned or resided in the Massé/Darby House from 1938 until 1981, possessed documentation now lost or unavailable to present day researchers. An article in the New Orleans Times-Picayune, 4 July 1976, by the Louisiana Tourist Commission, dates the house to 1765. In 1969 the House was purchased by the St. Mary Bank, which, in 1981, commissioned Leonard L. Battaglia to research the property transfers for the house.

Battaglia traced the land upon which the house stands to an original Spanish land grant to Andre Massé, but his report contains no mention of the house itself until 1814, when Dr. James Hennen sold the land "where vendor now resides" to his son Alfred Hennen; this brief statement has led several writers, among them the reporter for the National Register of Historic Places, to credit James Hennen as the builder of the house with a building date of 1815. There are no known records that substantiate either the attribution to Hennen or the date of 1815; the history of "Darby House" in Baldwin, has suffered from confusion or misreading of others sorts. Much confusion has arisen from the existence of another house known by the same name and of similar period and style-- no longer standing but still remembered-- in nearby New Iberia, yet further confusion is with Alice plantation, modeled on and thus post-dating the Massé/Darby house, that once stood in Baldwin but was moved in 1961 to Jeanerette.

Alice has been variously dated: a bronze plaque at roadside gives a building date of 1790, while other sources date the house to 1803. But this latter date would place the Massé/Darby House earlier than James Hennen's ownership, which dates to 1809. Andre Massé was, the earliest settler of the Attakapas. A census of 1766 records M. Massé with household, including 24 slaves, near present-day Charenton, three miles from Baldwin, thus Massé was well-established early on, with a sizeable entourage. It is plausible--indeed likely-- that M. Massé would have built a substantial home for his enterprise, underpinning the attribution of the house to Andre Massé as reported by the Johnson family; the Massé/Darby House has been owned by, or home to several locally prominent people over the years, including Agricole Fusellier and Charles Grevemberg. It was owned at the time of the Civil War by François Optat Darby and subsequently purchased in 1867 by the philanthropist and educator John Baldwin, after whom the town of Baldwin is named.

The house remained in the possession of Mr. Baldwin or his descendants until 1938, when it was purchased by Jessie Frost Johnson; the Massé/Darby House exemplifies a distinct style of French colonial domestic architecture once common throughout Louisiana but now quite rare. The Massé/Darby House is two-storied with thick lower walls of brick, upper walls of bousillage-entre-poteau; the ground floor was used for utilitarian purposes, such as office, cooking, etc. The upper-level was used for living--a central parlor with a fireplace opens onto a broad gallery across the front and onto an inner loggia at back, with bedrooms situated to either side. To the rear, cabinets--smaller general-purpose rooms used variously as auxiliary bedrooms, sick rooms, or sewing rooms--flank the loggia. Rooms are en suite, each opening out onto gallery or loggia via French doors. Gallery and loggia function as outdoor covered hallways, replete with stairways, overhung by a steep, double-hipped and dormer roof. Fireplaces with French wraparound mantels, are interior.

The disposition of rooms at ground-level duplicates that above. On the façade, five bays defined by substantial round columns of plastered brick support an upper gallery of seven bays defined by slender wooden colonnettes. Doors and windows are positioned in relation to the interior of rooms rather than the façade. From without they may appear somewhat disjunct, or "syncopated" in relation to the regular cadence of columns and bays

Bobby Locke

Arthur D'Arcy "Bobby" Locke was a South African professional golfer. He won four Open Championships, nine South African Opens, seven South African PGA Championships and 15 PGA Tour events, he was a prolific tournament winner in his native country accumulating 38 wins on the Southern Africa Tour. Locke was born in Germiston, South Africa the only son of Mr C. J. & Mrs. O. Locke of 70 Nottingham Road, Johannesburg, he obtained his Educational Junior Certificate pass at Benoni High School in 1934. Locke won the South African Open for the first of nine times in 1935, at the Parkview Golf Club in Johannesburg, with a score of 296, playing as an amateur, he played in his first Open Championship in 1936, when he was eighteen, finished as low amateur. He turned professional in March 1938 at the age of 20 and was engaged by the Maccauvlei Country Club as club professional in December 1939. Problems arose when Locke wanted to give lessons to non-members as well as take leave of absence, without advance request, to take part in outside competitions such as the U.

S. Open. Locke resigned from the Club, by letter, on 26 July 1940, his golf career was interrupted by service in the South African Air Force during World War II. His Official War Record is held at the South African Department of Defence archives under his Service No: 103940. Other descriptions of Bobby Locke's war record suggest he was more active than the transport duties he undertook, with SAAF Number 31 Squadron in Italy, that are described by the official SANDF archives; the descriptions include: he spent twelve months in a Liberator Squadron in Italy he was a bomber pilot who bombed Monte Casino, he fought for Britain as a bomber pilot. Locke claims that: In a photograph of him and others, he was playing golf at Gizeh Golf & Country Club, in Cairo, in 1943, "My stay in the Air Force lasted five years and three months, in which time I completed 1,800 hours on single-, twin- and four-engined aircraft" Following the end of World War II, Locke resumed his career in South Africa in 1946, he hosted Sam Snead, one of the top American golfers of the day, for a series of exhibition matches in South Africa in January/February 1947, winning 12 out of the 16 matches, two were halved and Snead won two.

So impressed was Snead that he suggested that Locke come to the United States and give the PGA Tour a try, advice that Locke followed. Locke arrived in the U. S. for the first time in April 1947, well after the American Tour season had begun. In two-and-a-half years on the PGA Tour, Locke played in 59 events. In 1947, despite a late start, Locke dominated the American tour, winning six tournaments, finishing second to Jimmy Demaret on the money list. In 1948, he won the Chicago Victory National by 16 strokes, which remains a PGA Tour record for margin of victory; the following year, Locke was banned from the tour, ostensibly because of a dispute over playing commitments. Locke had indeed given several advance commitments to appear at tournaments and exhibitions had not turned up nor given adequate notice nor explanations for his absences. However, the 1948 Masters champion Claude Harmon stated, unsolicited, to another golf personality during that era: "Locke was too good, they had to ban him." The ban was lifted in 1951, but Locke chose not to return to play in the United States, except for a few isolated appearances.

Locke explains his point of view and events leading up to the banning. He had accepted invitations, organised through the PGA to play in two local tournaments, The Inverness Fourball and Western Open, he explained how he had been helped to iron out a putting problem which led to him winning the 1949 British Open. He gives the “Open” win as one of his reasons to breach his contract; the text indicates that he understood the contractual nature of his dealings with the PGA. After leaving the PGA Tour, Locke continued his career in Europe and Africa, where he felt more comfortable, he won 23 times in Europe, most notably a quartet of successes in The Open Championship, which came in 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1957. He was the first of many South Africans who subsequently won major championships, including Gary Player, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel, his win in the 1957 Open Championship was with some controversy. Locke had failed to properly replace his ball after marking on the 72nd green, proceeded to putt out.

This had been confirmed through newsreel footage provided to the R&A after the trophy presentation. The rules at the time made no provision for a two shot penalty, thus Locke's win could have been overturned through disqualification. However, the Championship committee did not enforce the disqualification rule, citing "equity and spirit of the game" as overriding factors in sustaining the posted result. During this time Locke played many other parts of the world. In 1955 he won the Australian Open held at Gailes Golf Club in Queensland. In 1959, Locke was involved in a serious car accident, subsequently he suffered from migraines and eye problems that put an end to his competitive career, although he continued competing after that, without much success. Locke was elected to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1977, he was only the second member who did not come from either the United Kingdom. He died in Johannesburg, South Africa in